Abstract

Transmission of electromagnetic waves through thick perfect conducting slabs perforated by one-dimensional arrays of rectangular holes was studied experimentally in the microwave frequency range. The observed thickness-dependent transmission clearly exhibits the evanescent and propagating nature of the involved electromagnetic excitations on the considered structures, which are effective surface plasmons and localized waveguide resonances, respectively. The 1D crystals showing transmission based on localized resonances further manifests the frequency-dependent effective refractive index depending on the filling ratio of the holes and accompanies resonant guided wave propagation.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(23), 233901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, L. Eurenius, E. Olsson, and M. Kall, “Optical antennas based on coupled nanoholes in thin metal films,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 884–889 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Evanescent tunneling of an effective surface plasmon excited by convection electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147402 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martın-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: newplasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Waveguide arrays as plasmonic metamaterials: transmission below cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 073904 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. The travelling wave tube amplifier with ~60 dB gain was unavailable during the experiment for Fig. 2. This seriously lowered the signal levels compared to noise level, which caused the results in Fig. 2 to be noisy compared to those in Fig. 4.
  22. A. Mary, S. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. García-Vidal “Theory of light transmission through an array of rectangular holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195414 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. S. T. Microwave Studio, ®, © 2008 CST - Computer Simulation Technology, Wellesley Hills, MA, USA, www.cst.com .
  24. P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 48 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 197401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (7)

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Superradiant terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation from surface plasmon excited by counterstreaming electron beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Evanescent tunneling of an effective surface plasmon excited by convection electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, J. H. Won, and G. S. Park, “Frequency-dependent refractive index of one-dimensionally structured thick metal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Slow electromagnetic wave guided in subwavelength region along one-dimensional periodically structured metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, L. Eurenius, E. Olsson, and M. Kall, “Optical antennas based on coupled nanoholes in thin metal films,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 884–889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mary, S. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. García-Vidal “Theory of light transmission through an array of rectangular holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Waveguide arrays as plasmonic metamaterials: transmission below cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 073904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(23), 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martın-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: newplasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Resonant transmission of light through finite chains of subwavelength holes in a metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(22), 227401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Finite size effect of transmission property for metal hole arrays in subterahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2742–2744 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

Alaverdyan, Y.

Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, L. Eurenius, E. Olsson, and M. Kall, “Optical antennas based on coupled nanoholes in thin metal films,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 884–889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Astilean, S.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bravo-Abad, J.

F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, F. de Léon-Pérez, J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Efficiency and finite size effects in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9571–9579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Resonant transmission of light through finite chains of subwavelength holes in a metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(22), 227401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catrysse, P. B.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Léon-Pérez, F.

Degiron, A.

F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, F. de Léon-Pérez, J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Efficiency and finite size effects in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9571–9579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, F. de Léon-Pérez, J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Efficiency and finite size effects in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9571–9579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eurenius, L.

Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, L. Eurenius, E. Olsson, and M. Kall, “Optical antennas based on coupled nanoholes in thin metal films,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 884–889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martın-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: newplasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F.

A. Mary, S. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. García-Vidal “Theory of light transmission through an array of rectangular holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, F. de Léon-Pérez, J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Efficiency and finite size effects in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9571–9579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Resonant transmission of light through finite chains of subwavelength holes in a metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(22), 227401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, F. de Léon-Pérez, J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Efficiency and finite size effects in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9571–9579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grupp, D. E.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Finite size effect of transmission property for metal hole arrays in subterahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2742–2744 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hibbins, A. P.

A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Waveguide arrays as plasmonic metamaterials: transmission below cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 073904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooper, I. R.

A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Waveguide arrays as plasmonic metamaterials: transmission below cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 073904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K. H.

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Superradiant terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation from surface plasmon excited by counterstreaming electron beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Evanescent tunneling of an effective surface plasmon excited by convection electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeoung, S. C.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kall, M.

Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, L. Eurenius, E. Olsson, and M. Kall, “Optical antennas based on coupled nanoholes in thin metal films,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 884–889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D. H.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khim, K. S.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koerkamp, K. J.

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lockyear, M. J.

A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Waveguide arrays as plasmonic metamaterials: transmission below cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 073904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martın-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: newplasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, F. de Léon-Pérez, J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Efficiency and finite size effects in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9571–9579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mary, S. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. García-Vidal “Theory of light transmission through an array of rectangular holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Resonant transmission of light through finite chains of subwavelength holes in a metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(22), 227401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mary, A.

