Abstract

Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements coupled with efficient theoretical modeling and scanning electron microscopy analysis are used in the metrology of randomly-distributed gold nanoparticles on a multilayer film. Measurements were conducted in the ultraviolet to near infrared region at several angles of incidence. To understand the size, shape, and distribution of nanoparticles, a finite-element Green's function approach considering the scattering from multiple nanoparticles was employed to calculate the ellipsometry parameters. Our calculations are in fair agreement with the ellipsometry measurements when suitable size, shape, and distribution pattern of nanoparticles are found. This demonstrates that SE could be a useful tool to the metrology of arbitrarily-distributed nanoparticles on a multilayer film.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  21. Detailed theoretical description to be presented by Y.-C. Chang, S.-H. Hsu, and G. Li elsewhere.
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2009 (2)

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, “Monoclinic optical constants, birefringence, and dichroism of slanted titanium nanocolumns determined by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Y.-C. Chang, S.-H. Hsu, P.-K. Wei, and Y. D. Kim, “Optical nanometrology of Au nanoparticles on a multilayer film,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(5), 1194–1197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Characterization of Si nanorods by spectroscopic ellipsometry with efficient theoretical modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 876–879 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

2006 (2)

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, G. Li, H. Chu, and J. Opsal, “Efficient finite-element, Green’s function approach for critical dimension metrology of three-dimensional gratings on multilayer films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 638–645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

B. Kaplan, T. Novikova, A. De Martino, and B. Drévillon, “Characterization of bidimensional gratings by spectroscopic ellipsometry and angle-resolved Mueller polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 43(6), 1233–1240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(51), 14191–14198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Lazzari and I. Simonsen, “GRANFILM: a software for calculating thin-layer dielectric properties and Fresnel coefficients,” Thin Solid Films 419(1-2), 124–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S.-J. Xiao, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, M. Wieland, B. Keller, and H. Sigrist, “Immobilization of the cell-adhesive peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys (RGDC) on titanium surfaces by covalent chemical attachment,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 8(12), 867–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

M. Haarmans and D. Bedeaux, “The polarizability and the optical properties of lattices and random distributions of small metal spheres on a substrate,” Thin Solid Films 224(1), 117–131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. Barrera, M. del Castillo-Mussot, G. Monsivais, P. Villaseñor, and W. Mochán, “Optical properties of two-dimensional disordered systems on a substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 43(17), 13819–13826 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D.

D. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrera, R.

R. Barrera, M. del Castillo-Mussot, G. Monsivais, P. Villaseñor, and W. Mochán, “Optical properties of two-dimensional disordered systems on a substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 43(17), 13819–13826 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bedeaux, D.

M. Haarmans and D. Bedeaux, “The polarizability and the optical properties of lattices and random distributions of small metal spheres on a substrate,” Thin Solid Films 224(1), 117–131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bergmair, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booso, B.

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, “Monoclinic optical constants, birefringence, and dichroism of slanted titanium nanocolumns determined by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, G.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cattelan, D.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chang, S.-H. Hsu, P.-K. Wei, and Y. D. Kim, “Optical nanometrology of Au nanoparticles on a multilayer film,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(5), 1194–1197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Characterization of Si nanorods by spectroscopic ellipsometry with efficient theoretical modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 876–879 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chang, G. Li, H. Chu, and J. Opsal, “Efficient finite-element, Green’s function approach for critical dimension metrology of three-dimensional gratings on multilayer films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 638–645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Chu, H.

Cobet, C.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Martino, A.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kaplan, T. Novikova, A. De Martino, and B. Drévillon, “Characterization of bidimensional gratings by spectroscopic ellipsometry and angle-resolved Mueller polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 43(6), 1233–1240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

del Castillo-Mussot, M.

R. Barrera, M. del Castillo-Mussot, G. Monsivais, P. Villaseñor, and W. Mochán, “Optical properties of two-dimensional disordered systems on a substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 43(17), 13819–13826 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Z.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drévillon, B.

