Abstract

Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy usually employs a scanning excitation beam that is superimposed by a donut-shaped STED beam for keeping the fluorophores at the periphery of the excitation spot dark. Here, we introduce a simple birefringent device that produces a donut-shaped focal spot with suitable polarization for STED, while leaving the excitation spot virtually intact. The device instantly converts a scanning (confocal) microscope with a co-aligned STED beam into a full-blown STED microscope. The donut can be adapted to reveal, through the resulting fluorescence image, the orientation of fluorophores in the sample, thus directly providing subdiffraction resolution images of molecular orientation.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Sted microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wildanger, R. Medda, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “A compact STED microscope providing 3D nanoscale resolution,” J. Microsc. 236(1), 35–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Menon, P. Rogge, and H.-Y. Tsai, “Design of diffractive lenses that generate optical nulls without phase singularities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(2), 297–304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wildanger, J. Bückers, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, and L. Kastrup, “A STED microscope aligned by design,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16100–16110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (5)

2006 (3)

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, “Nanoscale resolution in the focal plane of an optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(14), 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Phase filter enhanced STED-4Pi fluorescence microscopy: theory and experiment,” N. J. Phys. 7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Böhmer and J. Enderlein, “Orientation imaging of single molecules by wide-field epifluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by annular illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(21), 4482–4485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(Pt 2), 82–87 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(15), 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Ha, T. Enderle, S. Chemla, R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Single molecule dynamics studied by polarization modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(19), 3979–3982 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Andrei, M. A.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blanca, C. M.

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Böhmer, M.

M. Böhmer and J. Enderlein, “Orientation imaging of single molecules by wide-field epifluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, N.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, and M. Fujii, “Compact fluorescence depletion microscope system using an integrated optical element,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1850–1854 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bossi, M.

Bückers, J.

Chemla, S.

T. Ha, T. Enderle, S. Chemla, R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Single molecule dynamics studied by polarization modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(19), 3979–3982 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Daigoku, K.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dedecker, P.

Donnert, G.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dyba, M.

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Phase filter enhanced STED-4Pi fluorescence microscopy: theory and experiment,” N. J. Phys. 7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(15), 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eggeling, C.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Sted microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Testa, A. Schönle, C. von Middendorff, C. Geisler, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, A. C. Stiel, S. Jakobs, M. Bossi, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Nanoscale separation of molecular species based on their rotational mobility,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21093–21104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Egner, A.

I. Testa, A. Schönle, C. von Middendorff, C. Geisler, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, A. C. Stiel, S. Jakobs, M. Bossi, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Nanoscale separation of molecular species based on their rotational mobility,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21093–21104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(15), 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Enderle, T.

T. Ha, T. Enderle, S. Chemla, R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Single molecule dynamics studied by polarization modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(19), 3979–3982 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Enderlein, J.

P. Dedecker, B. Muls, J. Hofkens, J. Enderlein, and J. I. Hotta, “Orientational effects in the excitation and de-excitation of single molecules interacting with donut-mode laser beams,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3372–3383 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Patra, I. Gregor, and J. Enderlein, “Image Analysis of Defocused Single-Molecule Images for Three-Dimensional Molecule Orientation Studies,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108(33), 6836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Böhmer and J. Enderlein, “Orientation imaging of single molecules by wide-field epifluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, and M. Fujii, “Compact fluorescence depletion microscope system using an integrated optical element,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1850–1854 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geisler, C.

Gregor, I.

D. Patra, I. Gregor, and J. Enderlein, “Image Analysis of Defocused Single-Molecule Images for Three-Dimensional Molecule Orientation Studies,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108(33), 6836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(Pt 2), 82–87 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ha, T.

T. Ha, T. Enderle, S. Chemla, R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Single molecule dynamics studied by polarization modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(19), 3979–3982 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, K. Y.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Sted microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harke, B.

Hecht, B.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by annular illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(21), 4482–4485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Sted microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wildanger, R. Medda, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “A compact STED microscope providing 3D nanoscale resolution,” J. Microsc. 236(1), 35–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wildanger, J. Bückers, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, and L. Kastrup, “A STED microscope aligned by design,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16100–16110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wildanger, E. Rittweger, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy with a supercontinuum laser source,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9614–9621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Harke, J. Keller, C. K. Ullal, V. Westphal, A. Schönle, and S. W. Hell, “Resolution scaling in STED microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4154–4162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Testa, A. Schönle, C. von Middendorff, C. Geisler, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, A. C. Stiel, S. Jakobs, M. Bossi, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Nanoscale separation of molecular species based on their rotational mobility,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21093–21104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Keller, A. Schönle, and S. W. Hell, “Efficient fluorescence inhibition patterns for RESOLFT microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3361–3371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, “Far-field optical nanoscopy,” Science 316(5828), 1153–1158 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Phase filter enhanced STED-4Pi fluorescence microscopy: theory and experiment,” N. J. Phys. 7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, “Nanoscale resolution in the focal plane of an optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(14), 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(15), 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, “Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 19(11), 780–782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofkens, J.

