Abstract

We utilize various techniques to characterize the residual phase modulation of a waveguide-based Mach-Zehnder electro-optical intensity modulator. A heterodyne technique is used to directly measure the phase change due to a given change in intensity, thereby determining the chirp parameter of the device. This chirp parameter is also measured by examining the ratio of sidebands for sinusoidal amplitude modulation. Finally, the frequency chirp caused by an intensity pulse on the nanosecond time scale is measured via the heterodyne signal. We show that this chirp can be largely compensated with a separate phase modulator. The various measurements of the chirp parameter are in reasonable agreement.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Miao, E. Wertz, M. G. Cohen, and H. Metcalf, "Strong Optical Forces from Adiabatic Rapid Passage," Phys. Rev. A 75, 011402 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, M. Serényi, Zs. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, and Z. Tóth, "Acceleration of Cold Rb Atoms by Frequency Modulated Light Pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 141-149 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Wright, J. A. Pechkis, J. L. Carini, S. Kallush, R. Kosloff, and P. L. Gould, "Coherent Control of Ultracold Collisions with Chirped Light: Direction Matters," Phys. Rev. A 75, 051401 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple Measurement of Fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937-1940 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Schiess and H. Carldén, "Evaluation of the Chirp Parameter of a Mach-Zehnder Intensity Modulator," Electron. Lett. 30, 1524-1525 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, and J. Azaña, "Direct Time-Response Measurement of High-Speed Optical Modulators Based on Stretched-Pulse Interferometry," Opt. Lett. 32, 3411-3413 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. C. Thomsen, D. A. Reid, R. T. Watts, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Characterization of 40-Gbit/s Pulses Generated Using a Lithium Niobate Modulator at 1550 nm Using Frequency Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 186-191 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Kowalski, J. Debeau, and R. Boittin, "A Simple and Novel Method for Measuring the Chirp Parameter of an Intensity Modulated Light Source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 700-702 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, "Wideband Chirp Measurement Technique for High Bit Rate Sources," Electron. Lett. 30, 1336-1338 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Laverdiére, A. Fekecs, and M. Têtu, "A New Method for Measuring Time-Resolved Frequency Chirp of High Bit Rate Sources," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 446-448 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L.-S. Yan, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, and Y. Shi, "Measurement of the Chirp Parameter of Electro-Optic Modulators by Comparison of the Phase between Two Sidebands," Opt. Lett. 28, 1114-1116 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Auracher and R. Keil, "Method for Measuring the RF Modulation Characteristics of Mach-Zehnder-Type Modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 626-629 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, and M. Izutsu, "Direct Measurement of Chirp Parameters of High-Speed Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators," Opt. Commun. 195, 399-404 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Oikawa, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, "Measurement of Chirp Parameters and Halfwave Voltages of Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators by Using a Small Signal Operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 682-684 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Courjal, J. M. Dudley, and H. Porte, "Extinction-Ratio-Independent Method for Chirp Measurements of Mach-Zehnder Modulators," Opt. Express 12, 442-448 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L.-S. Yan, A. E. Willner, and Y. Shi, "Graphical Solution for RF Half-Wave Voltage and Chirp Parameter of Electrooptic Modulators Using Optical Spectrum Analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1486-1488 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Nagatsuka, Y. Hirano, and Y. Isota, "Highly Accurate Measurement of LN Optical Intensity Modulators by Small RF Inputs," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 474-478 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, B. Ráczkevia, Zs. Sörlei, and J. Szigeti, "Generation of Frequency-Chirped Laser Pulses by an Electro-Optic Amplitude Modulator," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 19-23 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. P. Romstad, D. Birkedal, J. Mork, and J. A. Hvam, "Heterodyne Technique for Measuring the Amplitude and Phase Transfer Functions of an Optical Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 621-623 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. J. Krause and J. C. Cartledge, "Technique for Measuring the Optical Phase Transfer Function," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1915-1917 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Dorrer, "Interferometric Techniques for the Characterization of Temporal Modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2688-2690 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Koyama and K. Iga, "Frequency Chirping in External Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 87-93 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A Compact Grating-Stabilized Diode Laser System for Atomic Physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. E. RogersIII, M. J. Wright, J. L. Carini, J. A. Pechkis, and P. L. Gould, "Generation of Arbitrary Frequency Chirps with a Fiber-Based Phase Modulator and Self-Injection-Locked Diode Laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1249-1253 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, B. Ráczkevia, Zs. Sörlei, and J. Szigeti, "Generation of Frequency-Chirped Laser Pulses by an Electro-Optic Amplitude Modulator," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 19-23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