A. Mary, S. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. García-Vidal “Theory of light transmission through an array of rectangular holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Finite size effect of transmission property for metal hole arrays in subterahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2742–2744 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moller, K. D.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

Olsson, E.

Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, L. Eurenius, E. Olsson, and M. Kall, “Optical antennas based on coupled nanoholes in thin metal films,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 884–889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palamaru, M.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, G. S.

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Superradiant terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation from surface plasmon excited by counterstreaming electron beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, J. H. Won, and G. S. Park, “Frequency-dependent refractive index of one-dimensionally structured thick metal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Evanescent tunneling of an effective surface plasmon excited by convection electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martın-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: newplasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Przybilla, F.

F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, F. de Léon-Pérez, J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Efficiency and finite size effects in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9571–9579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Slow electromagnetic wave guided in subwavelength region along one-dimensional periodically structured metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(23), 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigo, S.

A. Mary, S. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. García-Vidal “Theory of light transmission through an array of rectangular holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Z.

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Slow electromagnetic wave guided in subwavelength region along one-dimensional periodically structured metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(23), 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sambles, J. R.

A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Waveguide arrays as plasmonic metamaterials: transmission below cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 073904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segerink, F. B.

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, M. A.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sepulveda, B.

Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, L. Eurenius, E. Olsson, and M. Kall, “Optical antennas based on coupled nanoholes in thin metal films,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 884–889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J. T.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, Y. M.

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, J. H. Won, and G. S. Park, “Frequency-dependent refractive index of one-dimensionally structured thick metal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Superradiant terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation from surface plasmon excited by counterstreaming electron beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Evanescent tunneling of an effective surface plasmon excited by convection electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, J. K.

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Evanescent tunneling of an effective surface plasmon excited by convection electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Superradiant terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation from surface plasmon excited by counterstreaming electron beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, J. H. Won, and G. S. Park, “Frequency-dependent refractive index of one-dimensionally structured thick metal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A.

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Superradiant terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation from surface plasmon excited by counterstreaming electron beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Evanescent tunneling of an effective surface plasmon excited by convection electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Won, J. H.

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Evanescent tunneling of an effective surface plasmon excited by convection electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, J. H. Won, and G. S. Park, “Frequency-dependent refractive index of one-dimensionally structured thick metal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Superradiant terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation from surface plasmon excited by counterstreaming electron beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Finite size effect of transmission property for metal hole arrays in subterahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2742–2744 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Superradiant terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation from surface plasmon excited by counterstreaming electron beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, J. H. Won, and G. S. Park, “Frequency-dependent refractive index of one-dimensionally structured thick metal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Slow electromagnetic wave guided in subwavelength region along one-dimensional periodically structured metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, “One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martın-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: newplasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (2)

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, L. Eurenius, E. Olsson, and M. Kall, “Optical antennas based on coupled nanoholes in thin metal films,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 884–889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mary, S. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. García-Vidal “Theory of light transmission through an array of rectangular holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Waveguide arrays as plasmonic metamaterials: transmission below cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 073904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Shin, J. K. So, K. H. Jang, J. H. Won, A. Srivastava, and G. S. Park, “Evanescent tunneling of an effective surface plasmon excited by convection electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(23), 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Resonant transmission of light through finite chains of subwavelength holes in a metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(22), 227401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

The travelling wave tube amplifier with ~60 dB gain was unavailable during the experiment for Fig. 2. This seriously lowered the signal levels compared to noise level, which caused the results in Fig. 2 to be noisy compared to those in Fig. 4.

C. S. T. Microwave Studio, ®, © 2008 CST - Computer Simulation Technology, Wellesley Hills, MA, USA, www.cst.com .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the 1D array of rectangular holes with the considered coordinates system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured normalized-to-area transmission spectra based on effective surface plasmons, d = 35 mm. The reduction of peak height according to the increase of the thickness shows the evanescent nature of the waves involved in the transmission. (b) Measured normalized-to-area transmission spectra based on localized resonances, d = 27 mm. The increasing number of transmission peaks shows the propagating characteristics of the involved excitation

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The contour plots of electric field magnitude shows clearly (a) the evanescent field profile of effective surface plasmons for d = 35 mm and (b) the waveguide mode for d = 27 mm at the resonant wavelengths when the thickness is 50 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized transmission spectra for 200 mm thick samples with different filling ratios: d/a = 6.75, 7.5, and 8.75.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectra of guided wave propagation on samples with d = 27 mm while varying the thickness. (b) Comparison of peak frequencies in the farfield transmission and guided wave propagation spectra for the 200 mm thick sample.

Equations (1)

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n = n 0 q α 0 ,

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