El-Sayed, I. H.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esser, N.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischer, K.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gajic, R.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galliet, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaylord, T. K.

Grann, E. B.

Gray, S. K.

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(51), 14191–14198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haarmans, M.

M. Haarmans and D. Bedeaux, “The polarizability and the optical properties of lattices and random distributions of small metal spheres on a substrate,” Thin Solid Films 224(1), 117–131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemzal, D.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilfiker, J. N.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Characterization of Si nanorods by spectroscopic ellipsometry with efficient theoretical modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 876–879 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hingerl, K.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, T.

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, “Monoclinic optical constants, birefringence, and dichroism of slanted titanium nanocolumns determined by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.-H.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Characterization of Si nanorods by spectroscopic ellipsometry with efficient theoretical modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 876–879 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chang, S.-H. Hsu, P.-K. Wei, and Y. D. Kim, “Optical nanometrology of Au nanoparticles on a multilayer film,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(5), 1194–1197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Humlicek, J.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Im, J. S.

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(51), 14191–14198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, B.

Katz, E.

A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keller, B.

S.-J. Xiao, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, M. Wieland, B. Keller, and H. Sigrist, “Immobilization of the cell-adhesive peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys (RGDC) on titanium surfaces by covalent chemical attachment,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 8(12), 867–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Kim, T. J.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Characterization of Si nanorods by spectroscopic ellipsometry with efficient theoretical modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 876–879 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. D.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Characterization of Si nanorods by spectroscopic ellipsometry with efficient theoretical modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 876–879 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chang, S.-H. Hsu, P.-K. Wei, and Y. D. Kim, “Optical nanometrology of Au nanoparticles on a multilayer film,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(5), 1194–1197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kooij, E. S.

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lazzari, R.

R. Lazzari and I. Simonsen, “GRANFILM: a software for calculating thin-layer dielectric properties and Fresnel coefficients,” Thin Solid Films 419(1-2), 124–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

Lin, C.-J.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Characterization of Si nanorods by spectroscopic ellipsometry with efficient theoretical modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 876–879 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.-R.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Characterization of Si nanorods by spectroscopic ellipsometry with efficient theoretical modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 876–879 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-Y.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Liu, E.-S.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Characterization of Si nanorods by spectroscopic ellipsometry with efficient theoretical modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 876–879 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Losurdo, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mewe, A.

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mochán, W.

R. Barrera, M. del Castillo-Mussot, G. Monsivais, P. Villaseñor, and W. Mochán, “Optical properties of two-dimensional disordered systems on a substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 43(17), 13819–13826 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Monsivais, G.

R. Barrera, M. del Castillo-Mussot, G. Monsivais, P. Villaseñor, and W. Mochán, “Optical properties of two-dimensional disordered systems on a substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 43(17), 13819–13826 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Novikova, T.

Opsal, J.

Ossikovski, R.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pennypacker, C. R.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Poelsema, B.

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D. A.

Popovic, Z. V.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rekveld, S.

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Requicha, A. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarangan, A.

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, “Monoclinic optical constants, birefringence, and dichroism of slanted titanium nanocolumns determined by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saxl, O.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, D.

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, “Monoclinic optical constants, birefringence, and dichroism of slanted titanium nanocolumns determined by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E.

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, “Monoclinic optical constants, birefringence, and dichroism of slanted titanium nanocolumns determined by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M.

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, “Monoclinic optical constants, birefringence, and dichroism of slanted titanium nanocolumns determined by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Shipway, A. N.

A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, H.

S.-J. Xiao, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, M. Wieland, B. Keller, and H. Sigrist, “Immobilization of the cell-adhesive peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys (RGDC) on titanium surfaces by covalent chemical attachment,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 8(12), 867–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, I.

R. Lazzari and I. Simonsen, “GRANFILM: a software for calculating thin-layer dielectric properties and Fresnel coefficients,” Thin Solid Films 419(1-2), 124–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Spencer, N. D.

