Abstract

We demonstrate a method of controlling the pretilt angle by field-assisted photoalignment in a vertically-aligned liquid crystal doped with a dichroic azo dye. By dynamically measuring both the pretilt angle and anisotropy in absorbance, we present detailed alignment variations in both the polar and azimuthal directions with the time of laser exposure that induces photoisomerization of the dye molecules. Significant differences in the resulting pretilt as well as optically-absorptive anisotropy are manifested between a regular photoalignment procedure and that in conjunction with a bias voltage during irradiation. It is found that the field-assisted exposure not only speeds up the photoalignment along the polarization direction of the laser beam but also leads to a higher orientational order.

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  1. V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H. S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).
  2. T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Komitov, C. Ruslim, Y. Matsuzawa, and K. Ichimura, “Photoinduced anchoring transitions in a nematic doped with azo dyes,” Liq. Cryst. 27(8), 1011–1016 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(2 Pt 1), 021701 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-C. Liao, K.-C. Hsu, and C.-L. Lu, “Laser-induced reorientation effect and ripple structure in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Opt. Lett. 28(14), 1179–1181 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. J. Kahn, G. N. Taylor, and H. Schonhorn, “Surface-produced alignment of liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 61(7), 823–828 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C.-Y. Tang, S.-M. Huang, and W. Lee, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics in a dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal doped with C.I. Acid Red 2,” Dyes Pigm. in press., doi:.
  11. D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Consistent numerical evaluation of the anchoring energy of a grooved surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1 Pt 1), 011705 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Consistent numerical evaluation of the anchoring energy of a grooved surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1 Pt 1), 011705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-C. Liao, K.-C. Hsu, and C.-L. Lu, “Laser-induced reorientation effect and ripple structure in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Opt. Lett. 28(14), 1179–1181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(2 Pt 1), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

L. Komitov, C. Ruslim, Y. Matsuzawa, and K. Ichimura, “Photoinduced anchoring transitions in a nematic doped with azo dyes,” Liq. Cryst. 27(8), 1011–1016 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1973

F. J. Kahn, G. N. Taylor, and H. Schonhorn, “Surface-produced alignment of liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 61(7), 823–828 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chao, P. C.-P.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.-J.

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.-T.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, K.-L.

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fedorenko, D.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(2 Pt 1), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francescangeli, O.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(2 Pt 1), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-C. Liao, K.-C. Hsu, and C.-L. Lu, “Laser-induced reorientation effect and ripple structure in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Opt. Lett. 28(14), 1179–1181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, J.

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Consistent numerical evaluation of the anchoring energy of a grooved surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1 Pt 1), 011705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gwag, J. S.

J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Han, K.-Y.

J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H.-K.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.-C.

Huang, S.-M.

C.-Y. Tang, S.-M. Huang, and W. Lee, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics in a dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal doped with C.I. Acid Red 2,” Dyes Pigm. in press., doi:.

Ichimura, K.

L. Komitov, C. Ruslim, Y. Matsuzawa, and K. Ichimura, “Photoinduced anchoring transitions in a nematic doped with azo dyes,” Liq. Cryst. 27(8), 1011–1016 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jhun, C. G.

J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, F. J.

F. J. Kahn, G. N. Taylor, and H. Schonhorn, “Surface-produced alignment of liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 61(7), 823–828 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Komitov, L.

L. Komitov, C. Ruslim, Y. Matsuzawa, and K. Ichimura, “Photoinduced anchoring transitions in a nematic doped with azo dyes,” Liq. Cryst. 27(8), 1011–1016 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuksenok, O. V.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(2 Pt 1), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

C.-Y. Tang, S.-M. Huang, and W. Lee, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics in a dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal doped with C.I. Acid Red 2,” Dyes Pigm. in press., doi:.

Liao, C.-C.

Liu, C.-K.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.-L.

Matsuzawa, Y.

L. Komitov, C. Ruslim, Y. Matsuzawa, and K. Ichimura, “Photoinduced anchoring transitions in a nematic doped with azo dyes,” Liq. Cryst. 27(8), 1011–1016 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ouskova, E.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(2 Pt 1), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K.-H.

J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, W. S.

J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Yu.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(2 Pt 1), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruslim, C.

L. Komitov, C. Ruslim, Y. Matsuzawa, and K. Ichimura, “Photoinduced anchoring transitions in a nematic doped with azo dyes,” Liq. Cryst. 27(8), 1011–1016 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schonhorn, H.

F. J. Kahn, G. N. Taylor, and H. Schonhorn, “Surface-produced alignment of liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 61(7), 823–828 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.-

J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(2 Pt 1), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simoni, F.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(2 Pt 1), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, D.-

J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Su, L.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(2 Pt 1), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, S.-T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Tang, S.-M. Huang, and W. Lee, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics in a dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal doped with C.I. Acid Red 2,” Dyes Pigm. in press., doi:.

Taylor, G. N.

F. J. Kahn, G. N. Taylor, and H. Schonhorn, “Surface-produced alignment of liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 61(7), 823–828 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ting, C.-L.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(2 Pt 1), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, H.

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Consistent numerical evaluation of the anchoring energy of a grooved surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1 Pt 1), 011705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoneya, M.

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Consistent numerical evaluation of the anchoring energy of a grooved surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1 Pt 1), 011705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, T.-H.

J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dyes Pigm.

C.-Y. Tang, S.-M. Huang, and W. Lee, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics in a dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal doped with C.I. Acid Red 2,” Dyes Pigm. in press., doi:.

J. Appl. Phys.

J. S. Gwag, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, W. S. Park, K.-Y. Han, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, D.- Song, and D.- Shin, “Simple method for measuring the high pretilt angle of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

L. Komitov, C. Ruslim, Y. Matsuzawa, and K. Ichimura, “Photoinduced anchoring transitions in a nematic doped with azo dyes,” Liq. Cryst. 27(8), 1011–1016 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 63(2 Pt 1), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Consistent numerical evaluation of the anchoring energy of a grooved surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1 Pt 1), 011705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

F. J. Kahn, G. N. Taylor, and H. Schonhorn, “Surface-produced alignment of liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 61(7), 823–828 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H. S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of the pretilt angle of a DDLC with the exposure time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Anisotropy of absorbance ΔA as a function of the exposure time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization absorption spectra of the unexposed DDLC sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Exposure-time dependence of the pretilt angle. Labeled in the legend are the voltages applied during laser exposure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Exposure-time dependence of the anisotropy of absorbance.

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