C. E. RogersIII, M. J. Wright, J. L. Carini, J. A. Pechkis, and P. L. Gould, "Generation of Arbitrary Frequency Chirps with a Fiber-Based Phase Modulator and Self-Injection-Locked Diode Laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1249-1253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Miao, E. Wertz, M. G. Cohen, and H. Metcalf, "Strong Optical Forces from Adiabatic Rapid Passage," Phys. Rev. A 75, 011402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, M. Serényi, Zs. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, and Z. Tóth, "Acceleration of Cold Rb Atoms by Frequency Modulated Light Pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 141-149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Wright, J. A. Pechkis, J. L. Carini, S. Kallush, R. Kosloff, and P. L. Gould, "Coherent Control of Ultracold Collisions with Chirped Light: Direction Matters," Phys. Rev. A 75, 051401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, and J. Azaña, "Direct Time-Response Measurement of High-Speed Optical Modulators Based on Stretched-Pulse Interferometry," Opt. Lett. 32, 3411-3413 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nagatsuka, Y. Hirano, and Y. Isota, "Highly Accurate Measurement of LN Optical Intensity Modulators by Small RF Inputs," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 474-478 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L.-S. Yan, A. E. Willner, and Y. Shi, "Graphical Solution for RF Half-Wave Voltage and Chirp Parameter of Electrooptic Modulators Using Optical Spectrum Analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1486-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, "Interferometric Techniques for the Characterization of Temporal Modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2688-2690 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. J. Krause and J. C. Cartledge, "Technique for Measuring the Optical Phase Transfer Function," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1915-1917 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Courjal, J. M. Dudley, and H. Porte, "Extinction-Ratio-Independent Method for Chirp Measurements of Mach-Zehnder Modulators," Opt. Express 12, 442-448 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Thomsen, D. A. Reid, R. T. Watts, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Characterization of 40-Gbit/s Pulses Generated Using a Lithium Niobate Modulator at 1550 nm Using Frequency Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 186-191 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

S. Oikawa, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, "Measurement of Chirp Parameters and Halfwave Voltages of Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators by Using a Small Signal Operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 682-684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Laverdiére, A. Fekecs, and M. Têtu, "A New Method for Measuring Time-Resolved Frequency Chirp of High Bit Rate Sources," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 446-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Yan, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, and Y. Shi, "Measurement of the Chirp Parameter of Electro-Optic Modulators by Comparison of the Phase between Two Sidebands," Opt. Lett. 28, 1114-1116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. P. Romstad, D. Birkedal, J. Mork, and J. A. Hvam, "Heterodyne Technique for Measuring the Amplitude and Phase Transfer Functions of an Optical Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, and M. Izutsu, "Direct Measurement of Chirp Parameters of High-Speed Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators," Opt. Commun. 195, 399-404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. Kowalski, J. Debeau, and R. Boittin, "A Simple and Novel Method for Measuring the Chirp Parameter of an Intensity Modulated Light Source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 700-702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A Compact Grating-Stabilized Diode Laser System for Atomic Physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, "Wideband Chirp Measurement Technique for High Bit Rate Sources," Electron. Lett. 30, 1336-1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Schiess and H. Carldén, "Evaluation of the Chirp Parameter of a Mach-Zehnder Intensity Modulator," Electron. Lett. 30, 1524-1525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple Measurement of Fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937-1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

F. Koyama and K. Iga, "Frequency Chirping in External Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 87-93 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

F. Auracher and R. Keil, "Method for Measuring the RF Modulation Characteristics of Mach-Zehnder-Type Modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 626-629 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, T.-J.

Auracher, F.

F. Auracher and R. Keil, "Method for Measuring the RF Modulation Characteristics of Mach-Zehnder-Type Modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 626-629 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Azaña, J.

Bakos, J. S.

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, B. Ráczkevia, Zs. Sörlei, and J. Szigeti, "Generation of Frequency-Chirped Laser Pulses by an Electro-Optic Amplitude Modulator," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 19-23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, M. Serényi, Zs. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, and Z. Tóth, "Acceleration of Cold Rb Atoms by Frequency Modulated Light Pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 141-149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barry, L. P.