Hotta, J. I.

Iketaki, Y.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, and M. Fujii, “Compact fluorescence depletion microscope system using an integrated optical element,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1850–1854 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, S. E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Sted microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, S.

Jahn, R.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jakobs, S.

I. Testa, A. Schönle, C. von Middendorff, C. Geisler, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, A. C. Stiel, S. Jakobs, M. Bossi, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Nanoscale separation of molecular species based on their rotational mobility,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21093–21104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(15), 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kastrup, L.

D. Wildanger, R. Medda, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “A compact STED microscope providing 3D nanoscale resolution,” J. Microsc. 236(1), 35–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wildanger, J. Bückers, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, and L. Kastrup, “A STED microscope aligned by design,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16100–16110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wildanger, E. Rittweger, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy with a supercontinuum laser source,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9614–9621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, J.

B. Harke, J. Keller, C. K. Ullal, V. Westphal, A. Schönle, and S. W. Hell, “Resolution scaling in STED microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4154–4162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Keller, A. Schönle, and S. W. Hell, “Efficient fluorescence inhibition patterns for RESOLFT microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3361–3371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Phase filter enhanced STED-4Pi fluorescence microscopy: theory and experiment,” N. J. Phys. 7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klar, T. A.

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(15), 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lieb, M. A.

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lührmann, R.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lumer, Y.

Machavariani, G.

Medda, R.

D. Wildanger, R. Medda, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “A compact STED microscope providing 3D nanoscale resolution,” J. Microsc. 236(1), 35–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Testa, A. Schönle, C. von Middendorff, C. Geisler, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, A. C. Stiel, S. Jakobs, M. Bossi, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Nanoscale separation of molecular species based on their rotational mobility,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21093–21104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meir, A.

Menon, R.

Moshe, I.

Muls, B.

Munro, P.

Novotny, L.

M. A. Lieb, J. M. Zavislan, and L. Novotny, “Single-molecule orientations determined by direct emission pattern imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1210–1215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by annular illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(21), 4482–4485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patra, D.

D. Patra, I. Gregor, and J. Enderlein, “Image Analysis of Defocused Single-Molecule Images for Three-Dimensional Molecule Orientation Studies,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108(33), 6836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rittweger, E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Sted microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wildanger, E. Rittweger, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy with a supercontinuum laser source,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9614–9621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rizzoli, S. O.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rogge, P.

Rust, M. J.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schönle, A.

Selvin, R.

T. Ha, T. Enderle, S. Chemla, R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Single molecule dynamics studied by polarization modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(19), 3979–3982 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sick, B.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by annular illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(21), 4482–4485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stiel, A. C.

Testa, I.

Török, P.

Tsai, H.-Y.

Ullal, C. K.

von Middendorff, C.

Watanabe, T.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, and M. Fujii, “Compact fluorescence depletion microscope system using an integrated optical element,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1850–1854 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S.

T. Ha, T. Enderle, S. Chemla, R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Single molecule dynamics studied by polarization modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(19), 3979–3982 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Westphal, V.

D. Wildanger, J. Bückers, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, and L. Kastrup, “A STED microscope aligned by design,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16100–16110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Harke, J. Keller, C. K. Ullal, V. Westphal, A. Schönle, and S. W. Hell, “Resolution scaling in STED microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4154–4162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, “Nanoscale resolution in the focal plane of an optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(14), 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wichmann, J.

Wildanger, D.

Wurm, C. A.

Zavislan, J. M.

Zhuang, X. W.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (2)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(Pt 2), 82–87 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Wildanger, R. Medda, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “A compact STED microscope providing 3D nanoscale resolution,” J. Microsc. 236(1), 35–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

D. Patra, I. Gregor, and J. Enderlein, “Image Analysis of Defocused Single-Molecule Images for Three-Dimensional Molecule Orientation Studies,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108(33), 6836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Phase filter enhanced STED-4Pi fluorescence microscopy: theory and experiment,” N. J. Phys. 7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Sted microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, and M. Fujii, “Compact fluorescence depletion microscope system using an integrated optical element,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1850–1854 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

M. Böhmer and J. Enderlein, “Orientation imaging of single molecules by wide-field epifluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

T. Ha, T. Enderle, S. Chemla, R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Single molecule dynamics studied by polarization modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(19), 3979–3982 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by annular illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(21), 4482–4485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, “Nanoscale resolution in the focal plane of an optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(14), 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(15), 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, “Far-field optical nanoscopy,” Science 316(5828), 1153–1158 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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