Abstract

Abstract: A compact endomicroscope is the only solution for transferring second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging into in vivo imaging and real time monitoring the content and structure of collagen. This is important for early diagnoses of different diseases associated with collagen change. A compact nonlinear endomicroscope using a double clad fiber (DCF) is newly employed in SHG imaging. The experiment shows the core of the DCF can maintain the linear polarization of the excitation laser beam in particular directions, and the degree of polarization of the excitation laser beam directly affects signal to noise ratio of SHG imaging. The nonlinear endomicroscope can display clear three dimensional (3D) SHG images of mouse tail tendon without the aid of contrast agents, which reveals the collagen fiber structure at different depths. The high resolution of SHG imaging from the endomicroscope shows that SHG imaging can reveal additional information about the orientation and degree of organisation of proteins and collagen fibers than two-photon-excited fluorescence imaging. Therefore SHG imaging offers endomicroscopy with additional channel of imaging for understanding more about biological phenomena.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

L. Fu, X. Gan, D. Bird, and M. Gu, “Polarization characteristics of a 1×2 fibre coupler under femtosecond pulsed and continuous wave illumination,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37(6), 494–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Fu, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Use of a single-mode fiber coupler for second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 385–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, “Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation,” Nat. Med. 9(6), 796–801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081–7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1985 (1)

N. Uldbjerg, A. Malmström, G. Ekman, and U. Ulmsten, “The integrity of cervical collagen during pregnancy and labor,” Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 20(2), 68–73 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, J.

Anlauf, M.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, H.

Barretto, R. P. J.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

Bartenstein, P.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bird, D.

L. Fu, X. Gan, D. Bird, and M. Gu, “Polarization characteristics of a 1×2 fibre coupler under femtosecond pulsed and continuous wave illumination,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37(6), 494–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Bird and M. Gu, “Compact two-photon fluorescence microscope based on a single-mode fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett. 27(12), 1031–1033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard-Desce, M.

Boucher, Y.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, “Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation,” Nat. Med. 9(6), 796–801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, E.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, “Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation,” Nat. Med. 9(6), 796–801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, E. B.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, K. S.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, P.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delp, S. L.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

diTomaso, E.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, “Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation,” Nat. Med. 9(6), 796–801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dombeck, D. A.

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081–7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duda, D. G.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekman, G.

N. Uldbjerg, A. Malmström, G. Ekman, and U. Ulmsten, “The integrity of cervical collagen during pregnancy and labor,” Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 20(2), 68–73 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fottner, C.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

Fukumura, D.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galle, P. R.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

L. Fu, X. Gan, D. Bird, and M. Gu, “Polarization characteristics of a 1×2 fibre coupler under femtosecond pulsed and continuous wave illumination,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37(6), 494–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Fu, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Use of a single-mode fiber coupler for second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 385–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetz, M.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregor, S.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Holtmann, M.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyman, B. T.

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081–7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingelsson, M.

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081–7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, “Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation,” Nat. Med. 9(6), 796–801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanzler, S.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasischke, K. A.

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081–7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klöppel, G.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levchenko, T. S.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llewellyn, M. E.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malmström, A.

N. Uldbjerg, A. Malmström, G. Ekman, and U. Ulmsten, “The integrity of cervical collagen during pregnancy and labor,” Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 20(2), 68–73 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKee, T.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, “Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation,” Nat. Med. 9(6), 796–801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Memadathil, B.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mertz, J.

Moreaux, L.

Neurath, M. F.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pattie, R.

Pluen, A.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, “Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation,” Nat. Med. 9(6), 796–801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandre, O.

Scadden, D. T.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirrmacher, E.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirrmacher, R.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, C.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

Seed, B.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, “Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation,” Nat. Med. 9(6), 796–801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strand, D.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroh, M.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torchilin, V. P.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uldbjerg, N.

N. Uldbjerg, A. Malmström, G. Ekman, and U. Ulmsten, “The integrity of cervical collagen during pregnancy and labor,” Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 20(2), 68–73 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulmsten, U.

N. Uldbjerg, A. Malmström, G. Ekman, and U. Ulmsten, “The integrity of cervical collagen during pregnancy and labor,” Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 20(2), 68–73 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vance, R.

Vieth, M.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vishwasrao, H. D.

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081–7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081–7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, M. M.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weyand, E.

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmer, J. P.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Endoscopy (1)

M. Goetz, C. Fottner, E. Schirrmacher, P. Delaney, S. Gregor, C. Schneider, D. Strand, S. Kanzler, B. Memadathil, E. Weyand, M. Holtmann, R. Schirrmacher, M. M. Weber, M. Anlauf, G. Klöppel, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, P. Bartenstein, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, “In-vivo confocal real-time mini-microscopy in animal models of human inflammatory and neoplastic diseases,” Endoscopy 39(4), 350–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. (1)

N. Uldbjerg, A. Malmström, G. Ekman, and U. Ulmsten, “The integrity of cervical collagen during pregnancy and labor,” Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 20(2), 68–73 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (2)

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (2)

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, “Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation,” Nat. Med. 9(6), 796–801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med. 11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

L. Fu, X. Gan, D. Bird, and M. Gu, “Polarization characteristics of a 1×2 fibre coupler under femtosecond pulsed and continuous wave illumination,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37(6), 494–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081–7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Kiesslich, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Atlas of endomicroscopy. Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg (2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of experimental setup for SHG imaging using the designed nonlinear endomicroscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Degree of polarization of the excitation laser beam and signal to noise ratio of SHG imaging as a function of the polarization direction of the input linearly polarized laser beam

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SHG images of a mouse tail tendon with an axial step of 8 µm. The image size is 475 µm × 475 µm. The excitation wavelength is 800 nm. The excitation power is 30 mW on the sample. Arrows are the polarization directions of the excitation laser beam

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two channel images of a mouse tail tendon by the nonlinear endomicroscope. (a), (d) SHG images. (b), (e) TPF images. (c), (f) Combination of two-channel images. Red: TPF image. Green: SHG image. The size of the images: 150 µm × 150 µm. Arrows are the polarization directions of the excitation laser beam

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