B. C. Thomsen, D. A. Reid, R. T. Watts, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Characterization of 40-Gbit/s Pulses Generated Using a Lithium Niobate Modulator at 1550 nm Using Frequency Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 186-191 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birkedal, D.

F. P. Romstad, D. Birkedal, J. Mork, and J. A. Hvam, "Heterodyne Technique for Measuring the Amplitude and Phase Transfer Functions of an Optical Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boittin, R.

B. Kowalski, J. Debeau, and R. Boittin, "A Simple and Novel Method for Measuring the Chirp Parameter of an Intensity Modulated Light Source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 700-702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carini, J. L.

M. J. Wright, J. A. Pechkis, J. L. Carini, S. Kallush, R. Kosloff, and P. L. Gould, "Coherent Control of Ultracold Collisions with Chirped Light: Direction Matters," Phys. Rev. A 75, 051401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. E. RogersIII, M. J. Wright, J. L. Carini, J. A. Pechkis, and P. L. Gould, "Generation of Arbitrary Frequency Chirps with a Fiber-Based Phase Modulator and Self-Injection-Locked Diode Laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1249-1253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carldén, H.

M. Schiess and H. Carldén, "Evaluation of the Chirp Parameter of a Mach-Zehnder Intensity Modulator," Electron. Lett. 30, 1524-1525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cartledge, J. C.

D. J. Krause and J. C. Cartledge, "Technique for Measuring the Optical Phase Transfer Function," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1915-1917 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, M. G.

X. Miao, E. Wertz, M. G. Cohen, and H. Metcalf, "Strong Optical Forces from Adiabatic Rapid Passage," Phys. Rev. A 75, 011402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Courjal, N.

Debeau, J.

B. Kowalski, J. Debeau, and R. Boittin, "A Simple and Novel Method for Measuring the Chirp Parameter of an Intensity Modulated Light Source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 700-702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple Measurement of Fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937-1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Djotyan, G. P.

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, B. Ráczkevia, Zs. Sörlei, and J. Szigeti, "Generation of Frequency-Chirped Laser Pulses by an Electro-Optic Amplitude Modulator," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 19-23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, M. Serényi, Zs. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, and Z. Tóth, "Acceleration of Cold Rb Atoms by Frequency Modulated Light Pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 141-149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

C. Dorrer, "Interferometric Techniques for the Characterization of Temporal Modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2688-2690 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

Esslinger, T.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A Compact Grating-Stabilized Diode Laser System for Atomic Physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fekecs, A.

C. Laverdiére, A. Fekecs, and M. Têtu, "A New Method for Measuring Time-Resolved Frequency Chirp of High Bit Rate Sources," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 446-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gould, P. L.

M. J. Wright, J. A. Pechkis, J. L. Carini, S. Kallush, R. Kosloff, and P. L. Gould, "Coherent Control of Ultracold Collisions with Chirped Light: Direction Matters," Phys. Rev. A 75, 051401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. E. RogersIII, M. J. Wright, J. L. Carini, J. A. Pechkis, and P. L. Gould, "Generation of Arbitrary Frequency Chirps with a Fiber-Based Phase Modulator and Self-Injection-Locked Diode Laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1249-1253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A Compact Grating-Stabilized Diode Laser System for Atomic Physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hardcastle, I.

R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, "Wideband Chirp Measurement Technique for High Bit Rate Sources," Electron. Lett. 30, 1336-1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. D.

B. C. Thomsen, D. A. Reid, R. T. Watts, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Characterization of 40-Gbit/s Pulses Generated Using a Lithium Niobate Modulator at 1550 nm Using Frequency Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 186-191 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hemmerich, A.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A Compact Grating-Stabilized Diode Laser System for Atomic Physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, Y.

T. Nagatsuka, Y. Hirano, and Y. Isota, "Highly Accurate Measurement of LN Optical Intensity Modulators by Small RF Inputs," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 474-478 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. A.

F. P. Romstad, D. Birkedal, J. Mork, and J. A. Hvam, "Heterodyne Technique for Measuring the Amplitude and Phase Transfer Functions of an Optical Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

F. Koyama and K. Iga, "Frequency Chirping in External Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 87-93 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ignácz, P. N.

