Abstract

We demonstrate the combined effects of a microcavity structure and light-recycling filters (LRFs) on the forward electrical efficiency of phosphor-converted white organic light-emitting diodes (pc-WOLEDs). The introduction of a single pair of low- and high-index layers (SiO2/TiO2) improves the blue emission from blue OLED and the insertion of blue-passing and yellow-reflecting LRFs enhances the forward yellow emission from the YAG:Ce3+ phosphors layers. The enhancement of the luminous efficacy of the forward white emission is 1.92 times that of a conventional pc-WOLED with color coordinates of (0.34, 0.34) and a correlated color temperature of about 4800 K.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Adachi, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic electroluminescent device having a hole conductor as an emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(15), 1489–1491 (1989).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (1)

H. K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, S.-K. Kim, Y.-I. Park, J.-W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep blue, efficient, moderate-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2006 (2)

A. Misra, P. Kumar, M. N. Kamalasanan, and S. Chandra, “White organic LEDs and their recent advancements,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(7), R35–R47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, V.-E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506–113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C.-C. Chang, J.-F. Chen, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 253501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, C. Heller, and D. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, and M. E. Thompson, “High-efficiency fluorescent organic light-emitting devices using a phosphorescent sensitizer,” Nature 403(6771), 750–753 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A Full-Color Transparent Metal-Free Stacked Organic Light Emitting Device with Simplified Pixel Biasing,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610–3616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic electroluminescent device having a hole conductor as an emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(15), 1489–1491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

Adachi, C.

C. Adachi, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic electroluminescent device having a hole conductor as an emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(15), 1489–1491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y. J.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, and M. E. Thompson, “High-efficiency fluorescent organic light-emitting devices using a phosphorescent sensitizer,” Nature 403(6771), 750–753 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumeister, P. W.

Chandra, S.

A. Misra, P. Kumar, M. N. Kamalasanan, and S. Chandra, “White organic LEDs and their recent advancements,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(7), R35–R47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-C.

C.-C. Chang, J.-F. Chen, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 253501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

C.-C. Chang, J.-F. Chen, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 253501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610–3616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-F.

C.-C. Chang, J.-F. Chen, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 253501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-H.

Choong, V.-E.

B. C. Krummacher, V.-E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506–113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

B. C. Krummacher, V.-E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506–113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, C. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

H. K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, S.-K. Kim, Y.-I. Park, J.-W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep blue, efficient, moderate-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Oh, S.-H. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced forward efficiency of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor from white light-emitting diodes using blue-pass yellow-reflection filter,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7450–7457 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-9-7450 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duggal, A.

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, C. Heller, and D. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, T.

B. C. Krummacher, V.-E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506–113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, and M. E. Thompson, “High-efficiency fluorescent organic light-emitting devices using a phosphorescent sensitizer,” Nature 403(6771), 750–753 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A Full-Color Transparent Metal-Free Stacked Organic Light Emitting Device with Simplified Pixel Biasing,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foust, D.

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, C. Heller, and D. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A Full-Color Transparent Metal-Free Stacked Organic Light Emitting Device with Simplified Pixel Biasing,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J.

Heller, C.

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, C. Heller, and D. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, C. S.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, K. H.

Hwang, S.-W.

C.-C. Chang, J.-F. Chen, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 253501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jermann, F.

B. C. Krummacher, V.-E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506–113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kamalasanan, M. N.

A. Misra, P. Kumar, M. N. Kamalasanan, and S. Chandra, “White organic LEDs and their recent advancements,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(7), R35–R47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, G. W.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. C.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

H. K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, S.-K. Kim, Y.-I. Park, J.-W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep blue, efficient, moderate-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-K.

H. K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, S.-K. Kim, Y.-I. Park, J.-W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep blue, efficient, moderate-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-C.

Ko, Y. W.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, B. C.

B. C. Krummacher, V.-E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506–113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

A. Misra, P. Kumar, M. N. Kamalasanan, and S. Chandra, “White organic LEDs and their recent advancements,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(7), R35–R47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, J.-G. Lee, Y.-C. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. Ha, J. S. Oh, S. Y. Lee, S. Y. Lee, K. H. Hwang, D. S. Zang, and Y. H. Lee, “Weak-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes with improved light out-coupling,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12632–12639 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-12632 .
[PubMed]

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-G.

H. K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, S.-K. Kim, Y.-I. Park, J.-W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep blue, efficient, moderate-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, J.-G. Lee, Y.-C. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. Ha, J. S. Oh, S. Y. Lee, S. Y. Lee, K. H. Hwang, D. S. Zang, and Y. H. Lee, “Weak-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes with improved light out-coupling,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12632–12639 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-12632 .
[PubMed]

Lee, J.-H.

