Abstract

Optical tomography can demonstrate accurate three-dimensional (3D) imaging that recovers the 3D spatial distribution and concentration of the luminescent probes in biological tissues, compared with planar imaging. However, the tomographic approach is extremely difficult to implement due to the complexity in the reconstruction of 3D surface flux distribution from multi-view two dimensional (2D) measurements on the subject surface. To handle this problem, a novel and effective method is proposed in this paper to determine the surface flux distribution from multi-view 2D photographic images acquired by a set of non-contact detectors. The method is validated with comparison experiments involving both regular and irregular surfaces. Reconstruction of the inside probes based on the reconstructed surface flux distribution further demonstrates the potential of the proposed method in its application in optical tomography.

© 2010 OSA

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A. D. Klose, B. J. Beattie, H. Dehghani, L. Vider, C. Le, V. Ponomarev, and R. Blasberg, “In vivo bioluminescence tomography with a blocking-off finite-difference SP3 method and MRI/CT coregistration,” Med. Phys. 37(1), 329–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

Q. Z. Zhang, L. Yin, Y. Y. Tan, Z. Yuan, and H. B. Jiang, “Quantitative bioluminescence tomography guided by diffuse optical tomography,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1481–1486 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/viewmedia.cfm?id=149907&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Feng, K. B. Jia, G. R. Yan, S. P. Zhu, C. H. Qin, Y. J. Lv, and J. Tian, “An optimal permissible source region strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15640–15654 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/viewmedia.cfm?uri=oe-16-20-15640&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, Y. Dai, and C. Qin, “Fast cone-beam CT image reconstruction using GPU hardware,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 16, 225–234 (2008).

H. Dehghani, S. C. Davis, and B. W. Pogue, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography using the reciprocity approach,” Med. Phys. 35(11), 4863–4871 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

W. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6756–6771 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jdt/viewmedia.cfm?id=85344&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in noncontact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. Cong, L. Wang, E. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Adaptive finite element based tomography for fluorescence optical imaging in tissue,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5402–5417 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/ViewMedia.cfm?id=81637&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, “Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of noncontact optical tomography,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18(28 & 29), 1403–1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 28(18), 1701–1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9(1), 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(10), 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aggarwal and N. Ahuja, “A pupil-centric model of image formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 48(3), 195–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15(2), R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(4), 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

Aggarwal, M.

M. Aggarwal and N. Ahuja, “A pupil-centric model of image formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 48(3), 195–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ahuja, N.

M. Aggarwal and N. Ahuja, “A pupil-centric model of image formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 48(3), 195–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrakis, G.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15(2), R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(4), 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, J.

Bangerth, W.

Bao, S.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beattie, B. J.

A. D. Klose, B. J. Beattie, H. Dehghani, L. Vider, C. Le, V. Ponomarev, and R. Blasberg, “In vivo bioluminescence tomography with a blocking-off finite-difference SP3 method and MRI/CT coregistration,” Med. Phys. 37(1), 329–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Beattie, A. D. Klose, C. H. Le, V. A. Longo, K. Dobrenkov, J. Vider, J. A. Koutcher, and R. G. Blasberg, “Registration of planar bioluminescence to magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography images as a platform for the development of bioluminescence tomography reconstruction algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blasberg, R.

A. D. Klose, B. J. Beattie, H. Dehghani, L. Vider, C. Le, V. Ponomarev, and R. Blasberg, “In vivo bioluminescence tomography with a blocking-off finite-difference SP3 method and MRI/CT coregistration,” Med. Phys. 37(1), 329–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blasberg, R. G.

B. J. Beattie, A. D. Klose, C. H. Le, V. A. Longo, K. Dobrenkov, J. Vider, J. A. Koutcher, and R. G. Blasberg, “Registration of planar bioluminescence to magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography images as a platform for the development of bioluminescence tomography reconstruction algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatziioannou, A. F.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, N.

Chen, X.

Cong, A.

Cong, W.

Cong, W. X.

Cubeddu, R.

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in noncontact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).

D’Andrea, C.

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in noncontact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).

Dai, Y.

