Abstract

A Wigner-distribution-like function is proposed for analysis of the time-energy distribution of photoelectron emitted from an atom in intense laser fields. For the first time, the time-energy distribution of the photoelectron spectrum in above-threshold ionization is present. The interference pattern in the above-threshold ionization process in laser fields with different frequencies are investigated using the proposed method.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, "Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127-1130 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. V. Keldysh,"Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Zh. Eksp Theo. Fiz. 47, 1945 (1964).
  3. F. M. H. Faisal, "Multiple absorption of laser photons by atoms," J. Phys. B 6, L89-L92 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. R. Reiss, "Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system," Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786-1813 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood, R. R. Freeman, J. Boker, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "High intensity above-threshold ionization of He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509-512 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, Huale Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, "Pattern evolution caused by dynamic coupling between wetting and phase separation in binary liquid mixture containing glass particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851-2854 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Hansch, M. A. Walker, and L. D. VanWoerkom, "Resonant hot-electron production in above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 55, R2535-R2538 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. P. Hertlein, P. H. Bucksbaum, and H. G. Muller, "Evidence for resonant effects in high-order ATI spectra," J. Phys. B 30, L197-L205 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, "Channel-closing-induced resonances in the above-threshold ionization plateau," Phys. Rev. A 64, 021401(R): 1-4 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, "Channel-closing effects in high-order above-threshold ionization and high-order harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 35, 217-232 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. C. Chirila and R. M. Potvliege, "Low-order above-threshold ionization in intense few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 021402(R): 1-4 (2005).
  13. F. H. M. Faisal and G. Schlegel, "Signatures of photon effect in the tunnel regime," J. Phys. B 38, L223-L231 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, "Interference Oscillations in the Angular Distribution of Laser-Ionized Electrons near Ionization Threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003: 1-4 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-Threshold Ionization at the Few-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003: 1-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. Potvliege, Svetlana Vučić, "High-order above-threshold ionization of argon: Plateau resonances and the Floquet quasienergy spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 74, 023412: 1-11 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, "Strong-field photoionization revisited," Nat. Phys. 5(335), 1-4 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. C. Reed and K. Burnett, "Role of resonances and quantum-mechanical interference in the generation of abovethreshold-ionization spectra," Phys. Rev. A 43, 6217-6226 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Laser-induced substructures in above-threshold-ionization spectra from intense few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 011401(R): 1-4 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. G. Arbó, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, "Time double-slit interferences in strong-field tunneling ionization," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063407: 1-6 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. d. Bohan, P. Antoine, D. B. Milosević, and B. Piraux, "Phase-Dependent Harmonic Emission with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837-1840 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, M. Dörr, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, "Time-frequency analysis of two-color high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 60, 1377-1384 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. H. Kim, D. G. Lee, H. J. Shin, and C. H. Nam, "Wigner time-frequency distribution of high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 63, 063403:1-5 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. H. Kim, and C. H. Nam, "Plasma-induced frequency chirp of intense femtosecond lasers and its role in shaping high-order harmonic spectral lines," Phys. Rev. A 65, 033801: 1-5 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Strong Field Quantum Path Control Using Attosecond Pulse Trains," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003: 1-4 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Hillery, R. F. O’Connell, M. O. Scullyd, and E. P. Wigner, "Distribution functions in physics: Fundamentals," Phys. Rep. 106, 121-127 (1984).
  30. H.W. Lee, "Theory and application of the quantum phase-space distribution functions," Phys. Rep. 259, 147-211 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. Cohen, "Time-Frequency Distributions- a Review," Proc. IEEE 77, 941-981 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  32. See, for example, F. Lindner, M. G.  Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milosević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G . Paulus, "Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401: 1-4 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  33. L. Guo, J. Chen, J. Liu, and Y. Q. Gu, "Origin of the double-peak structure in longitudinal momentum distributions for single ionization of an He atom in strong laser field," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033413: 1-8 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, "Strong-field photoionization revisited," Nat. Phys. 5(335), 1-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