H. K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, S.-K. Kim, Y.-I. Park, J.-W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep blue, efficient, moderate-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, N.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

Lee, Y. H.

Lee, Y.-H.

H. K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, S.-K. Kim, Y.-I. Park, J.-W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep blue, efficient, moderate-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Oh, S.-H. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced forward efficiency of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor from white light-emitting diodes using blue-pass yellow-reflection filter,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7450–7457 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-9-7450 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, J.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

S.-K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mathai, M. K.

B. C. Krummacher, V.-E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506–113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Misra, A.

A. Misra, P. Kumar, M. N. Kamalasanan, and S. Chandra, “White organic LEDs and their recent advancements,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(7), R35–R47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. R.

H. K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, S.-K. Kim, Y.-I. Park, J.-W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep blue, efficient, moderate-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Oh, S.-H. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced forward efficiency of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor from white light-emitting diodes using blue-pass yellow-reflection filter,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7450–7457 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-9-7450 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, J. S.

Park, J.-W.

H. K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, S.-K. Kim, Y.-I. Park, J.-W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep blue, efficient, moderate-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.-I.

H. K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, S.-K. Kim, Y.-I. Park, J.-W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep blue, efficient, moderate-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, G.

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A Full-Color Transparent Metal-Free Stacked Organic Light Emitting Device with Simplified Pixel Biasing,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

C. Adachi, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic electroluminescent device having a hole conductor as an emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(15), 1489–1491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shiang, J.

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, C. Heller, and D. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

B. C. Krummacher, V.-E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506–113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, C. Y.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610–3616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, and M. E. Thompson, “High-efficiency fluorescent organic light-emitting devices using a phosphorescent sensitizer,” Nature 403(6771), 750–753 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsutsui, T.

C. Adachi, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic electroluminescent device having a hole conductor as an emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(15), 1489–1491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. F.

Van Slyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610–3616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

S.-K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zachau, M.

B. C. Krummacher, V.-E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506–113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zang, D. S.

Zhu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A Full-Color Transparent Metal-Free Stacked Organic Light Emitting Device with Simplified Pixel Biasing,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, C. Heller, and D. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470–3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, V.-E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506–113508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chang, J.-F. Chen, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 253501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic electroluminescent device having a hole conductor as an emitting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(15), 1489–1491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610–3616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S.-K. Kim, B. Yang, Y. Ma, J.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Park, “Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(28), 3376–3384 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, and M. E. Thompson, “High-efficiency fluorescent organic light-emitting devices using a phosphorescent sensitizer,” Nature 403(6771), 750–753 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Org. Electron. (1)

H. K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, S.-K. Kim, Y.-I. Park, J.-W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep blue, efficient, moderate-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 11(1), 137–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Solidi A (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Misra, P. Kumar, M. N. Kamalasanan, and S. Chandra, “White organic LEDs and their recent advancements,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(7), R35–R47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters 3rd Edition, Institute of Physics Publishing (2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the proposed pc-WOLED combined with a microcavity structure and LRF. A single pair of SiO2 and TiO2 inserted in the blue OLED. On the front-side of the blue microcavity OLED, a YAG:Ce phosphor layer coated LRF glass substrate is attached with index matching immersion oil. The enlarged side view shows the mechanism that leads to enhancement of the forward emission from the YAG:Ce yellow phosphor layer and SEM images of the LRF. The upper inset shows the chemical structure of TAT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized EL spectra of a conventional OLED, moderate microcavity OLED, and YAG:Ce excitation spectrum. (b) The relative EL spectra of a conventional OLED and microcavity OLED.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured diffusive reflectance spectrum of LRF [0.5L(H)0.5L]9 (L: low index layer, SiO2 (53 nm) and H: high index layer, TiO2 (69 nm)) on glass substrates. The yellow PL spectrum of the YAG:Ce phosphor layer and blue EL spectra of a conventional and microcavity OLED.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Blue-conversion-white spectra of a conventional and three types of pc-WOLED corresponding to a 3.8 mg/cm2 sedimented phosphor layer at the normal direction. (b) Luminous efficacy-current density characteristics of the pc-WOLEDs at the normal direction. (c) The enhancement ratios of the luminous efficacy (conventional: 2.28 cd/A, B1: 2,29 cd/A, B2: 3.21 cd/A, B3: 4.38 cd/A) and the CIE 1931 coordinates and CCT at 10 mA/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular dependencies of (a) CIE 1931 color coordinates and (b) radiation patterns.

Equations (1)

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G [ 0.5 L(H)0 .5L ] m A

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