Abstract

We report on the first demonstration of an optical waveguide amplifier in phospho-tellurite glass providing net gain at 1.5 μm. The device was fabricated using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser and exhibited internal gain across 100-nm bandwidth covering the entire C + L telecom bands.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
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  3. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by fs-laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5976–5982 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4523–4526 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. M. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3208–3217 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9443–9458 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  28. L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, “Influence of temperature and initial titanium dimensions on fiber Ti:lithium niobate waveguide insertion loss at 1.3 microns,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 131–136 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (Academic Press, 1998).

2010

2009

S. J. Madden and K. T. Vu, “Very low loss reactively ion etched Tellurium Dioxide planar rib waveguides for linear and non-linear optics,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17645–17651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Q. Khánh, S. Berneschi, I. Bányász, M. Brenci, M. Fried, G. Nunzi Conti, F. Pászti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and A. Watterich, “Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass via N+ ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267(12-13), 2327–2330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

S. Shen, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er(3+), Er(3+)/Eu(3+)+ and Er(3+)/Ce(3+) doped tellurite glass fibers,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5050–5054 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nandi, G. Jose, C. Jayakrishnan, S. Debbarma, K. Chalapathi, K. Alti, A. K. Dharmadhikari, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, “Femtosecond laser written channel waveguides in tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12145–12150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4523–4526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Raman characteristics and nonlinear optical properties of tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides with ultrabroad Raman bands,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023107–023106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Jaba, A. Mermet, E. Duval, and B. Champagnon, “Raman spectroscopy studies of Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10-11), 833–837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3208–3217 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5976–5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by fs-laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62(10), 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+ and Yb3+-Er3+ doped phosphate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 833–839 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1995

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Soejima, ““Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations,” J. Non-Crystal,” Solids 191, 115–123 (1995).

1992

S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, ““Local structure around rare-earth ions in indium- and lead-based fluoride glasses with high upconversion efficiency,” J. Non-Crystal,” Solids 143, 46–51 (1992).

1983

L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, “Influence of temperature and initial titanium dimensions on fiber Ti:lithium niobate waveguide insertion loss at 1.3 microns,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 131–136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

V. P. Gapontsev, S. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass laser and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14(4), 189–196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alti, K.

Ams, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ardelean, I.

N. Vedeanu, O. Cozar, I. Ardelean, B. Lendl, and D. A. Magdas, “Raman spectroscopic study of CuO-V2O5-P2O5-CaO glass system,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48(2), 259–262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bányász, I.

N. Q. Khánh, S. Berneschi, I. Bányász, M. Brenci, M. Fried, G. Nunzi Conti, F. Pászti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and A. Watterich, “Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass via N+ ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267(12-13), 2327–2330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beecher, S. J.

Berneschi, S.

N. Q. Khánh, S. Berneschi, I. Bányász, M. Brenci, M. Fried, G. Nunzi Conti, F. Pászti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and A. Watterich, “Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass via N+ ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267(12-13), 2327–2330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brenci, M.

N. Q. Khánh, S. Berneschi, I. Bányász, M. Brenci, M. Fried, G. Nunzi Conti, F. Pászti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and A. Watterich, “Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass via N+ ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267(12-13), 2327–2330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5976–5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by fs-laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chalapathi, K.

Champagnon, B.

N. Jaba, A. Mermet, E. Duval, and B. Champagnon, “Raman spectroscopy studies of Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10-11), 833–837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-J.

Chiodo, N.

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3208–3217 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cozar, O.

N. Vedeanu, O. Cozar, I. Ardelean, B. Lendl, and D. A. Magdas, “Raman spectroscopic study of CuO-V2O5-P2O5-CaO glass system,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48(2), 259–262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by fs-laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Debbarma, S.

Dekker, P.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, G.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Fernandez, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Jose, N. Chiodo, A. Jha, and P. Laporta, “Active waveguides written by femtosecond laser irradiation in an erbium-doped phospho-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15198–15205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5976–5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

Dharmadhikari, J. A.

Diez-Blanco, V.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4523–4526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duval, E.

N. Jaba, A. Mermet, E. Duval, and B. Champagnon, “Raman spectroscopy studies of Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10-11), 833–837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

Fernandez, T. T.

Florea, C.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fried, M.

N. Q. Khánh, S. Berneschi, I. Bányász, M. Brenci, M. Fried, G. Nunzi Conti, F. Pászti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and A. Watterich, “Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass via N+ ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267(12-13), 2327–2330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gapontsev, V. P.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass laser and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14(4), 189–196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, B.

Gisin, N.

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, ““Local structure around rare-earth ions in indium- and lead-based fluoride glasses with high upconversion efficiency,” J. Non-Crystal,” Solids 143, 46–51 (1992).

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S.

Huttner, B.