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, B. Ráczkevia, Zs. Sörlei, and J. Szigeti, "Generation of Frequency-Chirped Laser Pulses by an Electro-Optic Amplitude Modulator," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 19-23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, M. Serényi, Zs. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, and Z. Tóth, "Acceleration of Cold Rb Atoms by Frequency Modulated Light Pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 141-149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Isota, Y.

T. Nagatsuka, Y. Hirano, and Y. Isota, "Highly Accurate Measurement of LN Optical Intensity Modulators by Small RF Inputs," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 474-478 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Izutsu, M.

S. Oikawa, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, "Measurement of Chirp Parameters and Halfwave Voltages of Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators by Using a Small Signal Operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 682-684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, and M. Izutsu, "Direct Measurement of Chirp Parameters of High-Speed Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators," Opt. Commun. 195, 399-404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kallush, S.

M. J. Wright, J. A. Pechkis, J. L. Carini, S. Kallush, R. Kosloff, and P. L. Gould, "Coherent Control of Ultracold Collisions with Chirped Light: Direction Matters," Phys. Rev. A 75, 051401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

S. Oikawa, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, "Measurement of Chirp Parameters and Halfwave Voltages of Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators by Using a Small Signal Operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 682-684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, and M. Izutsu, "Direct Measurement of Chirp Parameters of High-Speed Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators," Opt. Commun. 195, 399-404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kedves, M. Á.

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, B. Ráczkevia, Zs. Sörlei, and J. Szigeti, "Generation of Frequency-Chirped Laser Pulses by an Electro-Optic Amplitude Modulator," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 19-23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, M. Serényi, Zs. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, and Z. Tóth, "Acceleration of Cold Rb Atoms by Frequency Modulated Light Pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 141-149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keil, R.

F. Auracher and R. Keil, "Method for Measuring the RF Modulation Characteristics of Mach-Zehnder-Type Modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 626-629 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kerdiles, J. F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple Measurement of Fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937-1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

King, J. P.

R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, "Wideband Chirp Measurement Technique for High Bit Rate Sources," Electron. Lett. 30, 1336-1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kogo, K.

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, and M. Izutsu, "Direct Measurement of Chirp Parameters of High-Speed Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators," Opt. Commun. 195, 399-404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

König, W.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A Compact Grating-Stabilized Diode Laser System for Atomic Physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kosloff, R.

M. J. Wright, J. A. Pechkis, J. L. Carini, S. Kallush, R. Kosloff, and P. L. Gould, "Coherent Control of Ultracold Collisions with Chirped Light: Direction Matters," Phys. Rev. A 75, 051401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, B.

B. Kowalski, J. Debeau, and R. Boittin, "A Simple and Novel Method for Measuring the Chirp Parameter of an Intensity Modulated Light Source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 700-702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, F.

F. Koyama and K. Iga, "Frequency Chirping in External Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 87-93 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Krause, D. J.

D. J. Krause and J. C. Cartledge, "Technique for Measuring the Optical Phase Transfer Function," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1915-1917 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laverdiére, C.

C. Laverdiére, A. Fekecs, and M. Têtu, "A New Method for Measuring Time-Resolved Frequency Chirp of High Bit Rate Sources," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 446-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H.

X. Miao, E. Wertz, M. G. Cohen, and H. Metcalf, "Strong Optical Forces from Adiabatic Rapid Passage," Phys. Rev. A 75, 011402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miao, X.

X. Miao, E. Wertz, M. G. Cohen, and H. Metcalf, "Strong Optical Forces from Adiabatic Rapid Passage," Phys. Rev. A 75, 011402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mork, J.

F. P. Romstad, D. Birkedal, J. Mork, and J. A. Hvam, "Heterodyne Technique for Measuring the Amplitude and Phase Transfer Functions of an Optical Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuka, T.

T. Nagatsuka, Y. Hirano, and Y. Isota, "Highly Accurate Measurement of LN Optical Intensity Modulators by Small RF Inputs," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 474-478 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, S.

S. Oikawa, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, "Measurement of Chirp Parameters and Halfwave Voltages of Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators by Using a Small Signal Operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 682-684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, and M. Izutsu, "Direct Measurement of Chirp Parameters of High-Speed Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators," Opt. Commun. 195, 399-404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Pechkis, J. A.

