Abstract

Visible electroluminescence (EL) with two composite bands, i.e., a violet band and a green-yellow band has been observed from Si-implanted silicon nitride thin films. By varying the intensity ratio of the two composite EL bands in terms of the injection current, strong white-color EL can be achieved at certain injection currents (e.g., ~265 mA/cm2). The observed transition in EL color from violet to white under different injection conditions is studied based on the understanding that the violet band is originated from silicon nitride matrix while the green-yellow band is related to the implanted Si. The Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film offers the possibility of electrically tunable white-light Si-based light emitters.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

H. P. Dong, D. Q. Wang, K. J. Chen, J. Huang, H. C. Sun, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Ma, “Field dependent electroluminescence from amorphous Si/SiNx multilayer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, J. D. Ye, Y. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. Liu, and S. Fung, “Optical transmission and photoluminescence of silicon nitride thin films implanted with Si ions,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(2), H38–H40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Evolution of electroluminescence from multiple Si-implanted silicon nitride films with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. H. Cen, Y. Liu, F. R. Zhu, and A. A. Tseng, “Relationship between current transport and electroluminescence in Si+-implanted SiO2 thin films,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(11), 2785–2791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Quenching and reaction of electroluminescence by charge trapping and detrapping in Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(12), 3212–3217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNx films. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si Metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wang, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, D. R. Yang, and D. L. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: Defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from silicon-rich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Yeh, W. H. Liu, S. Y. Lo, and J. W. Hong, “Voltage-tunable SiO2-isolated a-SiC:H and/or a-SiN:H p-i-n thin-film LEDs fabricated on c-Si,” Solid-State Electron. 50(9), 1495–1500 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films containing Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. E. Romero and M. Drndic, “Coulomb blockade and hopping conduction in PbSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 156801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.-Y. Chen, W.-H. Chen, and F. C.-N. Hong, “Visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in amorphous silicon nitride matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

Z. W. Pei, Y. R. Chang, and H. L. Hwang, “White electroluminescence from hydrogenated amorphous-SiNx thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 2839–2841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Photopoulos and A. G. Nassipoulou, “Room- and low-temperature voltage tunable electroluminescence from a single layer of silicon quantum dots in between two thin SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Kalinowski, P. Di Marco, M. Cocchi, V. Fattori, N. Camaioni, and J. Duff, “Voltage-tunable-color multilayer organic light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1984

J. Robertson and M. J. Powell, “Gap states in silicon-nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(4), 415–417 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Anopchenko, A.

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNx films. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Camaioni, N.

K. Kalinowski, P. Di Marco, M. Cocchi, V. Fattori, N. Camaioni, and J. Duff, “Voltage-tunable-color multilayer organic light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cen, Z. H.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Evolution of electroluminescence from multiple Si-implanted silicon nitride films with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. H. Cen, Y. Liu, F. R. Zhu, and A. A. Tseng, “Relationship between current transport and electroluminescence in Si+-implanted SiO2 thin films,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(11), 2785–2791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Quenching and reaction of electroluminescence by charge trapping and detrapping in Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(12), 3212–3217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, J. D. Ye, Y. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. Liu, and S. Fung, “Optical transmission and photoluminescence of silicon nitride thin films implanted with Si ions,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(2), H38–H40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. R.

Z. W. Pei, Y. R. Chang, and H. L. Hwang, “White electroluminescence from hydrogenated amorphous-SiNx thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 2839–2841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. J.

H. P. Dong, D. Q. Wang, K. J. Chen, J. Huang, H. C. Sun, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Ma, “Field dependent electroluminescence from amorphous Si/SiNx multilayer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-Y.

L.-Y. Chen, W.-H. Chen, and F. C.-N. Hong, “Visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in amorphous silicon nitride matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. P.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Quenching and reaction of electroluminescence by charge trapping and detrapping in Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(12), 3212–3217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. H. Cen, Y. Liu, F. R. Zhu, and A. A. Tseng, “Relationship between current transport and electroluminescence in Si+-implanted SiO2 thin films,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(11), 2785–2791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Evolution of electroluminescence from multiple Si-implanted silicon nitride films with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, J. D. Ye, Y. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. Liu, and S. Fung, “Optical transmission and photoluminescence of silicon nitride thin films implanted with Si ions,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(2), H38–H40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films containing Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-H.