L. Guo, J. Chen, J. Liu, and Y. Q. Gu, "Origin of the double-peak structure in longitudinal momentum distributions for single ionization of an He atom in strong laser field," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033413: 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Laser-induced substructures in above-threshold-ionization spectra from intense few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 011401(R): 1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Arbó, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, "Time double-slit interferences in strong-field tunneling ionization," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063407: 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, "Interference Oscillations in the Angular Distribution of Laser-Ionized Electrons near Ionization Threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003: 1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Potvliege, Svetlana Vučić, "High-order above-threshold ionization of argon: Plateau resonances and the Floquet quasienergy spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 74, 023412: 1-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. C. Chirila and R. M. Potvliege, "Low-order above-threshold ionization in intense few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 021402(R): 1-4 (2005).

F. H. M. Faisal and G. Schlegel, "Signatures of photon effect in the tunnel regime," J. Phys. B 38, L223-L231 (2005).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, F. Lindner, M. G.  Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milosević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G . Paulus, "Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401: 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Strong Field Quantum Path Control Using Attosecond Pulse Trains," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003: 1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-Threshold Ionization at the Few-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003: 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, "Channel-closing effects in high-order above-threshold ionization and high-order harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 35, 217-232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, and C. H. Nam, "Plasma-induced frequency chirp of intense femtosecond lasers and its role in shaping high-order harmonic spectral lines," Phys. Rev. A 65, 033801: 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. H. Kim, D. G. Lee, H. J. Shin, and C. H. Nam, "Wigner time-frequency distribution of high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 63, 063403:1-5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, "Channel-closing-induced resonances in the above-threshold ionization plateau," Phys. Rev. A 64, 021401(R): 1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, M. Dörr, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, "Time-frequency analysis of two-color high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 60, 1377-1384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. d. Bohan, P. Antoine, D. B. Milosević, and B. Piraux, "Phase-Dependent Harmonic Emission with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837-1840 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Hansch, M. A. Walker, and L. D. VanWoerkom, "Resonant hot-electron production in above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 55, R2535-R2538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hertlein, P. H. Bucksbaum, and H. G. Muller, "Evidence for resonant effects in high-order ATI spectra," J. Phys. B 30, L197-L205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

H.W. Lee, "Theory and application of the quantum phase-space distribution functions," Phys. Rep. 259, 147-211 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, Huale Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, "Pattern evolution caused by dynamic coupling between wetting and phase separation in binary liquid mixture containing glass particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851-2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood, R. R. Freeman, J. Boker, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "High intensity above-threshold ionization of He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509-512 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

V. C. Reed and K. Burnett, "Role of resonances and quantum-mechanical interference in the generation of abovethreshold-ionization spectra," Phys. Rev. A 43, 6217-6226 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

L. Cohen, "Time-Frequency Distributions- a Review," Proc. IEEE 77, 941-981 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984

M. Hillery, R. F. O’Connell, M. O. Scullyd, and E. P. Wigner, "Distribution functions in physics: Fundamentals," Phys. Rep. 106, 121-127 (1984).

1980

H. R. Reiss, "Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system," Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786-1813 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, "Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127-1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973

F. M. H. Faisal, "Multiple absorption of laser photons by atoms," J. Phys. B 6, L89-L92 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1964

L. V. Keldysh,"Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Zh. Eksp Theo. Fiz. 47, 1945 (1964).

Agostini, P.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, "Strong-field photoionization revisited," Nat. Phys. 5(335), 1-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, "Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127-1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Arbó, D. G.

D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, "Interference Oscillations in the Angular Distribution of Laser-Ionized Electrons near Ionization Threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003: 1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Arbó, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, "Time double-slit interferences in strong-field tunneling ionization," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063407: 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aumiller, G. D.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood, R. R. Freeman, J. Boker, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "High intensity above-threshold ionization of He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509-512 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, Ph.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

See, for example, F. Lindner, M. G.  Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milosević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G . Paulus, "Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401: 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, D.