M. J. Wright, J. A. Pechkis, J. L. Carini, S. Kallush, R. Kosloff, and P. L. Gould, "Coherent Control of Ultracold Collisions with Chirped Light: Direction Matters," Phys. Rev. A 75, 051401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. E. RogersIII, M. J. Wright, J. L. Carini, J. A. Pechkis, and P. L. Gould, "Generation of Arbitrary Frequency Chirps with a Fiber-Based Phase Modulator and Self-Injection-Locked Diode Laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1249-1253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Porte, H.

Ráczkevia, B.

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, B. Ráczkevia, Zs. Sörlei, and J. Szigeti, "Generation of Frequency-Chirped Laser Pulses by an Electro-Optic Amplitude Modulator," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 19-23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. A.

B. C. Thomsen, D. A. Reid, R. T. Watts, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Characterization of 40-Gbit/s Pulses Generated Using a Lithium Niobate Modulator at 1550 nm Using Frequency Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 186-191 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ricci, L.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A Compact Grating-Stabilized Diode Laser System for Atomic Physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, C. E.

Romstad, F. P.

F. P. Romstad, D. Birkedal, J. Mork, and J. A. Hvam, "Heterodyne Technique for Measuring the Amplitude and Phase Transfer Functions of an Optical Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, R. A.

R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, "Wideband Chirp Measurement Technique for High Bit Rate Sources," Electron. Lett. 30, 1336-1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schiess, M.

M. Schiess and H. Carldén, "Evaluation of the Chirp Parameter of a Mach-Zehnder Intensity Modulator," Electron. Lett. 30, 1524-1525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Serényi, M.

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, M. Serényi, Zs. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, and Z. Tóth, "Acceleration of Cold Rb Atoms by Frequency Modulated Light Pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 141-149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

L.-S. Yan, A. E. Willner, and Y. Shi, "Graphical Solution for RF Half-Wave Voltage and Chirp Parameter of Electrooptic Modulators Using Optical Spectrum Analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1486-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Yan, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, and Y. Shi, "Measurement of the Chirp Parameter of Electro-Optic Modulators by Comparison of the Phase between Two Sidebands," Opt. Lett. 28, 1114-1116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorel, Y.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple Measurement of Fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937-1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sörlei, Zs.

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, B. Ráczkevia, Zs. Sörlei, and J. Szigeti, "Generation of Frequency-Chirped Laser Pulses by an Electro-Optic Amplitude Modulator," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 19-23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, M. Serényi, Zs. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, and Z. Tóth, "Acceleration of Cold Rb Atoms by Frequency Modulated Light Pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 141-149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szigeti, J.

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, B. Ráczkevia, Zs. Sörlei, and J. Szigeti, "Generation of Frequency-Chirped Laser Pulses by an Electro-Optic Amplitude Modulator," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 19-23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, M. Serényi, Zs. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, and Z. Tóth, "Acceleration of Cold Rb Atoms by Frequency Modulated Light Pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 141-149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Têtu, M.

C. Laverdiére, A. Fekecs, and M. Têtu, "A New Method for Measuring Time-Resolved Frequency Chirp of High Bit Rate Sources," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 446-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, B. C.

B. C. Thomsen, D. A. Reid, R. T. Watts, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Characterization of 40-Gbit/s Pulses Generated Using a Lithium Niobate Modulator at 1550 nm Using Frequency Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 186-191 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tóth, Z.

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, M. Serényi, Zs. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, and Z. Tóth, "Acceleration of Cold Rb Atoms by Frequency Modulated Light Pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 141-149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A Compact Grating-Stabilized Diode Laser System for Atomic Physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Watts, R. T.

B. C. Thomsen, D. A. Reid, R. T. Watts, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Characterization of 40-Gbit/s Pulses Generated Using a Lithium Niobate Modulator at 1550 nm Using Frequency Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 186-191 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weidemüller, M.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A Compact Grating-Stabilized Diode Laser System for Atomic Physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wertz, E.

