Abstract

We demonstrate a highly efficient and high power Ho3+-doped fluoride glass fiber laser that is resonantly pumped with a Tm3+-doped silicate glass fiber laser operating at 2.051 µm. The laser operates at 2080 nm and generated 6.66 W at a slope efficiency of 72%. We observe strong visible upconversion fluorescence centered at a variety of wavelengths including 491 nm which results from three sequential energy transfer upconversion processes; the fluorescence to pump energy ratio for this emission is one the largest reported to date.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-µm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-µm holmium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(4), 629–635 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Schellhorn, A. Hirth, and C. Kieleck, “Ho:YAG laser intracavity pumped by a diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1933–1935 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho: YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm: silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient in-band pumped Ho:LuLiF4 2 µ m laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 420–422 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. D. Jackson, “Midinfrared holmium fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 187–191 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. D. Jackson, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Directly diode-pumped holmium fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2496–2498 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, A. Hemming, S. Bennetts, and D. G. Lancaster, “High-power 83 W holmium-doped silica fiber laser operating with high beam quality,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 241–243 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, and D. G. Lancaster, “Application and development of high-power and highly efficient silica-based fiber lasers operating at 2 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 567–572 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, and E. D. Filer, “Ho:Ho upconversion: application to Ho lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(6), 1212 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. F. H. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Kowalska, G. Klocek, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, “Ultra-violet emission in Ho:ZBLAN fiber,” J. Alloy. Comp. 380(1-2), 156–158 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. F. Pouradier and F. Auzel, “Etude de deux transfert d’energie non radiatifs entre ions Ho3+ dans le fluorure d’Yttrium; possibilite d’applications,” J. Phys. 37, 421 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M M. Pollnau, D. Gamelin, S. Lüthi, H. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. S. Wu, D. Ottaway, J. Munch, D. G. Lancaster, S. Bennetts, and S. D. Jackson, “Gain-switched holmium-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20872–20877 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Bernier, D. Faucher, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, G. Androz, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, “Bragg gratings photoinduced in ZBLAN fibers by femtosecond pulses at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 454–456 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

A. F. H. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

S. D. Jackson, “Midinfrared holmium fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 187–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho: YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm: silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kowalska, G. Klocek, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, “Ultra-violet emission in Ho:ZBLAN fiber,” J. Alloy. Comp. 380(1-2), 156–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2000 (2)

P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-µm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-µm holmium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(4), 629–635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M M. Pollnau, D. Gamelin, S. Lüthi, H. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. F. Pouradier and F. Auzel, “Etude de deux transfert d’energie non radiatifs entre ions Ho3+ dans le fluorure d’Yttrium; possibilite d’applications,” J. Phys. 37, 421 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abdolvand, A.

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho: YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm: silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Androz, G.

Auzel, F.

J. F. Pouradier and F. Auzel, “Etude de deux transfert d’energie non radiatifs entre ions Ho3+ dans le fluorure d’Yttrium; possibilite d’applications,” J. Phys. 37, 421 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

Bennetts, S.

Bernier, M.

Budni, P. A.

P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-µm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-µm holmium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(4), 629–635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bugge, F.

Chicklis, E. P.

P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-µm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-µm holmium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(4), 629–635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

Clarkson, W. A.

J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient in-band pumped Ho:LuLiF4 2 µ m laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 420–422 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho: YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm: silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, L. J.

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho: YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm: silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G.

Faucher, D.

Filer, E. D.

Gamelin, D.

M M. Pollnau, D. Gamelin, S. Lüthi, H. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, L.

A. F. H. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H.

M M. Pollnau, D. Gamelin, S. Lüthi, H. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M.

M M. Pollnau, D. Gamelin, S. Lüthi, H. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hemming, A.

Hirth, A.

Jackson, S. D.