G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, Y. Dai, and C. Qin, “Fast cone-beam CT image reconstruction using GPU hardware,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 16, 225–234 (2008).

Davis, L. C.

Davis, S. C.

H. Dehghani, S. C. Davis, and B. W. Pogue, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography using the reciprocity approach,” Med. Phys. 35(11), 4863–4871 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. C. Davis, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, and M. S. Patterson, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 365–367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

A. D. Klose, B. J. Beattie, H. Dehghani, L. Vider, C. Le, V. Ponomarev, and R. Blasberg, “In vivo bioluminescence tomography with a blocking-off finite-difference SP3 method and MRI/CT coregistration,” Med. Phys. 37(1), 329–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. C. Davis, and B. W. Pogue, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography using the reciprocity approach,” Med. Phys. 35(11), 4863–4871 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. C. Davis, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, and M. S. Patterson, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 365–367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(4), 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobrenkov, K.

B. J. Beattie, A. D. Klose, C. H. Le, V. A. Longo, K. Dobrenkov, J. Vider, J. A. Koutcher, and R. G. Blasberg, “Registration of planar bioluminescence to magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography images as a platform for the development of bioluminescence tomography reconstruction algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durairaj, K.

Economou, E. N.

Feldkamp, L. A.

Feng, J. C.

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(4), 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

D. Qin, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and F. Gao, “Experimental determination of optical properties in turbid medium by TCSPC technique,” Proc. SPIE 6434, 64342E (2007).

Gao, X.

Garofalakis, A.

Gibson, A. P.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, R.

Hebden, J. C.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, M.

Hoffman, E.

G. Wang, W. Cong, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, H. Shen, P. Sinn, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, and M. Henry, “In vivo mouse studies with bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7801–7809 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/as/viewmedia.cfm?id=97670&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. Cong, L. Wang, E. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, E. A.

Hou, Y.

Jia, K. B.

Jiang, H. B.

Jiang, M.

Jiang, S.

Joshi, A.

Kioussis, D.

Klose, A. D.

A. D. Klose, B. J. Beattie, H. Dehghani, L. Vider, C. Le, V. Ponomarev, and R. Blasberg, “In vivo bioluminescence tomography with a blocking-off finite-difference SP3 method and MRI/CT coregistration,” Med. Phys. 37(1), 329–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Beattie, A. D. Klose, C. H. Le, V. A. Longo, K. Dobrenkov, J. Vider, J. A. Koutcher, and R. G. Blasberg, “Registration of planar bioluminescence to magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography images as a platform for the development of bioluminescence tomography reconstruction algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koutcher, J. A.

B. J. Beattie, A. D. Klose, C. H. Le, V. A. Longo, K. Dobrenkov, J. Vider, J. A. Koutcher, and R. G. Blasberg, “Registration of planar bioluminescence to magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography images as a platform for the development of bioluminescence tomography reconstruction algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kress, J. W.

Kumar, D.

Le, C.

A. D. Klose, B. J. Beattie, H. Dehghani, L. Vider, C. Le, V. Ponomarev, and R. Blasberg, “In vivo bioluminescence tomography with a blocking-off finite-difference SP3 method and MRI/CT coregistration,” Med. Phys. 37(1), 329–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, C. H.

B. J. Beattie, A. D. Klose, C. H. Le, V. A. Longo, K. Dobrenkov, J. Vider, J. A. Koutcher, and R. G. Blasberg, “Registration of planar bioluminescence to magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography images as a platform for the development of bioluminescence tomography reconstruction algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Y. J. Lv, J. Tian, W. X. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8211–8223 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jot/viewmedia.cfm?id=97939&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. Cong, L. Wang, E. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Liang, W.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Longo, V. A.

B. J. Beattie, A. D. Klose, C. H. Le, V. A. Longo, K. Dobrenkov, J. Vider, J. A. Koutcher, and R. G. Blasberg, “Registration of planar bioluminescence to magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography images as a platform for the development of bioluminescence tomography reconstruction algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, J.

Lv, Y. J.

Mamalaki, C.

Mao, J.

McCray, P. B.

McLennan, G.

Meyer, H.

