Abstract

Significant progress in high repetition rate ultrashort pulse sources based on fiber technology is presented. These systems enable operation at a high repetition rate of up to 500 kHz and high average power in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength range via high harmonic generation in a gas jet. High average power few-cycle pulses of a fiber amplifier pumped optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier are used to produce µW level average power for the strongest harmonic at 42.9 nm at a repetition rate of 96 kHz.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (2)

2009 (9)

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hädrich, J. Rothhardt, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High energy ultrashort pulses via hollow fiber compression of a fiber chirped pulse amplification system,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3913–3922 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3913 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Boullet, Y. Zaouter, J. Limpert, S. Petit, Y. Mairesse, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, E. Mével, E. Constant, and E. Cormier, “High-order harmonic generation at a megahertz-level repetition rate directly driven by an ytterbium-doped-fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1489–1491 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-9-1489 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1618–1620 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-11-1618 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, M. R. Gerrity, S. Backus, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, P. Arpin, X. Zhang, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Spatially coherent, phase matched, high-order harmonic EUV beams at 50 kHz,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17376–17383 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-20-17376 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Haarlammert and H. Zacharias, “Application of high harmonic radiation in surface science,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 13(1-2), 13–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 369–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, C. H. Nam, T. Mocek, and K. Jakubczak, “Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Colloquium: Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80(1), 117–140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-10-1099 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. Röser, T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, O. Schmidt, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy high repetition rate femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3495–3497 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-24-3495 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Scrinzi, M. Y. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Attosecond physics,” J. Phys. B 39(1), R1–R37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Eden, “High-order harmonic generation and other intense optical field-matter interactions: review of recent experimental and theoretical advances,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 28(3-4), 197–246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schätzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Strüder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of Nonadiabatic Blueshift of High Harmonics in an Intense Femtosecond Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Miyazaki and H. Takada, “High-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 52(4), 3007–3021 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Kraĭnov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an altering electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Agostini, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alahmed, Z. A.

Amirbekian, B.

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Kraĭnov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an altering electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Apolonski, A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-12-2052 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

Azzeer, A. M.

Backus, S.

Baer, C. R. E.

O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 369–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bandulet, H.-C.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benabid, F.

O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 369–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, B.

Bougeard, M.

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boullet, J.

Breger, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carre, B.

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cha, Y. H.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of Nonadiabatic Blueshift of High Harmonics in an Intense Femtosecond Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.-C.

Chubar, O.

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cocke, C. L.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comtois, D.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

Corkum, P. B.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cormier, E.

Couny, F.

O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 369–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Couprie, M.-E.

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Kraĭnov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an altering electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Dorrer, Ch.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Düsterer, S.

Eden, J.

J. Eden, “High-order harmonic generation and other intense optical field-matter interactions: review of recent experimental and theoretical advances,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 28(3-4), 197–246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eidam, T.

Fabre, B.

Feldhaus, J.

Fernandez, A.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E.

Gaarde, M. B.

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, E.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garzella, D.

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaudiosi, D. M.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgadiou, E.

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, G.

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Colloquium: Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80(1), 117–140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerrity, M. R.

Giguère, M.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobert, O.

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graf, R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schätzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Strüder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guilbaud, O.

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haarlammert, T.

T. Haarlammert and H. Zacharias, “Application of high harmonic radiation in surface science,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 13(1-2), 13–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hädrich, S.

Hänsch, T. W.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-12-2052 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hara, T.

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, R.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schätzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Strüder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, X.

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heckl, O. H.

O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 369–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, M.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heyl, C.

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Higuet, J.

Holler, M.

O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 369–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holtsnider, J.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, K. H.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of Nonadiabatic Blueshift of High Harmonics in an Intense Femtosecond Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, S.

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Y.

A. Scrinzi, M. Y. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Attosecond physics,” J. Phys. B 39(1), R1–R37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jakubczak, K.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, C. H. Nam, T. Mocek, and K. Jakubczak, “Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajumba, N.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

M.-C. Chen, M. R. Gerrity, S. Backus, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, P. Arpin, X. Zhang, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Spatially coherent, phase matched, high-order harmonic EUV beams at 50 kHz,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17376–17383 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-20-17376 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1618–1620 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-11-1618 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 369–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.-C.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

A. Scrinzi, M. Y. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Attosecond physics,” J. Phys. B 39(1), R1–R37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I. J.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, C. H. Nam, T. Mocek, and K. Jakubczak, “Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. W.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T. K.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, C. H. Nam, T. Mocek, and K. Jakubczak, “Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitamura, H.

