Abstract

We report on the experimental demonstration and analysis of a new waveguide principle using subwavelength gratings. Unlike other periodic waveguides such as line-defects in a 2D photonic crystal lattice, a subwavelength grating waveguide confines the light as a conventional index-guided structure and does not exhibit optically resonant behaviour. Subwavelength grating waveguides in silicon-on-insulator are fabricated with a single etch step and allow for flexible control of the effective refractive index of the waveguide core simply by lithographic patterning. Experimental measurements indicate a propagation loss as low as 2.1 dB/cm for subwavelength grating waveguides with negligible polarization and wavelength dependent loss, which compares favourably to conventional microphotonic silicon waveguides. The measured group index is nearly constant n g ~1.5 over a wavelength range exceeding the telecom C-band.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (3)

2009 (5)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

2005 (4)

E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Mapping the optical properties of slab-type two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, C. Walker, J. Witzens, L. C. Gunn, and A. Scherer, “Segmented waveguides in thin silicon-on-insulator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(7), 1493–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, “Optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces,” Opt. Rev. 10(2), 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, “2-D mode tapering via tapered channel waveguide segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 28(16), 1514–1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. Kuznetsov and H. A. Haus, “Radiation loss in dielectric waveguide structures by the volume current method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(10), 1505–1514 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Aitchison, J. S.

Aldariz, J. M.

Arbore, M. A.

Arnold, J. M.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bock, P. J.

Bogaerts, W.

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bona, G.-L.

Botten, L. C.

Cardenas, J.

Cassan, E.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. D.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, and K.-P. Yap, “Interference effect in scattering loss of high-index-contrast planar waveguides caused by boundary reflections,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1479–1481 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, “Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1794–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, E.

Chen, J. C.

Chen, L.

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Low loss etchless silicon photonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4752–4757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chigrin, D. N.

Chong, H.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1454–1456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. H.

De La Rue, R. M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1454–1456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Devenyi, A.

Dossou, K. B.

Dulkeith, E.

E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Mapping the optical properties of slab-type two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. Mcphedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Erni, D.

Fan, S.

Fejer, M. M.

Germann, R.

Gnan, M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Graham, A.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. Mcphedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, F.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, L. C.

Ha, S.

Halir, R.

Hall, T. J.

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardy, A.

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, “2-D mode tapering via tapered channel waveguide segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 28(16), 1514–1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

M. Kuznetsov and H. A. Haus, “Radiation loss in dielectric waveguide structures by the volume current method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(10), 1505–1514 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Huang, M. C. Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, S.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J.-P.

Janz, S.

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, and K.-P. Yap, “Interference effect in scattering loss of high-index-contrast planar waveguides caused by boundary reflections,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1479–1481 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, “Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1794–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jian, X.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Karnutsch, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. Mcphedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kikuta, H.

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, “Optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces,” Opt. Rev. 10(2), 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Koch, T. L.

Krauss, T. F.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. Mcphedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1454–1456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov and H. A. Haus, “Radiation loss in dielectric waveguide structures by the volume current method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(10), 1505–1514 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J. P. R.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Laval, S.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A. V.

Li, J.

Lipson, M.

Luan, P.-G.

Luyssaert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macintyre, D. S.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Massarek, I.

Mateus, C. F. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, D.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1454–1456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Mapping the optical properties of slab-type two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mcphedran, R.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. Mcphedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

Mitchell, A.

Molina-Fernández, I.

Mortensen, N. A.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. Mcphedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morthier, G.

Nguyen, T. G.

Notomi, M.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. Mcphedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O'Faolain, L.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1454–1456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

Ortega, D.

Pafchek, R.

Pascal, D.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

Post, E.

Preston, K.

Ramunno, L.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Scherer, A.

Schmid, J. H.

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L. C.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. Mcphedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spühler, M. M.

Sukhorukov, A. A.

Suzuki, Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teng, J.

Thoms, S.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1454–1456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. Mcphedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toyota, H.

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, “Optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces,” Opt. Rev. 10(2), 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tummidi, R.

Tummidi, R. S.

Van Campenhout, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Mapping the optical properties of slab-type two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldron, P.

Walker, C.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Watanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M. A.

Weissman, Z.

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, “2-D mode tapering via tapered channel waveguide segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 28(16), 1514–1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

Witzens, J.

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S. S.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. Mcphedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, and K.-P. Yap, “Interference effect in scattering loss of high-index-contrast planar waveguides caused by boundary reflections,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1479–1481 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, “Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1794–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yap, K.-P.

Yu, W.