K. S. Wu, D. Ottaway, J. Munch, D. G. Lancaster, S. Bennetts, and S. D. Jackson, “Gain-switched holmium-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20872–20877 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. H. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Directly diode-pumped holmium fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2496–2498 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, A. Hemming, S. Bennetts, and D. G. Lancaster, “High-power 83 W holmium-doped silica fiber laser operating with high beam quality,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 241–243 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, and D. G. Lancaster, “Application and development of high-power and highly efficient silica-based fiber lasers operating at 2 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 567–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, “Midinfrared holmium fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 187–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kieleck, C.

Kim, J. W.

Klocek, G.

M. Kowalska, G. Klocek, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, “Ultra-violet emission in Ho:ZBLAN fiber,” J. Alloy. Comp. 380(1-2), 156–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kowalska, M.

M. Kowalska, G. Klocek, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, “Ultra-violet emission in Ho:ZBLAN fiber,” J. Alloy. Comp. 380(1-2), 156–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

Lemons, M. L.

P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-µm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-µm holmium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(4), 629–635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Librantz, A. F. H.

A. F. H. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lüthi, S.

M M. Pollnau, D. Gamelin, S. Lüthi, H. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. I.

Malinowski, M.

M. Kowalska, G. Klocek, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, “Ultra-violet emission in Ho:ZBLAN fiber,” J. Alloy. Comp. 380(1-2), 156–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

A. F. H. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mosto, J. R.

P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-µm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-µm holmium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(4), 629–635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Munch, J.

Ottaway, D.

Parisi, D.

Piramidowicz, R.

M. Kowalska, G. Klocek, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, “Ultra-violet emission in Ho:ZBLAN fiber,” J. Alloy. Comp. 380(1-2), 156–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M M.

M M. Pollnau, D. Gamelin, S. Lüthi, H. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pouradier, J. F.

J. F. Pouradier and F. Auzel, “Etude de deux transfert d’energie non radiatifs entre ions Ho3+ dans le fluorure d’Yttrium; possibilite d’applications,” J. Phys. 37, 421 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

A. F. H. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sabella, A.

S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, A. Hemming, S. Bennetts, and D. G. Lancaster, “High-power 83 W holmium-doped silica fiber laser operating with high beam quality,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 241–243 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, and D. G. Lancaster, “Application and development of high-power and highly efficient silica-based fiber lasers operating at 2 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 567–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saliminia, A.

Schellhorn, M.

Shen, D. Y.

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho: YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm: silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Y.

Tonelli, M.

Vallée, R.

Veronesi, S.

Walsh, B. M.

Wu, K. S.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho: YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm: silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. D. Jackson, “Midinfrared holmium fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 187–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, and D. G. Lancaster, “Application and development of high-power and highly efficient silica-based fiber lasers operating at 2 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 567–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-µm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-µm holmium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(4), 629–635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

M. Kowalska, G. Klocek, R. Piramidowicz, and M. Malinowski, “Ultra-violet emission in Ho:ZBLAN fiber,” J. Alloy. Comp. 380(1-2), 156–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. F. H. Librantz, S. D. Jackson, L. Gomes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Pump excited state absorption in holmium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. (1)

J. F. Pouradier and F. Auzel, “Etude de deux transfert d’energie non radiatifs entre ions Ho3+ dans le fluorure d’Yttrium; possibilite d’applications,” J. Phys. 37, 421 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M M. Pollnau, D. Gamelin, S. Lüthi, H. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used for the measurements of the upconversion fluorescence. The high reflectivity mirror and Ge wafer were removed for the HFL experiments.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and normalized spectra of the laser output for fiber lasers employing the 0.525 m (red line) and 1.100 m (green line) fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser output for a fiber length = 0.525 m (red circles) and 1.1 m (blue circles) with their respective linear fits and their slopes. The inset shows the output power from the pump (blue circles) and Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser (red circles) with respect to the angle of the polarizer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured visible emission spectrum from the Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber. The launched pump power was 1 W and the fiber length = 0.525 m.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy level diagram showing the upconversion processes. The red arrow represents GSA, the magenta arrows the ETU processes, the blue arrows the radiative transitions and the dashed arrows represent the non-radiative transitions

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Logarithm of the fluorescence intensity for emission at (a) 656 nm (b) 544 nm and (c) 491 nm and the respective linear fits as a function of the logarithm of the launched pump power.

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