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Kraĭnov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an altering electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Kränkel, C.

O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 369–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-12-2052 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krebs, M.

L’Huillier, A.

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Labat, M.

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, G.

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

La-O-Vorakiat, C.

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1618–1620 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-11-1618 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Le Blanc, C.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. G.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of Nonadiabatic Blueshift of High Harmonics in an Intense Femtosecond Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E.

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. H.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, C. H. Nam, T. Mocek, and K. Jakubczak, “Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, C. H. Nam, T. Mocek, and K. Jakubczak, “Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Légaré, F.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Light, P.

O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 369–373 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

Strüder, L.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schätzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Strüder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
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A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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J. Phys. B (1)

A. Scrinzi, M. Y. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Attosecond physics,” J. Phys. B 39(1), R1–R37 (2006).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

G. Lambert, T. Hara, D. Garzella, T. Tanikawa, M. Labat, B. Carre, H. Kitamura, T. Shintake, M. Bougeard, S. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, P. Salieres, H. Merdji, O. Chubar, O. Gobert, K. Tahara, and M.-E. Couprie, “Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 296–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
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Opt. Express (3)

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Phys. Rev. A (3)

K. Miyazaki and H. Takada, “High-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 52(4), 3007–3021 (1995).
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F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schätzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Strüder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
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Other (1)

http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/filter2.html

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. Different high repetition rate driving laser sources are focused with a focusing element (lens or mirror) onto a gas jet (Argon or Krypton) which is provided by a gas nozzle with a diameter of about 50 µm. The fundamental light is blocked by a 200 nm thick aluminium filter. Spectral analysis is performed by a grazing incidence monochromator (McPherson 248/310G) and a channel electron multiplier (Photonics CEM 5900 SL Magnum).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

HHG with fiber chirped pulse amplification system. The harmonic signal intensity with respect to the wavelength is shown for 4 different repetition rates of 500 kHz, 200 kHz, 100 kHz and 50 kHz. The spectra have been obtained by focusing the output of the fiber chirped pulse amplification system onto an argon gas jet. The same pulse duration of 800 fs and focal spot size of 45 µm (1/e2 intensity diameter) was used for all repetition rates while the pulse energies were 100 µJ (500 kHz), 150 µJ (200 kHz), 300 µJ (100 kHz) and 400 µJ (50 kHz). At the highest repetition rate of 500 kHz the spectrum is an average of 4 consecutive scans and a lower spectrometer resolution has been used to improve the signal to noise ratio. The highest order harmonics observed are the 27th (38.1 nm, 500 kHz), the 33th (31.2 nm, 200 kHz), the 39th (26.4 nm, 100 kHz) and the 43rd (23.9 nm, 50 kHz).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

HHG with post-compressed pulses. The nonlinear compression of a fiber chirped pulse amplification system is used to shorten 400 µJ, 800 fs pulses to 200 µJ, 51 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 50 kHz. They are focused to a focal spot diameter of 50 µm (1/e2 intensity diameter) onto a krypton gas jet. The left side shows the short wavelength part of the harmonic spectrum (right side). The shortest wavelength that has been observed is the 47th harmonic at 21.9 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

HHG with few-cycle laser pulses. An optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system generates few-cycle laser pulses with 53 µJ pulse energy, 8 fs pulse duration at a repetition rate of 96 kHz. These pulses are focused to a focal spot size of 69 µm x 91 µm (1/e2 intensity diameter) onto a krypton gas jet. The left side shows the short wavelength part of the harmonics spectrum together with the expected harmonic wavelength (dashed gray line). The shortest wavelength that has been observed is the 35th harmonic at 20.1 nm which is blueshifted.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Overview of the laser systems used for high harmonic generation (FCPA – fiber chirped pulse amplifcation system, NC-FCPA – nonlinear compressed fiber chirped pulse amplification system, OPCPA – optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experimental results of high harmonic generation with the laser systems presented in Table 1. Note that the shortest harmonic with the FCPA system has been obtained with argon gas. The estimation of conversion efficiency has been carried out based upon the method described in section 2 and Krypton is used for all three laser systems.

Equations (4)

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N p h = A G C E M g η e η g t A l ,
θ H H G min = arc tan ( λ H H G π ω H H G ) ,
θ H H G max = λ H H G π ω H H G 1 + 4 α 2 I 0 2 ω H H G 4 ω 0 4 ,
T e min / max = 2 Φ 0 ( w e z ϑ min / max ) ,

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