X. Miao, E. Wertz, M. G. Cohen, and H. Metcalf, "Strong Optical Forces from Adiabatic Rapid Passage," Phys. Rev. A 75, 011402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

L.-S. Yan, A. E. Willner, and Y. Shi, "Graphical Solution for RF Half-Wave Voltage and Chirp Parameter of Electrooptic Modulators Using Optical Spectrum Analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1486-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Yan, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, and Y. Shi, "Measurement of the Chirp Parameter of Electro-Optic Modulators by Comparison of the Phase between Two Sidebands," Opt. Lett. 28, 1114-1116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, M. J.

M. J. Wright, J. A. Pechkis, J. L. Carini, S. Kallush, R. Kosloff, and P. L. Gould, "Coherent Control of Ultracold Collisions with Chirped Light: Direction Matters," Phys. Rev. A 75, 051401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. E. RogersIII, M. J. Wright, J. L. Carini, J. A. Pechkis, and P. L. Gould, "Generation of Arbitrary Frequency Chirps with a Fiber-Based Phase Modulator and Self-Injection-Locked Diode Laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1249-1253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.-S.

L.-S. Yan, A. E. Willner, and Y. Shi, "Graphical Solution for RF Half-Wave Voltage and Chirp Parameter of Electrooptic Modulators Using Optical Spectrum Analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1486-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Yan, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, and Y. Shi, "Measurement of the Chirp Parameter of Electro-Optic Modulators by Comparison of the Phase between Two Sidebands," Opt. Lett. 28, 1114-1116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Q.

Zimmermann, C.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A Compact Grating-Stabilized Diode Laser System for Atomic Physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Auracher and R. Keil, "Method for Measuring the RF Modulation Characteristics of Mach-Zehnder-Type Modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 626-629 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, "Wideband Chirp Measurement Technique for High Bit Rate Sources," Electron. Lett. 30, 1336-1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Schiess and H. Carldén, "Evaluation of the Chirp Parameter of a Mach-Zehnder Intensity Modulator," Electron. Lett. 30, 1524-1525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, M. Serényi, Zs. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, and Z. Tóth, "Acceleration of Cold Rb Atoms by Frequency Modulated Light Pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 141-149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

B. Kowalski, J. Debeau, and R. Boittin, "A Simple and Novel Method for Measuring the Chirp Parameter of an Intensity Modulated Light Source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 700-702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Laverdiére, A. Fekecs, and M. Têtu, "A New Method for Measuring Time-Resolved Frequency Chirp of High Bit Rate Sources," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 446-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Oikawa, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, "Measurement of Chirp Parameters and Halfwave Voltages of Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators by Using a Small Signal Operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 682-684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Yan, A. E. Willner, and Y. Shi, "Graphical Solution for RF Half-Wave Voltage and Chirp Parameter of Electrooptic Modulators Using Optical Spectrum Analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1486-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Romstad, D. Birkedal, J. Mork, and J. A. Hvam, "Heterodyne Technique for Measuring the Amplitude and Phase Transfer Functions of an Optical Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Krause and J. C. Cartledge, "Technique for Measuring the Optical Phase Transfer Function," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1915-1917 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, "Interferometric Techniques for the Characterization of Temporal Modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2688-2690 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

B. C. Thomsen, D. A. Reid, R. T. Watts, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Characterization of 40-Gbit/s Pulses Generated Using a Lithium Niobate Modulator at 1550 nm Using Frequency Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 186-191 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

T. Nagatsuka, Y. Hirano, and Y. Isota, "Highly Accurate Measurement of LN Optical Intensity Modulators by Small RF Inputs," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 474-478 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple Measurement of Fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937-1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Koyama and K. Iga, "Frequency Chirping in External Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 87-93 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A Compact Grating-Stabilized Diode Laser System for Atomic Physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, and M. Izutsu, "Direct Measurement of Chirp Parameters of High-Speed Mach-Zehnder-Type Optical Modulators," Opt. Commun. 195, 399-404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, B. Ráczkevia, Zs. Sörlei, and J. Szigeti, "Generation of Frequency-Chirped Laser Pulses by an Electro-Optic Amplitude Modulator," Opt. Laser Eng. 47, 19-23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