See, for example, F. Lindner, M. G.  Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milosević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G . Paulus, "Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401: 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Becke, W.

See, for example, F. Lindner, M. G.  Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milosević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G . Paulus, "Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401: 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, "Channel-closing effects in high-order above-threshold ionization and high-order harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 35, 217-232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, "Channel-closing-induced resonances in the above-threshold ionization plateau," Phys. Rev. A 64, 021401(R): 1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, M. Dörr, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, "Time-frequency analysis of two-color high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 60, 1377-1384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Strong Field Quantum Path Control Using Attosecond Pulse Trains," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003: 1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blaga, C. I.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, "Strong-field photoionization revisited," Nat. Phys. 5(335), 1-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boker, J.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood, R. R. Freeman, J. Boker, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "High intensity above-threshold ionization of He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509-512 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

M. P. Hertlein, P. H. Bucksbaum, and H. G. Muller, "Evidence for resonant effects in high-order ATI spectra," J. Phys. B 30, L197-L205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood, R. R. Freeman, J. Boker, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "High intensity above-threshold ionization of He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509-512 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgdörfer, J.

D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, "Interference Oscillations in the Angular Distribution of Laser-Ionized Electrons near Ionization Threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003: 1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Arbó, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, "Time double-slit interferences in strong-field tunneling ionization," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063407: 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, K.

V. C. Reed and K. Burnett, "Role of resonances and quantum-mechanical interference in the generation of abovethreshold-ionization spectra," Phys. Rev. A 43, 6217-6226 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catoire, F.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, "Strong-field photoionization revisited," Nat. Phys. 5(335), 1-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Guo, J. Chen, J. Liu, and Y. Q. Gu, "Origin of the double-peak structure in longitudinal momentum distributions for single ionization of an He atom in strong laser field," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033413: 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. G.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chirila, C. C.

C. C. Chirila and R. M. Potvliege, "Low-order above-threshold ionization in intense few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 021402(R): 1-4 (2005).

Cohen, L.

L. Cohen, "Time-Frequency Distributions- a Review," Proc. IEEE 77, 941-981 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Colosimo, P.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, "Strong-field photoionization revisited," Nat. Phys. 5(335), 1-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Constant, E.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-Threshold Ionization at the Few-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003: 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dederichs, A. S.

P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dimauro, L. F.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, "Strong-field photoionization revisited," Nat. Phys. 5(335), 1-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dimitriou, K. I.

D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, "Interference Oscillations in the Angular Distribution of Laser-Ionized Electrons near Ionization Threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003: 1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dörr, M.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, M. Dörr, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, "Time-frequency analysis of two-color high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 60, 1377-1384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, F.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, "Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127-1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Faisal, F. H. M.

F. H. M. Faisal and G. Schlegel, "Signatures of photon effect in the tunnel regime," J. Phys. B 38, L223-L231 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faisal, F. M. H.

F. M. H. Faisal, "Multiple absorption of laser photons by atoms," J. Phys. B 6, L89-L92 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, M. Dörr, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, "Time-frequency analysis of two-color high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 60, 1377-1384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood, R. R. Freeman, J. Boker, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "High intensity above-threshold ionization of He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509-512 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Strong Field Quantum Path Control Using Attosecond Pulse Trains," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003: 1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

See, for example, F. Lindner, M. G.  Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milosević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G . Paulus, "Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401: 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grasbon, F.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-Threshold Ionization at the Few-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003: 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, "Channel-closing-induced resonances in the above-threshold ionization plateau," Phys. Rev. A 64, 021401(R): 1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y. Q.

L. Guo, J. Chen, J. Liu, and Y. Q. Gu, "Origin of the double-peak structure in longitudinal momentum distributions for single ionization of an He atom in strong laser field," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033413: 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Guo, J. Chen, J. Liu, and Y. Q. Gu, "Origin of the double-peak structure in longitudinal momentum distributions for single ionization of an He atom in strong laser field," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033413: 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, P.