L.-Y. Chen, W.-H. Chen, and F. C.-N. Hong, “Visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in amorphous silicon nitride matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K. S.

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cocchi, M.

K. Kalinowski, P. Di Marco, M. Cocchi, V. Fattori, N. Camaioni, and J. Duff, “Voltage-tunable-color multilayer organic light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from silicon-rich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Di Marco, P.

K. Kalinowski, P. Di Marco, M. Cocchi, V. Fattori, N. Camaioni, and J. Duff, “Voltage-tunable-color multilayer organic light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Evolution of electroluminescence from multiple Si-implanted silicon nitride films with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. H. Cen, Y. Liu, F. R. Zhu, and A. A. Tseng, “Relationship between current transport and electroluminescence in Si+-implanted SiO2 thin films,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(11), 2785–2791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Quenching and reaction of electroluminescence by charge trapping and detrapping in Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(12), 3212–3217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, J. D. Ye, Y. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. Liu, and S. Fung, “Optical transmission and photoluminescence of silicon nitride thin films implanted with Si ions,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(2), H38–H40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films containing Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, H. P.

H. P. Dong, D. Q. Wang, K. J. Chen, J. Huang, H. C. Sun, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Ma, “Field dependent electroluminescence from amorphous Si/SiNx multilayer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drndic, M.

H. E. Romero and M. Drndic, “Coulomb blockade and hopping conduction in PbSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 156801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duff, J.

K. Kalinowski, P. Di Marco, M. Cocchi, V. Fattori, N. Camaioni, and J. Duff, “Voltage-tunable-color multilayer organic light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fattori, V.

K. Kalinowski, P. Di Marco, M. Cocchi, V. Fattori, N. Camaioni, and J. Duff, “Voltage-tunable-color multilayer organic light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fung, S.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Evolution of electroluminescence from multiple Si-implanted silicon nitride films with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Quenching and reaction of electroluminescence by charge trapping and detrapping in Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(12), 3212–3217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, J. D. Ye, Y. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. Liu, and S. Fung, “Optical transmission and photoluminescence of silicon nitride thin films implanted with Si ions,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(2), H38–H40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films containing Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galli, G.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from silicon-rich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goh, W. P.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Quenching and reaction of electroluminescence by charge trapping and detrapping in Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(12), 3212–3217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Evolution of electroluminescence from multiple Si-implanted silicon nitride films with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hamel, S.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from silicon-rich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si Metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F. C.-N.

L.-Y. Chen, W.-H. Chen, and F. C.-N. Hong, “Visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in amorphous silicon nitride matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J. W.

R. H. Yeh, W. H. Liu, S. Y. Lo, and J. W. Hong, “Voltage-tunable SiO2-isolated a-SiC:H and/or a-SiN:H p-i-n thin-film LEDs fabricated on c-Si,” Solid-State Electron. 50(9), 1495–1500 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

H. P. Dong, D. Q. Wang, K. J. Chen, J. Huang, H. C. Sun, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Ma, “Field dependent electroluminescence from amorphous Si/SiNx multilayer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNx films. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. L.

Z. W. Pei, Y. R. Chang, and H. L. Hwang, “White electroluminescence from hydrogenated amorphous-SiNx thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 2839–2841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalinowski, K.

K. Kalinowski, P. Di Marco, M. Cocchi, V. Fattori, N. Camaioni, and J. Duff, “Voltage-tunable-color multilayer organic light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-H.

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.-Y.

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from silicon-rich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lau, H. W.

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films containing Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNx films. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. S.

M. H. Wang, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, D. R. Yang, and D. L. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: Defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

H. P. Dong, D. Q. Wang, K. J. Chen, J. Huang, H. C. Sun, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Ma, “Field dependent electroluminescence from amorphous Si/SiNx multilayer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. H.