Ntziachristos, V.

H. Meyer, A. Garofalakis, G. Zacharakis, S. Psycharakis, C. Mamalaki, D. Kioussis, E. N. Economou, V. Ntziachristos, and J. Ripoll, “Noncontact optical imaging in mice with full angular coverage and automatic surface extraction,” Appl. Opt. 46(17), 3617–3627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, “Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of noncontact optical tomography,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18(28 & 29), 1403–1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 28(18), 1701–1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9(1), 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(10), 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Paulsen, K. D.

Peter, J.

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in noncontact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).

Pogue, B. W.

H. Dehghani, S. C. Davis, and B. W. Pogue, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography using the reciprocity approach,” Med. Phys. 35(11), 4863–4871 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. C. Davis, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, and M. S. Patterson, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 365–367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ponomarev, V.

A. D. Klose, B. J. Beattie, H. Dehghani, L. Vider, C. Le, V. Ponomarev, and R. Blasberg, “In vivo bioluminescence tomography with a blocking-off finite-difference SP3 method and MRI/CT coregistration,” Med. Phys. 37(1), 329–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psycharakis, S.

Qian, X.

Qin, C.

G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, Y. Dai, and C. Qin, “Fast cone-beam CT image reconstruction using GPU hardware,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 16, 225–234 (2008).

Qin, C. H.

Qin, D.

D. Qin, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and F. Gao, “Experimental determination of optical properties in turbid medium by TCSPC technique,” Proc. SPIE 6434, 64342E (2007).

Qu, X.

Rannou, F. R.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, N.

Ripoll, J.

Schulz, R. B.

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in noncontact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(10), 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 28(18), 1701–1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(4), 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semmler, W.

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in noncontact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

Shen, H.

Sinn, P.

Song, X.

Tan, Y. Y.

Tanikawa, Y.

D. Qin, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and F. Gao, “Experimental determination of optical properties in turbid medium by TCSPC technique,” Proc. SPIE 6434, 64342E (2007).

Tian, J.

R. Han, J. Liang, X. Qu, Y. Hou, N. Ren, J. Mao, and J. Tian, “A source reconstruction algorithm based on adaptive hp-FEM for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14481–14494 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/viewmedia.cfm?uri=oe-17-17-14481&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, X. Gao, X. Qu, J. Liang, L. Wang, D. Yang, A. Garofalakis, J. Ripoll, and J. Tian, “A study of photon propagation in free-space based on hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16266–16280 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/viewmedia.cfm?uri=oe-17-18-16266&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Feng, K. B. Jia, G. R. Yan, S. P. Zhu, C. H. Qin, Y. J. Lv, and J. Tian, “An optimal permissible source region strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15640–15654 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/viewmedia.cfm?uri=oe-16-20-15640&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, Y. Dai, and C. Qin, “Fast cone-beam CT image reconstruction using GPU hardware,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 16, 225–234 (2008).

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lv, J. Tian, W. X. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8211–8223 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jot/viewmedia.cfm?id=97939&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. Cong, L. Wang, E. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, C. H.

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentini, G.

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in noncontact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).

Vider, J.

B. J. Beattie, A. D. Klose, C. H. Le, V. A. Longo, K. Dobrenkov, J. Vider, J. A. Koutcher, and R. G. Blasberg, “Registration of planar bioluminescence to magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography images as a platform for the development of bioluminescence tomography reconstruction algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vider, L.

A. D. Klose, B. J. Beattie, H. Dehghani, L. Vider, C. Le, V. Ponomarev, and R. Blasberg, “In vivo bioluminescence tomography with a blocking-off finite-difference SP3 method and MRI/CT coregistration,” Med. Phys. 37(1), 329–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

Wang, G.

Wang, H.

Wang, L.

X. Chen, X. Gao, X. Qu, J. Liang, L. Wang, D. Yang, A. Garofalakis, J. Ripoll, and J. Tian, “A study of photon propagation in free-space based on hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16266–16280 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/viewmedia.cfm?uri=oe-17-18-16266&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. Cong, L. Wang, E. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9(1), 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, G.