P. Hansch, M. A. Walker, and L. D. VanWoerkom, "Resonant hot-electron production in above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 55, R2535-R2538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

He, X. T.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinrich, A.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Strong Field Quantum Path Control Using Attosecond Pulse Trains," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003: 1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hertlein, M. P.

M. P. Hertlein, P. H. Bucksbaum, and H. G. Muller, "Evidence for resonant effects in high-order ATI spectra," J. Phys. B 30, L197-L205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hillery, M.

M. Hillery, R. F. O’Connell, M. O. Scullyd, and E. P. Wigner, "Distribution functions in physics: Fundamentals," Phys. Rep. 106, 121-127 (1984).

Huale Xu, W.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, Huale Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, "Pattern evolution caused by dynamic coupling between wetting and phase separation in binary liquid mixture containing glass particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851-2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh,"Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Zh. Eksp Theo. Fiz. 47, 1945 (1964).

Keller, U.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Strong Field Quantum Path Control Using Attosecond Pulse Trains," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003: 1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim, and C. H. Nam, "Plasma-induced frequency chirp of intense femtosecond lasers and its role in shaping high-order harmonic spectral lines," Phys. Rev. A 65, 033801: 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, D. G. Lee, H. J. Shin, and C. H. Nam, "Wigner time-frequency distribution of high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 63, 063403:1-5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kleber, M.

R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, "Channel-closing effects in high-order above-threshold ionization and high-order harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 35, 217-232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kopold, R.

R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, "Channel-closing effects in high-order above-threshold ionization and high-order harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 35, 217-232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, "Channel-closing-induced resonances in the above-threshold ionization plateau," Phys. Rev. A 64, 021401(R): 1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

See, for example, F. Lindner, M. G.  Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milosević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G . Paulus, "Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401: 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K. C.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. G.

J. H. Kim, D. G. Lee, H. J. Shin, and C. H. Nam, "Wigner time-frequency distribution of high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 63, 063403:1-5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.W.

H.W. Lee, "Theory and application of the quantum phase-space distribution functions," Phys. Rep. 259, 147-211 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Laser-induced substructures in above-threshold-ionization spectra from intense few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 011401(R): 1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, F.

See, for example, F. Lindner, M. G.  Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milosević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G . Paulus, "Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401: 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Guo, J. Chen, J. Liu, and Y. Q. Gu, "Origin of the double-peak structure in longitudinal momentum distributions for single ionization of an He atom in strong laser field," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033413: 1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mainfray, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, "Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127-1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, D. B.

See, for example, F. Lindner, M. G.  Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milosević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G . Paulus, "Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401: 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mohideen, U.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood, R. R. Freeman, J. Boker, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "High intensity above-threshold ionization of He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509-512 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, "Strong-field photoionization revisited," Nat. Phys. 5(335), 1-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hertlein, P. H. Bucksbaum, and H. G. Muller, "Evidence for resonant effects in high-order ATI spectra," J. Phys. B 30, L197-L205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

J. H. Kim, and C. H. Nam, "Plasma-induced frequency chirp of intense femtosecond lasers and its role in shaping high-order harmonic spectral lines," Phys. Rev. A 65, 033801: 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, D. G. Lee, H. J. Shin, and C. H. Nam, "Wigner time-frequency distribution of high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 63, 063403:1-5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nicklich, W.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, Huale Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, "Pattern evolution caused by dynamic coupling between wetting and phase separation in binary liquid mixture containing glass particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851-2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-Threshold Ionization at the Few-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003: 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Connell, R. F.

M. Hillery, R. F. O’Connell, M. O. Scullyd, and E. P. Wigner, "Distribution functions in physics: Fundamentals," Phys. Rep. 106, 121-127 (1984).

