Abstract

We present results that show highly polarized electroluminescence (EL) from an organic light-emitting device (OLED) by using a quarter-wave (λ/4) retardation plate (QWP) film and a giant birefringent optical (GBO) photonic reflective polarizer. Polarized EL light of 13,400 cd/m2 with high peak efficiencies (greater than 10 cd/A and 3.5 lm/W) was obtained from an OLED in this way. These values are almost double those of a polarized OLED that only uses a polarizer. The direction of polarization of the emitted EL light from the polarized OLED corresponded to the passing axis of the GBO reflective polarizer. Furthermore, the degree of linear polarization obtained, i.e. the ratio between the brightness of two linearly polarized EL emissions parallel and perpendicular to the passing axis, is greater than 40 over the whole range of emitted luminance.

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  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 156–158 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11(18), 1518–1521 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163309 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(2), 417–423 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183509 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55(1), 454–459 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Polarized electroluminescence from oriented p-sexiphenyl vacuum-deposited film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(17), 2436–2438 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 243503 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023304 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287(5462), 2451–2456 (2000) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91(1), 489–493 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Park, C. H. Park, M. Kim, and M.-Y. Han, “Polarized organic light-emitting device on a flexible giant birefringent optical reflecting polarizer substrate,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10136–10143 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large Aperture Polarized Light Source and Novel Liquid Crystal Display Operating Modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, “Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, “Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 243503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91(1), 489–493 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(2), 417–423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 156–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287(5462), 2451–2456 (2000) (and references therein).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11(18), 1518–1521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Polarized electroluminescence from oriented p-sexiphenyl vacuum-deposited film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(17), 2436–2438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55(1), 454–459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large Aperture Polarized Light Source and Novel Liquid Crystal Display Operating Modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M. R.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Azumi, R.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bai, S. J.

C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(2), 417–423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barnik, M. I.

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large Aperture Polarized Light Source and Novel Liquid Crystal Display Operating Modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Belayev, S. V.

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large Aperture Polarized Light Source and Novel Liquid Crystal Display Operating Modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, M.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blagidze, I.

L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91(1), 489–493 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bradly, D. D. C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bredas, J. L.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brutting, W.

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11(18), 1518–1521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burn, P. L.

K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55(1), 454–459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. Y.

C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(2), 417–423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chikamatsu, M.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 243503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cimrova, V.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dos Santos, D. A.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dyreklev, P.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Era, M.

M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Polarized electroluminescence from oriented p-sexiphenyl vacuum-deposited film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(17), 2436–2438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55(1), 454–459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Funfschilling, J.

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large Aperture Polarized Light Source and Novel Liquid Crystal Display Operating Modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, L. R.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287(5462), 2451–2456 (2000) (and references therein).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmeiner, J.

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11(18), 1518–1521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grell, M.

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gvatua, S.

L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91(1), 489–493 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gymer, R. W.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, M. Y.

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, “Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.-Y.

Hjertberg, T.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55(1), 454–459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ikai, M.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 156–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inganas, O.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jandke, M.

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11(18), 1518–1521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

Lamansky, S.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Logdlund, M.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malimoneko, N. V.

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large Aperture Polarized Light Source and Novel Liquid Crystal Display Operating Modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miki, K.

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Misaki, M.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 243503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nadareishvili, L.

L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91(1), 489–493 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagamatsu, S.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 243503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neher, D.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nevitt, T. J.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287(5462), 2451–2456 (2000) (and references therein).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S. S.

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, “Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ouderkirk, A. J.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287(5462), 2451–2456 (2000) (and references therein).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B.

B. Park, C. H. Park, M. Kim, and M.-Y. Han, “Polarized organic light-emitting device on a flexible giant birefringent optical reflecting polarizer substrate,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10136–10143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, “Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. H.

Pichler, K.

K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55(1), 454–459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Remmers, M.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Polarized electroluminescence from oriented p-sexiphenyl vacuum-deposited film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(17), 2436–2438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, K.

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, K.

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, Y.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 156–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salaneck, W. R.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large Aperture Polarized Light Source and Novel Liquid Crystal Display Operating Modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large Aperture Polarized Light Source and Novel Liquid Crystal Display Operating Modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schwoerer, M.

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11(18), 1518–1521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stover, C. A.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287(5462), 2451–2456 (2000) (and references therein).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strohriegl, P.

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11(18), 1518–1521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 156–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taga, Y.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 156–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taliani, C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tanigaki, N.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 243503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tokito, S.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 156–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, P. Y.

C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(2), 417–423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Polarized electroluminescence from oriented p-sexiphenyl vacuum-deposited film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(17), 2436–2438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, Y.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 243503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Slyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. F.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287(5462), 2451–2456 (2000) (and references therein).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegner, G.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wennerstrom, O.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(2), 417–423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yase, K.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 243503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, H.

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, Y.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 243503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zaikov, G.

L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91(1), 489–493 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhen, H. Y.

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D. X.

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (4)

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11(18), 1518–1521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Polarized electroluminescence from oriented p-sexiphenyl vacuum-deposited film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(17), 2436–2438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 243503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 156–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, “Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(2), 417–423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91(1), 489–493 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large Aperture Polarized Light Source and Novel Liquid Crystal Display Operating Modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Science (1)

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287(5462), 2451–2456 (2000) (and references therein).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synth. Met. (1)

K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55(1), 454–459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic structures of polarized OLEDs. Type 1: conventional structure of a polarized OLED with a GBO reflective polarizer, Type 2: Combined structure of a polarized OLED with a QWP (λ/4 plate) film and a GBO reflective polarizer used in this study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph showing the transparent QWP film (left) and GBO reflective polarizer (right). (b) SEM image of the cross-section of the GBO reflective polarizer. (c) Polarized transmittance spectra of the GBO polarizer for incident light polarized linearly along the passing and blocking axes. (d) Polarized microphotographs at four angles of rotation of the QWP film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Polarized luminance-voltage characteristics. (b) Current efficiency-voltage characteristics of the polarized OLEDs (solid curves). The dotted curves show the characteristics of the 2nd reference device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Polarized EL spectra along the passing (blue curve) and blocking (red curve) axes. (b) Polarization ratios of the polarized OLED (blue curve) against luminance. The points in red show the characteristics of the 2nd reference device. The detection angle is fixed at normal incidence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photographs of the operating 2nd reference (left) and polarized (right) OLEDs for polarizations along the passing (a) and the blocking (b) axes of the GBO reflective polarizer under a rotating linear dichroic polarizer film. The white arrow represents the transmission axis of the linear dichroic polarizer and the blue arrow represents the transmission axis of the GBO polarizer.

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