Abstract

We present a polarization-controlled terahertz(THz) spectroscopy method to characterize the birefringent materials. The polarization of THz wave was controlled by changing the relative phase of the fundamental and second-harmonic waves in the two-color laser-induced air plasma THz generation configuration. The optical axis orientation was investigated through detecting one component of the transmitted THz electric field by continuously changing the electric field direction of the linearly polarized incident THz wave. This work demonstrates that the polarization-controlled THz spectroscopy can be used to study the anisotropy of the inner structure for birefringent materials.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave amplification in gases with the excitation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (7)

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Polarization sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for birefringent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave generation from gas plasma using a phase compensator with attosecond phase-control accuracy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2037–2044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Terahertz wave polarization analyzer using birefringent materials,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20266–20271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave amplification in gases with the excitation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

N. C. J. van der Valk, W. A. van der Marel, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2802–2804 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Amer, W. C. Hurlbut, B. J. Norton, Y.-S. Lee, and T. B. Norris, “Generation of terahertz pulses with arbitrary elliptical polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

Amer, N.

N. Amer, W. C. Hurlbut, B. J. Norton, Y.-S. Lee, and T. B. Norris, “Generation of terahertz pulses with arbitrary elliptical polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

Bakker, H. J.

Brener, I.

Chen, H.-L.

Chen, H.-T.

Cook, D. J.

Cui, Y.

Dai, J.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave generation from gas plasma using a phase compensator with attosecond phase-control accuracy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave amplification in gases with the excitation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, C.

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Polarization sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for birefringent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Terahertz wave polarization analyzer using birefringent materials,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20266–20271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedosejevs, R.

Gallot, G.

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Hsieh, C. F.

Hsieh, C.-F.

Hurlbut, W. C.

N. Amer, W. C. Hurlbut, B. J. Norton, Y.-S. Lee, and T. B. Norris, “Generation of terahertz pulses with arbitrary elliptical polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jördens, C.

Karpowicz, N.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

Lai, Y. C.

Lee, Y.-S.

N. Amer, W. C. Hurlbut, B. J. Norton, Y.-S. Lee, and T. B. Norris, “Generation of terahertz pulses with arbitrary elliptical polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lindenberg, A. M.

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masson, J.-B.

Mikulics, M.

Nienhuys, H.-K.

Norris, T. B.

N. Amer, W. C. Hurlbut, B. J. Norton, Y.-S. Lee, and T. B. Norris, “Generation of terahertz pulses with arbitrary elliptical polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Norton, B. J.

N. Amer, W. C. Hurlbut, B. J. Norton, Y.-S. Lee, and T. B. Norris, “Generation of terahertz pulses with arbitrary elliptical polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

Pan, C. L.

Pan, C.-L.

Pan, R. P.

Pan, R.-P.

Peralta, X. G.

Planken, P. C. M.

Reid, M.

Scheller, M.

Smirnova, E. I.

Sun, W.

Tang, T.-T.

Taylor, A. J.

van der Marel, W. A.

van der Valk, N. C. J.

Wen, H.

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenckebach, T.

Wichmann, M.

Wiesauer, K.

Xie, X.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave amplification in gases with the excitation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Polarization sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for birefringent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Terahertz wave polarization analyzer using birefringent materials,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20266–20271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Terahertz wave polarization analyzer using birefringent materials,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20266–20271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Polarization sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for birefringent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave generation from gas plasma using a phase compensator with attosecond phase-control accuracy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave amplification in gases with the excitation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, Y.

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Terahertz wave polarization analyzer using birefringent materials,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20266–20271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Polarization sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for birefringent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Polarization sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for birefringent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Terahertz wave polarization analyzer using birefringent materials,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20266–20271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave amplification in gases with the excitation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, H. Zhong, C. Deng, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Polarization sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for birefringent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave generation from gas plasma using a phase compensator with attosecond phase-control accuracy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Amer, W. C. Hurlbut, B. J. Norton, Y.-S. Lee, and T. B. Norris, “Generation of terahertz pulses with arbitrary elliptical polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Y. Gong, H. Dong, M. Hong, O. Malini, P. S. P. Thong, R. Bhuvaneswari, “Polarization Effect in Liver Tissue in Terahertz Band,” IRMMW-THz (2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. L1-3: Lenses; P1-4: parabolic mirrors; QWP: quarter-wave plate; WP: wollaston prism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The emitted THz wave amplitude (black dot) and polarization angle with respect to the horizontal direction (white dot) versus the relative position of BBO. The dashed lines indicate the THz wave polarizations are horizontal and vertical when the BBO positions are at 0mm and 10mm respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The measured THz wave ellipticity after passing through a 5 mm quartz crystal within the effective frequency region (white dot). The dash lines indicate the extrema of the curve at 0.66, 1.29 and 1.87 THz. Calculated phase retardation between the two principal axes, with a priori knowledge of refractive indices, divided by π from 0.3 to 2.2 THz is also plotted as a reference (white dot). The arrows indicate the phase retardations at 0.66, 1.29 and 1.87THz are π, 2 π and 3 π , respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

THz electric field amplitude versus the relative position of BBO crystal at 0.66 THz (solid square), 1.29 THz (white dot) and 1.87 THz (solid triangle). The amplitudes at 1.87 THz are multiplied by 2 for clarity. The dashed lines indicate the transmission minima. The real optical axis orientation is 0 ° (a), 60 ° (b), 40 ° (c) and 130 ° (d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top: The waveform at 40°orientation; Bottom: the waveform at 130°orientation. The dashed lines indicate the pulse peaks corresponding to o and e rays.

Equations (3)

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Δ I ( α ) E T H z cos α
Δ ( f ) = Δ I max Δ I min Δ I max
δ = 2 π d f c ( n o n e )

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