Paulus, G. G

See, for example, F. Lindner, M. G.  Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milosević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G . Paulus, "Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401: 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, "Strong-field photoionization revisited," Nat. Phys. 5(335), 1-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-Threshold Ionization at the Few-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003: 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Kopold, W. Becker, M. Kleber, and G. G. Paulus, "Channel-closing effects in high-order above-threshold ionization and high-order harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 35, 217-232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, "Channel-closing-induced resonances in the above-threshold ionization plateau," Phys. Rev. A 64, 021401(R): 1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, Huale Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, "Pattern evolution caused by dynamic coupling between wetting and phase separation in binary liquid mixture containing glass particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851-2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, E.

D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, "Interference Oscillations in the Angular Distribution of Laser-Ionized Electrons near Ionization Threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003: 1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Arbó, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, "Time double-slit interferences in strong-field tunneling ionization," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063407: 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petite, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, "Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127-1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Potvliege, R. M.

R. M. Potvliege, Svetlana Vučić, "High-order above-threshold ionization of argon: Plateau resonances and the Floquet quasienergy spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 74, 023412: 1-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chirila and R. M. Potvliege, "Low-order above-threshold ionization in intense few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 021402(R): 1-4 (2005).

Quan, W.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reed, V. C.

V. C. Reed and K. Burnett, "Role of resonances and quantum-mechanical interference in the generation of abovethreshold-ionization spectra," Phys. Rev. A 43, 6217-6226 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiss, H. R.

H. R. Reiss, "Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system," Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786-1813 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, M. Dörr, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, "Time-frequency analysis of two-color high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 60, 1377-1384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-Threshold Ionization at the Few-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003: 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Strong Field Quantum Path Control Using Attosecond Pulse Trains," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003: 1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schätzel, M. G.

See, for example, F. Lindner, M. G.  Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milosević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G . Paulus, "Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401: 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schlegel, G.

F. H. M. Faisal and G. Schlegel, "Signatures of photon effect in the tunnel regime," J. Phys. B 38, L223-L231 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scullyd, M. O.

M. Hillery, R. F. O’Connell, M. O. Scullyd, and E. P. Wigner, "Distribution functions in physics: Fundamentals," Phys. Rep. 106, 121-127 (1984).

Sher, M. H.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood, R. R. Freeman, J. Boker, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "High intensity above-threshold ionization of He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509-512 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, H. J.

J. H. Kim, D. G. Lee, H. J. Shin, and C. H. Nam, "Wigner time-frequency distribution of high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 63, 063403:1-5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-Threshold Ionization at the Few-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003: 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tom, H. W. K.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood, R. R. Freeman, J. Boker, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "High intensity above-threshold ionization of He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509-512 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Laser-induced substructures in above-threshold-ionization spectra from intense few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 011401(R): 1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

VanWoerkom, L. D.

P. Hansch, M. A. Walker, and L. D. VanWoerkom, "Resonant hot-electron production in above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 55, R2535-R2538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-Threshold Ionization at the Few-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003: 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walker, M. A.

P. Hansch, M. A. Walker, and L. D. VanWoerkom, "Resonant hot-electron production in above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 55, R2535-R2538 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

See, for example, F. Lindner, M. G.  Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milosević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G . Paulus, "Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401: 1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-Threshold Ionization at the Few-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003: 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, "Channel-closing-induced resonances in the above-threshold ionization plateau," Phys. Rev. A 64, 021401(R): 1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Laser-induced substructures in above-threshold-ionization spectra from intense few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 011401(R): 1-4 (2006).
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U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood, R. R. Freeman, J. Boker, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "High intensity above-threshold ionization of He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509-512 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
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D. G. Arbó, S. Yoshida, E. Persson, K. I. Dimitriou, and J. Burgdörfer, "Interference Oscillations in the Angular Distribution of Laser-Ionized Electrons near Ionization Threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143003: 1-4 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

F. H. M. Faisal and G. Schlegel, "Signatures of photon effect in the tunnel regime," J. Phys. B 38, L223-L231 (2005).
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P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, "Strong-field photoionization revisited," Nat. Phys. 5(335), 1-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep.