X. Miao, E. Wertz, M. G. Cohen, and H. Metcalf, "Strong Optical Forces from Adiabatic Rapid Passage," Phys. Rev. A 75, 011402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Wright, J. A. Pechkis, J. L. Carini, S. Kallush, R. Kosloff, and P. L. Gould, "Coherent Control of Ultracold Collisions with Chirped Light: Direction Matters," Phys. Rev. A 75, 051401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of Mach-Zehnder-type intensity modulator. The incident beam is equally split into two arms, 1 and 2, and recombined to provide the output. The phase difference between the two arms, controlled by the rf electrode, determines the output power via interference.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Set-up for measuring the output phase of the intensity modulator (IM) as the drive voltage is varied. The horizontally polarized output of the IM is combined on a polarizing beamsplitter cube (PBS) with a vertically polarized reference beam, which is derived from the input beam by frequency shifting a total of 160 MHz with two 80 MHz acousto-optical modulators (AOMs). The combined beams, whose relative intensities are adjusted with a linear polarizer (LP), produce a heterodyne signal on the photodiode (PD). The drive voltage is controlled with an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Intensity waveform used to measure the phase shift as a function of IM drive voltage. This signal is generated by sending the output of the IM to the photodiode without the heterodyne reference beam. The inset shows a portion of the heterodyne signal and the sinusoidal fit used to determine the phase. (b) Phase shift of the IM output as a function of voltage, together with a linear fit. Uncertainties in the phase shifts are smaller than the points.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical spectrum for 240 MHz sinusoidal modulation of the IM. Only the carrier (0) and positive sidebands (1, 2, 3) are shown.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Set-up for measuring and compensating the frequency chirp in a pulse produced by the IM. This is similar to Fig. 2, but with the incorporation of the phase modulator (PM) and the use of a separate laser for the heterodyne.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Inverted Gaussian voltage pulse with fit. (b) Intensity pulse produced by voltage pulse in (a). The fit discussed in the text is also shown. (c) Measured frequency chirp (triangles) together with fit to derivative of the Gaussian (solid curve) assuming a chirp parameter of 0.86. (d) Frequency chirp due to IM (triangles) and with compensation by the PM (crosses). The chirp data is averaged over 150 repetitions.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( t ) = E 1 ( t ) + E 2 ( t ) = 1 2 E 0 [ e i ( ω 0 t + γ 1 ∙V ( t ) + φ 01 ) + e i ( ω 0 t + γ 2 ∙V ( t ) + φ 02 ) ]
Δ φ ( t ) = 1 2 [ ( γ 1 ∙V ( t ) + φ 01 ) ( γ 2 V ( t ) + φ 02 ) ]
φ ( t ) = 1 2 [ ( γ 1 ∙V ( t ) + φ 01 ) + ( γ 2 ∙V ( t ) + φ 02 ) ]
E ( t ) = E 0 cos ( Δ φ ( t ) ) e i ( ω 0 t + φ ( t ) )
P ( t ) P 0 = cos 2 ( Δ φ ( t ) )
ω ( t ) = dt = 1 2 ( γ 1 + γ 2 ) dV dt
α 0 = γ 1 + γ 2 γ 1 γ 2
α = dt 1 E dE dt
E ( t ) = 1 2 E 0 e i ω 0 t [ e i ( a 1 sin ( ωt ) + φ 01 ) + e i ( a 2 sin ( ωt ) + φ 02 ) ]
E ( t ) = 1 2 E 0 e 0 t n = [ J n ( a 1 ) e i φ 01 + J n ( a 2 ) e i φ 02 ] e inωt
r n , n + 1 = J n ( a 1 ) e i φ 01 + J n ( a 2 ) i φ 02 J n + 1 ( a 1 ) e i φ 01 + J n + 1 ( a 2 ) e i φ 02 2 2 = J n 2 ( a 1 ) + J n 2 ( a 2 ) + 2 J n ( a 1 ) J n ( a 2 ) cos ( Δ φ 0 ) J n + 1 2 ( a 1 ) + J n + 1 2 ( a 2 ) + 2 J n + 1 ( a 1 ) J n + 1 cos ( Δ φ 0 )
r n , n + 1 = [ J n ( a 1 ) + J n ( βa 1 ) J n + 1 ( a 1 ) + J n + 1 ( βa 1 ) ] 2
Δ n , n + 1 = ( J n ( a 1 ) + J n ( βa 1 ) ) 2 r n , n + 1 ( J n + 1 ( a 1 ) + J n + 1 ( βa 1 ) ) 2
α 0 = 1 + β 1 β
ω ( t ) = π 2 α 0 1 V π dV dt

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