Hwang, B. C.

Isineev, A. A.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass laser and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14(4), 189–196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jaba, N.

N. Jaba, A. Mermet, E. Duval, and B. Champagnon, “Raman spectroscopy studies of Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10-11), 833–837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jayakrishnan, C.

Jha, A.

Jiang, S.

Jose, G.

Kar, A. K.

Khánh, N. Q.

N. Q. Khánh, S. Berneschi, I. Bányász, M. Brenci, M. Fried, G. Nunzi Conti, F. Pászti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and A. Watterich, “Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass via N+ ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267(12-13), 2327–2330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Killi, A.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5976–5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopf, D.

Kravchenko, V. B.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass laser and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14(4), 189–196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Fernandez, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Jose, N. Chiodo, A. Jha, and P. Laporta, “Active waveguides written by femtosecond laser irradiation in an erbium-doped phospho-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15198–15205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5976–5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by fs-laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, M.

Lendl, B.

N. Vedeanu, O. Cozar, I. Ardelean, B. Lendl, and D. A. Magdas, “Raman spectroscopic study of CuO-V2O5-P2O5-CaO glass system,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48(2), 259–262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Luo, T.

Madden, S. J.

Magdas, D. A.

N. Vedeanu, O. Cozar, I. Ardelean, B. Lendl, and D. A. Magdas, “Raman spectroscopic study of CuO-V2O5-P2O5-CaO glass system,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48(2), 259–262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by fs-laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, D.

Matitsin, S.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass laser and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14(4), 189–196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Maynard, R.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McCaughan, L.

L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, “Influence of temperature and initial titanium dimensions on fiber Ti:lithium niobate waveguide insertion loss at 1.3 microns,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 131–136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mermet, A.

N. Jaba, A. Mermet, E. Duval, and B. Champagnon, “Raman spectroscopy studies of Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10-11), 833–837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mochida, N.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Soejima, ““Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations,” J. Non-Crystal,” Solids 191, 115–123 (1995).

Morgner, U.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5976–5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, E. J.

L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, “Influence of temperature and initial titanium dimensions on fiber Ti:lithium niobate waveguide insertion loss at 1.3 microns,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 131–136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Murugan, G. S.

G. S. Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Raman characteristics and nonlinear optical properties of tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides with ultrabroad Raman bands,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023107–023106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62(10), 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nandi, P.

Naumov, A.

Ng, M. L.

Nunzi Conti, G.

N. Q. Khánh, S. Berneschi, I. Bányász, M. Brenci, M. Fried, G. Nunzi Conti, F. Pászti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and A. Watterich, “Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass via N+ ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267(12-13), 2327–2330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oberson, P.

Ohishi, Y.

G. S. Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Raman characteristics and nonlinear optical properties of tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides with ultrabroad Raman bands,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023107–023106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Fernandez, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Jose, N. Chiodo, A. Jha, and P. Laporta, “Active waveguides written by femtosecond laser irradiation in an erbium-doped phospho-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15198–15205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5976–5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by fs-laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pászti, F.

N. Q. Khánh, S. Berneschi, I. Bányász, M. Brenci, M. Fried, G. Nunzi Conti, F. Pászti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and A. Watterich, “Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass via N+ ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267(12-13), 2327–2330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

N. Q. Khánh, S. Berneschi, I. Bányász, M. Brenci, M. Fried, G. Nunzi Conti, F. Pászti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and A. Watterich, “Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass via N+ ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267(12-13), 2327–2330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Piper, J. A.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polli, D.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by fs-laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Psaila, N. D.

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by fs-laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

D. M. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3208–3217 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B.

Righini, G. C.

N. Q. Khánh, S. Berneschi, I. Bányász, M. Brenci, M. Fried, G. Nunzi Conti, F. Pászti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and A. Watterich, “Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass via N+ ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267(12-13), 2327–2330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sekiya, T.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Soejima, ““Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations,” J. Non-Crystal,” Solids 191, 115–123 (1995).

Shen, S.

S. Shen, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er(3+), Er(3+)/Eu(3+)+ and Er(3+)/Ce(3+) doped tellurite glass fibers,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5050–5054 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62(10), 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, J.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4523–4526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sikorski, Y.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soejima, A.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Soejima, ““Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations,” J. Non-Crystal,” Solids 191, 115–123 (1995).

Soga, N.

S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, ““Local structure around rare-earth ions in indium- and lead-based fluoride glasses with high upconversion efficiency,” J. Non-Crystal,” Solids 143, 46–51 (1992).

Solis, J.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4523–4526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sorbello, G.

Suzuki, T.

G. S. Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Raman characteristics and nonlinear optical properties of tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides with ultrabroad Raman bands,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023107–023106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5976–5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by fs-laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R. R.

Todoroki, S.