M. Hillery, R. F. O’Connell, M. O. Scullyd, and E. P. Wigner, "Distribution functions in physics: Fundamentals," Phys. Rep. 106, 121-127 (1984).

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

D. G. Arbó, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, "Time double-slit interferences in strong-field tunneling ionization," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063407: 1-6 (2006).
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G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, "Channel-closing-induced resonances in the above-threshold ionization plateau," Phys. Rev. A 64, 021401(R): 1-4 (2001).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-Threshold Ionization at the Few-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003: 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, "Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Time-energy distribution of photoelectrons from H atoms irradiated by a laser pulse. The pulse duration is 60 cycles. The angular frequency ω0=0.182 a.u. and peak intensity I=1 × 1014W/cm2. The lines denote the time-varying final kinetic energy obtained from Eq. (12), corresponding to the number of extra photons absorbed S = 0 (solid line) and S = 1 (dashed line), respectively. (b) Energy spectrum obtained by integrating Eq. (10) over t.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The energy spectrum and the time-energy distribution in the regime of the first ATI peak of Fig. 1. The opened circles denote the points from which the electron is emitted to produce the interference minima (see text).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time-energy distribution of photoelectrons from H atoms. The parameters are the same as those in Fig. 1, except the angular frequency ω =0.1 a.u. The solid line is the energy spectrum. The dash dotted line is calculated by Eq. (12) (S = 0). The opened circles denote the points from which the electron is emitted to produce the interference minima (see text).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a)Time-energy distribution of photoelectrons from H atoms. The parameters are the same as those in Fig. 1, except the angular frequency ω = 0.057 a.u. The green dash dotted line and green dashed line are calculated by Eq. (12) corresponding to S = 0 and S = 1, respectively. The circles denote the points from which the electron is emitted to produce the interference minima (opened circles and filled circles correspond to S = 0 and S = 1, respectively)(see text); (b) The energy spectrum.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S fi = i dt ψ Af p t V A ( t ) φ 0 e iI p t .
ψ A f ( p , t ) = 1 v exp [ i p·r i p 2 2 t i t V A ( p , τ ) ] ,
S fi = i v dt ϕ i ( p ) V A ( p , t ) × exp [ i t V A ( p , τ ) + iI p t + i p 2 2 t ] = 1 2 π dtS e i p 2 2 t ,
S = i 2 π v ϕ i ( p ) V A ( p , t ) exp [ i t V A ( p , τ ) + iI p t ]
F ( Ω ) = 1 2 π F ( t ) e iΩt dt .
f ( t , p 2 2 ) = 1 π S * ( t + t ) S ( t t ) e 2 i p 2 2 t dt .
f ( t , p 2 2 ) dt = dt 1 π S * ( t + t ) S ( t t ) e 2 i p 2 2 t dt = 1 2 π S * ( t 2 ) S ( t 1 ) e i p 2 2 ( t 2 t 1 ) d t 1 dt 2 = S fi S fi * = S fi 2 .
S fi 2 = f ( t , p 2 2 ) dt .
A ( t ) = E 0 ω sin 2 [ ωt n ] cos ( ωt ) ,
f ( t , p 2 2 ) = 1 π 0 T c S * ( t + t ) S ' ( t t ) e 2 i p 2 2 t dt ,
p 2 2 = ( N 0 + S ) ω I p U p = ( N 0 + S ) ω I p E 0 2 4 ω 2 .
p 2 2 = ( N 0 + S ) ω I p U p ( t ) = ( N 0 + S ) ω I p E 0 2 sin 4 [ ωt n ] 4 ω 2 .
E = - I p + E 0 2 4 ω 2 + [ 3 π 8 ] 2 3 [ E 0 2 2 n 2 ] 1 3 ( 4 q 1 ) 2 / 3 ,
U p ( t ) = E 0 2 4 ω 2 sin 4 [ ωt n ] E 0 2 4 ω 2 + E 0 2 2 n 2 [ t T c 2 ] 2 .

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