R. H. Yeh, W. H. Liu, S. Y. Lo, and J. W. Hong, “Voltage-tunable SiO2-isolated a-SiC:H and/or a-SiN:H p-i-n thin-film LEDs fabricated on c-Si,” Solid-State Electron. 50(9), 1495–1500 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, J. D. Ye, Y. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. Liu, and S. Fung, “Optical transmission and photoluminescence of silicon nitride thin films implanted with Si ions,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(2), H38–H40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Quenching and reaction of electroluminescence by charge trapping and detrapping in Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(12), 3212–3217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Evolution of electroluminescence from multiple Si-implanted silicon nitride films with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. H. Cen, Y. Liu, F. R. Zhu, and A. A. Tseng, “Relationship between current transport and electroluminescence in Si+-implanted SiO2 thin films,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(11), 2785–2791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films containing Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, J. D. Ye, Y. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. Liu, and S. Fung, “Optical transmission and photoluminescence of silicon nitride thin films implanted with Si ions,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(2), H38–H40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Evolution of electroluminescence from multiple Si-implanted silicon nitride films with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Quenching and reaction of electroluminescence by charge trapping and detrapping in Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(12), 3212–3217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, S. Y.

R. H. Yeh, W. H. Liu, S. Y. Lo, and J. W. Hong, “Voltage-tunable SiO2-isolated a-SiC:H and/or a-SiN:H p-i-n thin-film LEDs fabricated on c-Si,” Solid-State Electron. 50(9), 1495–1500 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z. Y.

H. P. Dong, D. Q. Wang, K. J. Chen, J. Huang, H. C. Sun, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Ma, “Field dependent electroluminescence from amorphous Si/SiNx multilayer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nassipoulou, A. G.

P. Photopoulos and A. G. Nassipoulou, “Room- and low-temperature voltage tunable electroluminescence from a single layer of silicon quantum dots in between two thin SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.-M.

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNx films. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pei, Z. W.

Z. W. Pei, Y. R. Chang, and H. L. Hwang, “White electroluminescence from hydrogenated amorphous-SiNx thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 2839–2841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Photopoulos, P.

P. Photopoulos and A. G. Nassipoulou, “Room- and low-temperature voltage tunable electroluminescence from a single layer of silicon quantum dots in between two thin SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Powell, M. J.

J. Robertson and M. J. Powell, “Gap states in silicon-nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(4), 415–417 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prucnal, S.

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si Metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Que, D. L.

M. H. Wang, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, D. R. Yang, and D. L. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: Defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, J.

J. Robertson and M. J. Powell, “Gap states in silicon-nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(4), 415–417 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Romero, H. E.

H. E. Romero and M. Drndic, “Coulomb blockade and hopping conduction in PbSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 156801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, J. H.

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Skorupa, W.

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si Metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. C.

H. P. Dong, D. Q. Wang, K. J. Chen, J. Huang, H. C. Sun, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Ma, “Field dependent electroluminescence from amorphous Si/SiNx multilayer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. M.

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si Metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sung, G. Y.

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, A. A.

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. H. Cen, Y. Liu, F. R. Zhu, and A. A. Tseng, “Relationship between current transport and electroluminescence in Si+-implanted SiO2 thin films,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(11), 2785–2791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. Q.

H. P. Dong, D. Q. Wang, K. J. Chen, J. Huang, H. C. Sun, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Ma, “Field dependent electroluminescence from amorphous Si/SiNx multilayer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNx films. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. H.

M. H. Wang, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, D. R. Yang, and D. L. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: Defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, A.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from silicon-rich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, J. I.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, J. D. Ye, Y. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. Liu, and S. Fung, “Optical transmission and photoluminescence of silicon nitride thin films implanted with Si ions,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(2), H38–H40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. H. Cen, Y. Liu, F. R. Zhu, and A. A. Tseng, “Relationship between current transport and electroluminescence in Si+-implanted SiO2 thin films,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(11), 2785–2791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Evolution of electroluminescence from multiple Si-implanted silicon nitride films with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Quenching and reaction of electroluminescence by charge trapping and detrapping in Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(12), 3212–3217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films containing Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

H. P. Dong, D. Q. Wang, K. J. Chen, J. Huang, H. C. Sun, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Ma, “Field dependent electroluminescence from amorphous Si/SiNx multilayer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNx films. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. R.

M. H. Wang, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, D. R. Yang, and D. L. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: Defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, J. D. Ye, Y. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. Liu, and S. Fung, “Optical transmission and photoluminescence of silicon nitride thin films implanted with Si ions,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(2), H38–H40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Quenching and reaction of electroluminescence by charge trapping and detrapping in Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(12), 3212–3217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Evolution of electroluminescence from multiple Si-implanted silicon nitride films with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. H. Cen, Y. Liu, F. R. Zhu, and A. A. Tseng, “Relationship between current transport and electroluminescence in Si+-implanted SiO2 thin films,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(11), 2785–2791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J. D.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, J. D. Ye, Y. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. Liu, and S. Fung, “Optical transmission and photoluminescence of silicon nitride thin films implanted with Si ions,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(2), H38–H40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, R. H.