G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, Y. Dai, and C. Qin, “Fast cone-beam CT image reconstruction using GPU hardware,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 16, 225–234 (2008).

Yan, G. R.

Yan, X. P.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, D.

Yang, W.

Yang, X.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

Yuan, Z.

Zabner, J.

Zacharakis, G.

Zhang, Q. Z.

Zhao, H.

D. Qin, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and F. Gao, “Experimental determination of optical properties in turbid medium by TCSPC technique,” Proc. SPIE 6434, 64342E (2007).

Zhu, F.

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. Cong, L. Wang, E. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, Y. Dai, and C. Qin, “Fast cone-beam CT image reconstruction using GPU hardware,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 16, 225–234 (2008).

Zhu, S. P.

Acad. Radiol.

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. Cong, L. Wang, E. Hoffman, and G. Wang, “A mouse optical simulation environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11(9), 1029–1038 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Comput. Vis.

M. Aggarwal and N. Ahuja, “A pupil-centric model of image formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 48(3), 195–214 (2002).
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B. J. Beattie, A. D. Klose, C. H. Le, V. A. Longo, K. Dobrenkov, J. Vider, J. A. Koutcher, and R. G. Blasberg, “Registration of planar bioluminescence to magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography images as a platform for the development of bioluminescence tomography reconstruction algorithms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. XRay Sci. Technol.

G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, Y. Dai, and C. Qin, “Fast cone-beam CT image reconstruction using GPU hardware,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 16, 225–234 (2008).

Med. Phys.

H. Dehghani, S. C. Davis, and B. W. Pogue, “Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography using the reciprocity approach,” Med. Phys. 35(11), 4863–4871 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Klose, B. J. Beattie, H. Dehghani, L. Vider, C. Le, V. Ponomarev, and R. Blasberg, “In vivo bioluminescence tomography with a blocking-off finite-difference SP3 method and MRI/CT coregistration,” Med. Phys. 37(1), 329–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mod. Phys. Lett. B

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, “Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of noncontact optical tomography,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18(28 & 29), 1403–1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med.

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9(1), 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Adaptive finite element based tomography for fluorescence optical imaging in tissue,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5402–5417 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/ViewMedia.cfm?id=81637&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6756–6771 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jdt/viewmedia.cfm?id=85344&seq=0 .
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X. Song, D. Wang, N. Chen, J. Bai, and H. Wang, “Reconstruction for free-space fluorescence tomography using a novel hybrid adaptive finite element algorithm,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18300–18317 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/viewmedia.cfm?uri=oe-15-26-18300&seq=0 .
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Q. Z. Zhang, L. Yin, Y. Y. Tan, Z. Yuan, and H. B. Jiang, “Quantitative bioluminescence tomography guided by diffuse optical tomography,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1481–1486 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/viewmedia.cfm?id=149907&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Feng, K. B. Jia, G. R. Yan, S. P. Zhu, C. H. Qin, Y. J. Lv, and J. Tian, “An optimal permissible source region strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15640–15654 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/viewmedia.cfm?uri=oe-16-20-15640&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Han, J. Liang, X. Qu, Y. Hou, N. Ren, J. Mao, and J. Tian, “A source reconstruction algorithm based on adaptive hp-FEM for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14481–14494 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/viewmedia.cfm?uri=oe-17-17-14481&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, X. Gao, X. Qu, J. Liang, L. Wang, D. Yang, A. Garofalakis, J. Ripoll, and J. Tian, “A study of photon propagation in free-space based on hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16266–16280 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/viewmedia.cfm?uri=oe-17-18-16266&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Cong, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, H. Shen, P. Sinn, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, and M. Henry, “In vivo mouse studies with bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7801–7809 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/as/viewmedia.cfm?id=97670&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lv, J. Tian, W. X. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8211–8223 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jot/viewmedia.cfm?id=97939&seq=0 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(4), 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(10), 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

D. Qin, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and F. Gao, “Experimental determination of optical properties in turbid medium by TCSPC technique,” Proc. SPIE 6434, 64342E (2007).

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in noncontact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).

Other

A. Ishimaru, Wave propagation and scattering in random media (Academic, New York, 1978).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960).

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