S.-J. Xiao, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, M. Wieland, B. Keller, and H. Sigrist, “Immobilization of the cell-adhesive peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys (RGDC) on titanium surfaces by covalent chemical attachment,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 8(12), 867–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Textor, M.

S.-J. Xiao, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, M. Wieland, B. Keller, and H. Sigrist, “Immobilization of the cell-adhesive peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys (RGDC) on titanium surfaces by covalent chemical attachment,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 8(12), 867–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villaseñor, P.

R. Barrera, M. del Castillo-Mussot, G. Monsivais, P. Villaseñor, and W. Mochán, “Optical properties of two-dimensional disordered systems on a substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 43(17), 13819–13826 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P.-K.

Y.-C. Chang, S.-H. Hsu, P.-K. Wei, and Y. D. Kim, “Optical nanometrology of Au nanoparticles on a multilayer film,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(5), 1194–1197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(51), 14191–14198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, M.

S.-J. Xiao, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, M. Wieland, B. Keller, and H. Sigrist, “Immobilization of the cell-adhesive peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys (RGDC) on titanium surfaces by covalent chemical attachment,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 8(12), 867–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willner, I.

A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wormeester, H.

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G. A.

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(51), 14191–14198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Xiao, S.-J.

S.-J. Xiao, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, M. Wieland, B. Keller, and H. Sigrist, “Immobilization of the cell-adhesive peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys (RGDC) on titanium surfaces by covalent chemical attachment,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 8(12), 867–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, “Monoclinic optical constants, birefringence, and dichroism of slanted titanium nanocolumns determined by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (1)

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem (1)

A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (1)

S.-J. Xiao, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, M. Wieland, B. Keller, and H. Sigrist, “Immobilization of the cell-adhesive peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys (RGDC) on titanium surfaces by covalent chemical attachment,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 8(12), 867–872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanopart. Res. (1)

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(51), 14191–14198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Barrera, M. del Castillo-Mussot, G. Monsivais, P. Villaseñor, and W. Mochán, “Optical properties of two-dimensional disordered systems on a substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 43(17), 13819–13826 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Characterization of Si nanorods by spectroscopic ellipsometry with efficient theoretical modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(4), 876–879 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

Y.-C. Chang, S.-H. Hsu, P.-K. Wei, and Y. D. Kim, “Optical nanometrology of Au nanoparticles on a multilayer film,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(5), 1194–1197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (4)

M. Haarmans and D. Bedeaux, “The polarizability and the optical properties of lattices and random distributions of small metal spheres on a substrate,” Thin Solid Films 224(1), 117–131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Lazzari and I. Simonsen, “GRANFILM: a software for calculating thin-layer dielectric properties and Fresnel coefficients,” Thin Solid Films 419(1-2), 124–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Detailed theoretical description to be presented by Y.-C. Chang, S.-H. Hsu, and G. Li elsewhere.

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, vol. 1 (Academic, Orlando, FL, USA, 1985).

D. Bedeaux, and J. Vlieger, Optical Properties of Surfaces (Imperial College Press, London, UK, 2002).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top-view SEM images of Au nanoparticles samples with nominal particle sizes of (a) 20, (b) 40, (c) 60, and (d) 80 nm, respectively. Scale bar: 300 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The stack of slices used to model the spheroidal shape of nanoparticles (side view); (b) a schematic drawing of randomly distributed nanoparticles with variable distances between particles Rj (top view).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SE measurements and model calculations of Au nanoparticles samples with nominal sizes of (a) 20, (b) 40, (c) 60, and (d) 80 nm at incident angles of 55°, 60°, and 65°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A representative SEM micrograph for 20-nm Au nanoparticles and its particle distribution pattern. The panel size is 1 × 1 μm and contains around 566 particles.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 A summary of parameters used in the theoretical modelings for Au nanoparticles.

Tables Icon

Table 2 A comparison of theoretical modelings based on assumptions of random and periodic distributions.

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