Abstract

We report a mid-infrared, CW singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a thermally induced waveguide in its gain crystal. We measured a numerical aperture of 0.0062 for the waveguide at 80-W intracavity power at 3.2 μm. This thermal-guiding effect benefits to the stable operation of an OPO and improves the parametric conversion efficiency by more than a factor of two when compared with that without thermal guiding.

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  1. S. Schiller and J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators, materials, devices, applications,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 664–764 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. van Herpen, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, S. E. Bisson, and F. J. M. Harren, “Wide single-mode tuning of a 3.0- 3.8-mum, 700-mW, continuous-wave Nd:YAG-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 640–642 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. Byer, “Continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled LiNbO(3).,” Opt. Lett. 21(10), 713–715 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Singly resonant cw OPO with simple wavelength tuning,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11141–11146 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. T. Lin, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, A. C. Chiang, and J. T. Shy, “Observation of thermal-induced optical guiding and bistability in a mid-IR continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2338–2340 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. W. Chen and T. S. Rose, “Low noise 10-W generation near 3 μm with MgO doped PPLN,” Presented at CLEO 2005, CThQ2, Baltimore, USA, 22–27 May 2005.
  8. R. O. Moore, G. Biondini, and W. L. Kath, “Self-induced thermal effects and model competition in continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(4), 802–811 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Intra-cavity power effects in singly resonant cw OPOs,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 181–184 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Douillet, J. J. Zondy, A. Yelisseyev, S. Lobanov, and L. Isaenko, “Stability and frequency tuning of thermally loaded continuous-wave AgGaS2 optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(9), 1481–1498 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 411–427 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO/sub 4/ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, Fundamental of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, 1991), pp. 54–57.
  15. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986), pp.786–787.
  16. O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’ Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’ Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Intra-cavity power effects in singly resonant cw OPOs,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 181–184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO/sub 4/ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

S. Schiller and J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators, materials, devices, applications,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 664–764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1990 (1)

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, J. I.

Anstett, G.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’ Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartschke, J.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’ Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, T.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’ Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biondini, G.

Bisson, S. E.

Boller, K. J.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, W. R.

Byer, R. L.

Chiang, A. C.

Cristescu, S. M.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Douillet, A.

Drobshoff, A.

Fields, R. A.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Groß, P.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Halonen, L.

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Singly resonant cw OPO with simple wavelength tuning,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11141–11146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harren, F. J. M.

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Singly resonant cw OPO with simple wavelength tuning,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11141–11146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. van Herpen, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, S. E. Bisson, and F. J. M. Harren, “Wide single-mode tuning of a 3.0- 3.8-mum, 700-mW, continuous-wave Nd:YAG-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 640–642 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, A.

A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Intra-cavity power effects in singly resonant cw OPOs,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 181–184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. L.

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO/sub 4/ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. C.

Innocenzi, M. E.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Isaenko, L.

Kath, W. L.

Kosterev, A. A.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L’ Huillier, J. A.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’ Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. J.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. G.

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO/sub 4/ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lim, G. C.

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO/sub 4/ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. T.

Lin, Y. Y.

Lindsay, I. D.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lobanov, S.

Mlynek, J.

S. Schiller and J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators, materials, devices, applications,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 664–764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moore, N.

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO/sub 4/ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. O.

Myers, L. E.

Ngai, A. K. Y.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nittmann, M.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’ Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paul, O.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’ Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peltola, J.

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Singly resonant cw OPO with simple wavelength tuning,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11141–11146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Persijn, S.

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Singly resonant cw OPO with simple wavelength tuning,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11141–11146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Persijn, S. T.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quosig, A.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’ Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

S. Schiller and J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators, materials, devices, applications,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 664–764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shy, J. T.

Stafford, R.

A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Intra-cavity power effects in singly resonant cw OPOs,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 181–184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Te Lintel Hekkert, S.

Tittel, F. K.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vainio, M.

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Singly resonant cw OPO with simple wavelength tuning,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11141–11146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Herpen, M.

Xiong, Z.

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO/sub 4/ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yelisseyev, A.

Yura, H. T.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zondy, J. J.

Appl. Phys. B (5)

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Schiller and J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators, materials, devices, applications,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 664–764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’ Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Intra-cavity power effects in singly resonant cw OPOs,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 181–184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO/sub 4/ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (3)

D. W. Chen and T. S. Rose, “Low noise 10-W generation near 3 μm with MgO doped PPLN,” Presented at CLEO 2005, CThQ2, Baltimore, USA, 22–27 May 2005.

B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, Fundamental of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, 1991), pp. 54–57.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986), pp.786–787.

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