R. H. Yeh, W. H. Liu, S. Y. Lo, and J. W. Hong, “Voltage-tunable SiO2-isolated a-SiC:H and/or a-SiN:H p-i-n thin-film LEDs fabricated on c-Si,” Solid-State Electron. 50(9), 1495–1500 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J. H.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from silicon-rich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNx films. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. Z.

M. H. Wang, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, D. R. Yang, and D. L. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: Defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films containing Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, F. R.

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. H. Cen, Y. Liu, F. R. Zhu, and A. A. Tseng, “Relationship between current transport and electroluminescence in Si+-implanted SiO2 thin films,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(11), 2785–2791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Evolution of electroluminescence from multiple Si-implanted silicon nitride films with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Quenching and reaction of electroluminescence by charge trapping and detrapping in Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(12), 3212–3217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.-Y. Chen, W.-H. Chen, and F. C.-N. Hong, “Visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in amorphous silicon nitride matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from silicon-rich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wang, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, D. R. Yang, and D. L. Que, “Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: Defect-related states and silicon nanoclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Pei, Y. R. Chang, and H. L. Hwang, “White electroluminescence from hydrogenated amorphous-SiNx thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 2839–2841 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Dong, D. Q. Wang, K. J. Chen, J. Huang, H. C. Sun, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Ma, “Field dependent electroluminescence from amorphous Si/SiNx multilayer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kalinowski, P. Di Marco, M. Cocchi, V. Fattori, N. Camaioni, and J. Duff, “Voltage-tunable-color multilayer organic light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films containing Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Robertson and M. J. Powell, “Gap states in silicon-nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(4), 415–417 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si Metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Photopoulos and A. G. Nassipoulou, “Room- and low-temperature voltage tunable electroluminescence from a single layer of silicon quantum dots in between two thin SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(12), 1816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, J. D. Ye, Y. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. Liu, and S. Fung, “Optical transmission and photoluminescence of silicon nitride thin films implanted with Si ions,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(2), H38–H40 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Quenching and reaction of electroluminescence by charge trapping and detrapping in Si-implanted silicon nitride thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(12), 3212–3217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, M. Yang, J. I. Wong, Z. H. Cen, Y. Liu, F. R. Zhu, and A. A. Tseng, “Relationship between current transport and electroluminescence in Si+-implanted SiO2 thin films,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 56(11), 2785–2791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Wang, J. Huang, Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, D. Li, D. Yang, and L. Pavesi, “Light emission properties and mechanism of low-temperature prepared amorphous SiNx films. II. Defect states electroluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Evolution of electroluminescence from multiple Si-implanted silicon nitride films with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. E. Romero and M. Drndic, “Coulomb blockade and hopping conduction in PbSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 156801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron.

R. H. Yeh, W. H. Liu, S. Y. Lo, and J. W. Hong, “Voltage-tunable SiO2-isolated a-SiC:H and/or a-SiN:H p-i-n thin-film LEDs fabricated on c-Si,” Solid-State Electron. 50(9), 1495–1500 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersach, and U. Littmark, SRIM (Pergamon, New York, 2006). www.srim.org .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Distribution of the implanted Si ions in the Si3N4 thin film obtained from the SRIM simulation. b) A schematic of the light emitter structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EL spectra and photographs of the corresponding light emissions under different injection currents. Deconvolutions of the EL spectra are shown in the figure also.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Peak positions (λpeak or Epeak) (a), peak FWHM of the violet and green-yellow bands (b), the peak-intensity ratio Imax-GY / Imax-V of the green-yellow band to the violet band (c), and the integrated-EL-intensity ratio SGY / SV of the green-yellow band to the violet band (d) as a function of the injection current.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) I-V characteristic of the device. The power-law fitting yields ζ = 1.87, α0 = 0.52 mAcm−2V, and Vth = −12.4 V. (b) Integrated EL intensity as a function of the injection current.

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