S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, ““Local structure around rare-earth ions in indium- and lead-based fluoride glasses with high upconversion efficiency,” J. Non-Crystal,” Solids 143, 46–51 (1992).

Vedeanu, N.

N. Vedeanu, O. Cozar, I. Ardelean, B. Lendl, and D. A. Magdas, “Raman spectroscopic study of CuO-V2O5-P2O5-CaO glass system,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48(2), 259–262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vu, K. T.

Watterich, A.

N. Q. Khánh, S. Berneschi, I. Bányász, M. Brenci, M. Fried, G. Nunzi Conti, F. Pászti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and A. Watterich, “Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass via N+ ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267(12-13), 2327–2330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Winick, K. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Surf. Sci.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4523–4526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by fs-laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, “Influence of temperature and initial titanium dimensions on fiber Ti:lithium niobate waveguide insertion loss at 1.3 microns,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 131–136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Raman characteristics and nonlinear optical properties of tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides with ultrabroad Raman bands,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023107–023106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

N. Jaba, A. Mermet, E. Duval, and B. Champagnon, “Raman spectroscopy studies of Er3+-doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10-11), 833–837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Photon. Rev.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B

N. Q. Khánh, S. Berneschi, I. Bányász, M. Brenci, M. Fried, G. Nunzi Conti, F. Pászti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and A. Watterich, “Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass via N+ ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267(12-13), 2327–2330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

S. J. Madden and K. T. Vu, “Very low loss reactively ion etched Tellurium Dioxide planar rib waveguides for linear and non-linear optics,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17645–17651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5976–5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, S. J. Beecher, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription of a high-gain Er-doped bismuthate glass waveguide amplifier,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13212–13219 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nandi, G. Jose, C. Jayakrishnan, S. Debbarma, K. Chalapathi, K. Alti, A. K. Dharmadhikari, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, “Femtosecond laser written channel waveguides in tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12145–12150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Fernandez, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Jose, N. Chiodo, A. Jha, and P. Laporta, “Active waveguides written by femtosecond laser irradiation in an erbium-doped phospho-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15198–15205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shen, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er(3+), Er(3+)/Eu(3+)+ and Er(3+)/Ce(3+) doped tellurite glass fibers,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5050–5054 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3208–3217 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9443–9458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Laser Technol.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass laser and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14(4), 189–196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62(10), 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Solids

S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, ““Local structure around rare-earth ions in indium- and lead-based fluoride glasses with high upconversion efficiency,” J. Non-Crystal,” Solids 143, 46–51 (1992).

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Soejima, ““Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations,” J. Non-Crystal,” Solids 191, 115–123 (1995).

Vib. Spectrosc.

N. Vedeanu, O. Cozar, I. Ardelean, B. Lendl, and D. A. Magdas, “Raman spectroscopic study of CuO-V2O5-P2O5-CaO glass system,” Vib. Spectrosc. 48(2), 259–262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Ramme, T. P. Anderson, J. Choi, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. C. Richardson, “Waveguide Writing and Characterization in Tellurite Glass,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. JWA4.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (Academic Press, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Fluorescence lifetime of the sample with 980nm wavelength excitation. (b) Absorption cross section of the 4I13/2 ←→ 4I15/2 erbium transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectrum (red curve) at 20°C and deconvoluted vibrational spectra (green curves) of the Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped phospho-tellurite glass. The spectrum was deconvoluted using Gaussian fitting peaks and interpolation base correction. Initially the peak positions (selected by referring to the literature cited by considering the composition of the glass) were held constant, with amplitude and area taken as variables. Then the peak positions were varied by 1 cm−1 to find the best fit with R2~1. The Reduced Chi-square value was 1.92265 x 10−6.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Overhead microscope image and (b) end facet cross-section of the optimum waveguide written with a speed of 4 mm/s and pulse energy of 130 nJ. The fs laser beam is incident along the y-axis and the sample is translated along the z axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Refractive index profile by RNF of optimum waveguide written with 130-nJ pulse energy and 4-mm/s scan speed. A 3D representation of the refractive index change distribution is shown in (a). Slices along x and y axis are shown in (b) and (c), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Guided mode profiles at 980 nm and 1600 nm wavelengths for (a) SMF, (b) waveguides written with 1-MHz repetition rate, 130-nJ pulse energy and scan speeds of 2, 4 and 6 mm/s. The total insertion loss of the waveguides is shown in the right column.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Experimental setup for active waveguide characterization in a bi-propagating pump scheme.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (a) Measured absorption spectrum (dotted line) of the 21-mm long active waveguide with enhancement (dashed line) and internal gain (solid line) at 400 mW total incident pump power. (b) Internal gain at 1534 nm (squares), 1550 nm (circles) and 1610 nm (triangles) as a function of incident pump power.

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