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, “Optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces,” Opt. Rev. 10(2), 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1454–1456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhao, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. Mcphedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1454–1456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, “2-D mode tapering via tapered channel waveguide segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 28(16), 1514–1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kuznetsov and H. A. Haus, “Radiation loss in dielectric waveguide structures by the volume current method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(10), 1505–1514 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Low loss etchless silicon photonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4752–4757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, and A. Mitchell, “Lateral leakage of TM-like mode in thin-ridge Silicon-on-Insulator bent waveguides and ring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7243–7252 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ha, A. A. Sukhorukov, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. V. Lavrinenko, D. N. Chigrin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dispersionless tunneling of slow light in antisymmetric photonic crystal couplers,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1104–1114 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-G. Luan and K. D. Chang, “Transmission characteristics of finite periodic dielectric waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3263–3272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

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F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, “Optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces,” Opt. Rev. 10(2), 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Mapping the optical properties of slab-type two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Other (4)

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Advances in Optical Technologies: Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, 2008, Article ID 685489, doi:10.1155/2008/685489.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, “Highly efficient broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a sub-wavelength grating mirror,” in Frontiers in planar lightwave circuit technology, S. Janz et al., eds. (Springer, 2006), 235–243.

http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/MIT_Photonic_Bands .

S. Ha, A. A. Sukhorukov, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, A. V. Lavrinenko, D. N. Chigrin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Observation of Slow Light Tunneling in Coupled Periodic Waveguides,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper FWL3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a) a SWG waveguide and b) an equivalent strip waveguide. An effective material refractive index neff of the equivalent wire waveguide is determined by spatial averaging of refractive indexes of the waveguide core (Si) and the cladding (SiO2, SU-8, air, etc.) materials at a subwavelength scale. The resulting effective index can be controlled by lithography (changing grating duty ratio a/Λ, width w, etc.).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Calculated mode overlap integral as a function of mode profile position (z-coordinate). b) Overlap integral of the steady-state SWG mode profile with a wire waveguide of varying widths (160 nm – 300 nm). c) Mode profile of a wire waveguide (w = 300 nm, SiO2 upper cladding). d) Mode profile of a SWG waveguide (w = 300 nm, SiO2 upper cladding) at the center of a Si segment (x-y plane). e) Field propagating along the subwavelength grating, excited by the wire waveguide mode at λ = 1550 nm, for quasi-TE polarization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Calculated dispersion diagram of a SWG waveguide consisting of 150 nm long Si segments separated by 150 nm long gaps filled with SU-8 polymer (nSU-8 = 1.577). Lower cladding is silicon dioxide (nSiO2 = 1.444) and upper cladding is SU-8. Inset shows the group index of the TE and TM modes for a wavelength range of λ = 1480 nm – 1580 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Schematic of the test structure implemented for measuring the spectral response of a SWG straight waveguide with a length of 0.61 cm (equal to the chip length). b) Schematic of the test structure implemented for measuring propagation loss of a SWG straight waveguide. Wire waveguides (450 × 260 nm2) are transformed to the SWG straight waveguide using a 50 µm long taper with bridging segments, followed by a 0.5 cm long SWG with a constant pitch (Λ = 300 nm), width (w = 300 nm) and duty cycle (50%). An identical taper is used for the transition back to a wire waveguide and a 180° wire waveguide bend (radius of 20 µm) is used in the test structure to fit multiple 0.5 cm long SWG straight waveguides on the chip. The specific schematic shown in (b) has three SWG sections with a total length of 1.5 cm. c) Schematic of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) which was used to estimate the group index of a SWG straight waveguide. Mach-Zehnder interferometer reference arm is a wire waveguide (450 × 260 nm2), while the signal arm is comprised of a 50 µm SWG taper followed by a SWG waveguide (Λ = 300 nm and 400 nm, w = 300 nm, duty cycle 50%, length L = 1000 µm) and a SWG taper to transition back to wire waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of fabricated structures including: a) SWG straight waveguide with Λ = 300 nm, w = 250 nm and a duty cycle of 33%. b) Detail of two SWG segments. c) The first 13 µm of the 50 µm long SWG taper. d) Optical microscope image of a MZI (LSWG = 100 μm) with SEM image detail of the SWG arm and the reference arm (wire waveguide). Interferometric measurements (Fig. 7) were done with a MZI with a 1000 µm long SWG waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Transmission spectra of a 0.61 cm long SWG straight waveguide measured for TE (blue) and TM (red) polarizations. b) Loss for meander test structures [Fig. 4(b)] with 0.5 cm, 1.5 cm and 3.0 cm long SWG waveguides of Λ = 400 nm, measured using an ASE broadband source. c) SWG waveguide transmission spectra (TE polarization).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

MZI spectral transmittance. MZI with a Si wire waveguide reference arm and a 1000 µm long SWG waveguide signal arm, for TE (blue) and TM (red) polarizations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The calculated and measured group index for a SWG waveguide. The group index of the reference wire waveguide for TE (blue circle) and TM (red circle) polarizations is estimated with a mode solver (Optiwave Corp.) by calculating the effective index of a 400 × 260 nm2 waveguide with silicon core, SU-8 upper cladding and SiO2 bottom cladding. The calculated group indexes for both the SWG waveguide and a photonic wire channel waveguide are shown for comparison.

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