Abstract

We present a detailed discussion of a recently demonstrated experimental technique capable of measuring the correlation function of a pulsed light source with picosecond time resolution. The measurement involves a streak camera in single photon counting mode, which is modified such that a signal at a fixed repetition rate, and well defined energy, can be monitored after each pulsed laser excitation. The technique provides further insight into the quantum optical properties of pulsed light emission from semiconductor nanostructures, and the dynamics inside a pulse, on the sub-nanosecond time scale.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. U. M. Titulaer and R. J. Glauber, “Correlation functions for coherent fields,” Phys. Rev. B 140(3B), 676–682 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Mandel, “Sub-Poissonian photon statistics in resonance fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 4(7), 205–207 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Loudon, “Non-classical effects in the statistical properties of light,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 43(7), 913–949 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Paul, “Photon antibunching,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 54(4), 1061–1102 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177(4497), 27–29 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, “Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39(11), 691–695 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
  11. Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Assmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, M. van der Poel, and J. M. Hvam, “Higher-order photon bunching in a semiconductor microcavity,” Science 325(5938), 297–300 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Boitier, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, and C. Fabre, “Measuring photon bunching at ultrashort timescale by two-photon absorption in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 5(4), 267–270 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Hayat, A. Nevet, and M. Orenstein, “Ultrafast partial measurement of fourth-order coherence by HBT interferometry of upconversion-based autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 793–795 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Aßmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Ultrafast tracking of second-order photon correlations in the emission of quantum-dot microresonator lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165314 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Li, T. C. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. M. Wang, “Photon statistics of light fields based on single-photon-counting modules,” Phys. Rev. A 71(2), 023807 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010

M. Aßmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Ultrafast tracking of second-order photon correlations in the emission of quantum-dot microresonator lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Hayat, A. Nevet, and M. Orenstein, “Ultrafast partial measurement of fourth-order coherence by HBT interferometry of upconversion-based autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 793–795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Assmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, M. van der Poel, and J. M. Hvam, “Higher-order photon bunching in a semiconductor microcavity,” Science 325(5938), 297–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Boitier, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, and C. Fabre, “Measuring photon bunching at ultrashort timescale by two-photon absorption in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 5(4), 267–270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

G. Li, T. C. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. M. Wang, “Photon statistics of light fields based on single-photon-counting modules,” Phys. Rev. A 71(2), 023807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

H. Paul, “Photon antibunching,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 54(4), 1061–1102 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

R. Loudon, “Non-classical effects in the statistical properties of light,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 43(7), 913–949 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

1977

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, “Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39(11), 691–695 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1965

U. M. Titulaer and R. J. Glauber, “Correlation functions for coherent fields,” Phys. Rev. B 140(3B), 676–682 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1956

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177(4497), 27–29 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1946

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Andreani, L. C.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aßmann, M.

M. Aßmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Ultrafast tracking of second-order photon correlations in the emission of quantum-dot microresonator lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Assmann, M.

M. Assmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, M. van der Poel, and J. M. Hvam, “Higher-order photon bunching in a semiconductor microcavity,” Science 325(5938), 297–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aßmann, M.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayer, M.

M. Aßmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Ultrafast tracking of second-order photon correlations in the emission of quantum-dot microresonator lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Assmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, M. van der Poel, and J. M. Hvam, “Higher-order photon bunching in a semiconductor microcavity,” Science 325(5938), 297–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beattie, N. S.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Becher, C.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berstermann, T.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boitier, F.

F. Boitier, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, and C. Fabre, “Measuring photon bunching at ultrashort timescale by two-photon absorption in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 5(4), 267–270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmeester, D.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y. S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, K.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, “Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39(11), 691–695 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, C.

F. Boitier, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, and C. Fabre, “Measuring photon bunching at ultrashort timescale by two-photon absorption in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 5(4), 267–270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

M. Aßmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Ultrafast tracking of second-order photon correlations in the emission of quantum-dot microresonator lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gies, C.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glauber, R. J.

U. M. Titulaer and R. J. Glauber, “Correlation functions for coherent fields,” Phys. Rev. B 140(3B), 676–682 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Godard, A.

F. Boitier, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, and C. Fabre, “Measuring photon bunching at ultrashort timescale by two-photon absorption in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 5(4), 267–270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hanbury Brown, R.

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177(4497), 27–29 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Hayat, A.

Hennessy, K.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höfling, S.

M. Aßmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Ultrafast tracking of second-order photon correlations in the emission of quantum-dot microresonator lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hommel, D.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, E.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, E. L.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hvam, J. M.

M. Assmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, M. van der Poel, and J. M. Hvam, “Higher-order photon bunching in a semiconductor microcavity,” Science 325(5938), 297–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jahnke, F.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalden, J.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kardynal, B. E.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, “Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39(11), 691–695 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kiraz, A.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kistner, C.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruse, C.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

G. Li, T. C. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. M. Wang, “Photon statistics of light fields based on single-photon-counting modules,” Phys. Rev. A 71(2), 023807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

G. Li, T. C. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. M. Wang, “Photon statistics of light fields based on single-photon-counting modules,” Phys. Rev. A 71(2), 023807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lobo, C. J.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, “Non-classical effects in the statistical properties of light,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 43(7), 913–949 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel, “Sub-Poissonian photon statistics in resonance fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 4(7), 205–207 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, “Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39(11), 691–695 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Michler, P.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nevet, A.

Orenstein, M.

Paul, H.

H. Paul, “Photon antibunching,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 54(4), 1061–1102 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Rakher, M. T.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitzenstein, S.

M. Aßmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Ultrafast tracking of second-order photon correlations in the emission of quantum-dot microresonator lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritchie, D. A.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

F. Boitier, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, and C. Fabre, “Measuring photon bunching at ultrashort timescale by two-photon absorption in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 5(4), 267–270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, C.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Aßmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460(7252), 245–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, A. J.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, R. M.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strauf, S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Titulaer, U. M.

U. M. Titulaer and R. J. Glauber, “Correlation functions for coherent fields,” Phys. Rev. B 140(3B), 676–682 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Twiss, R. Q.

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177(4497), 27–29 (1956).
[CrossRef]

van der Poel, M.

M. Assmann, F. Veit, M. Bayer, M. van der Poel, and J. M. Hvam, “Higher-order photon bunching in a semiconductor microcavity,” Science 325(5938), 297–300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veit, F.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Raw integrated (upper panel) and single-shot (lower panel) data acquired in intensity correlation measurements using a streak camera. The streak bins are shown with dark borders in the upper panel. The vertical distance between two green lines illustrates the pixel binning within the individual streak bins. Here the 700 ps streak bins are divided into 30 time bins. The insets show magnified time bins containing several photon combinations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the number of detected photon pairs inside a time bin and the square of the mean photon number per time bin. The measured photon pair number has been multiplied by 2 and error-corrected as described in the text. Twenty time bins inside a 300 ps time window with slowly varying mean intensity have been chosen to exclude timing jitter effects. The data set used is the same, which was used for the 4mW excitation power data shown in Fig. 4 of reference [12].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical example for the jitter-affected shape of g j ( 2 ) ( τ ) shown as a black curve. The x-axis gives the delay τ for the black curve or the time t for all other curves. Red and blue curves give the photon pair count rates and squared mean photon count rates, respectively. The green curve gives the constant background noise count rate. The resulting g j ( 2 ) ( τ ) shows values larger, smaller and equal to unity, depending on which of the count rates gives the dominant contribution at a given τ .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Jitter-induced autocorrelation trace of a laser pulse at a wavelength of 768 nm with FWHM of 3.34 ps (corresponding to a standard deviation of 1.42 ps) for gain settings of 40 (left panel) and 42 (right panel). Experimental results for low and high threshold settings are shown as black and red dots, respectively. Solid lines represent fits to g j ( 2 ) ( τ ) . The red lines correspond to fits for J = 1.38 ps, W = 1.42 ps and r n = 0.0033. The black line corresponds to a fit for J = 1.81 ps, W = 1.42 ps and r n = 0.0015.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated second-order (black lines) and third-order (red lines) jitter-influenced correlation functions on a logarithmic scale. Solid and dashed lines represent coherent and thermal light, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated second order jitter-influenced, time-resolved correlation functions of a coherent pulse for fixed values of J =1.38 ps and r n =0.0033. Black, red and blue lines represent values of W =1.42, 2 and 4 ps, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated correlation function g I R F ( 2 ) ( 0 ) as a function of the ratio of the detector temporal resolution and the signal coherence time for thermal light with g ( 2 ) ( 0 ) = 2.

Equations (2)

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g ( 2 ) ( t , τ ) = a ^ ( t ) a ^ ( t + τ ) a ^ ( t ) a ^ ( t + τ ) a ^ ( t ) a ^ ( t ) a ^ ( t + τ ) a ^ ( t + τ ) ,
g ( 2 ) ( τ ) = 1 + | g ( 1 ) ( τ ) | 2

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