Abstract

Using a gold/silicon grating coupler and modulating the silicon dielectric constant with 775 nm, 800 fs pump pulses we demonstrate an ultrafast spectral shift to a surface plasmon polariton coupling resonance for 1300-1700 nm probe pulses. With a modest pump fluence of 2.2 mJcm−2 the pump-induced free carriers shift the resonance by more than its width, with recovery occurring in 103 ps due to surface recombination.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Rotenberg, M. Betz, and H. M. van Driel, “Ultrafast control of grating-assisted light coupling to surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2137–2139 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Rotenberg, J. N. Caspers, and H. M. van Driel, “Tunable ultrafast control of plasmonic coupling to gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245420 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
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  22. K. L. Luke and L. Cheng, “Analysis of the interaction of a laser pulse with a silicon wafer: Determination of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity,” J. Appl. Phys. 61(6), 2282–2293 (1987).
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  23. S. Cristoloveanu, “Silicon films on sapphire,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 50(3), 327–371 (1987).
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2010 (1)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

A. Y. Elezzabi, Z. Han, S. Sederberg, and V. Van, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in silicon-based nanoplasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11045–11056 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-11045 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rotenberg, J. N. Caspers, and H. M. van Driel, “Tunable ultrafast control of plasmonic coupling to gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cho, W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, P. Chaturvedi, A. M. Bratkovsky, S.-Y. Wang, X. Zhang, F. Wang, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast modulation of optical metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17652–17657 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-20-17652 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

N. Rotenberg, M. Betz, and H. M. van Driel, “Ultrafast control of grating-assisted light coupling to surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2137–2139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

D. Pacifici, H. Lezec, and H. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. MacDonald, A. Krasavin, and N. Zheludev, “Optical modulation of surface plasmon-polariton coupling in a gallium/aluminium composite,” Opt. Commun. 278(1), 207–210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Barnes, “Surface plasmon–polariton length scales: a route to sub-wavelength optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S87–S93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

K. L. Luke and L. Cheng, “Analysis of the interaction of a laser pulse with a silicon wafer: Determination of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity,” J. Appl. Phys. 61(6), 2282–2293 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Cristoloveanu, “Silicon films on sapphire,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 50(3), 327–371 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H.

D. Pacifici, H. Lezec, and H. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W.

W. Barnes, “Surface plasmon–polariton length scales: a route to sub-wavelength optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S87–S93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betz, M.

Bonn, M.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bratkovsky, A. M.

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caspers, J. N.

N. Rotenberg, J. N. Caspers, and H. M. van Driel, “Tunable ultrafast control of plasmonic coupling to gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chaturvedi, P.

Cheng, L.

K. L. Luke and L. Cheng, “Analysis of the interaction of a laser pulse with a silicon wafer: Determination of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity,” J. Appl. Phys. 61(6), 2282–2293 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D. J.

Cristoloveanu, S.

S. Cristoloveanu, “Silicon films on sapphire,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 50(3), 327–371 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dani, K. M.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

Ferrell, T. L.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goudonnet, J.-P.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibbins, A. P.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasavin, A.

K. MacDonald, A. Krasavin, and N. Zheludev, “Optical modulation of surface plasmon-polariton coupling in a gallium/aluminium composite,” Opt. Commun. 278(1), 207–210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ku, Z.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lereu, A. L.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H.

D. Pacifici, H. Lezec, and H. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lockyear, M. J.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luke, K. L.

K. L. Luke and L. Cheng, “Analysis of the interaction of a laser pulse with a silicon wafer: Determination of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity,” J. Appl. Phys. 61(6), 2282–2293 (1987).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K.

K. MacDonald, A. Krasavin, and N. Zheludev, “Optical modulation of surface plasmon-polariton coupling in a gallium/aluminium composite,” Opt. Commun. 278(1), 207–210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melosh, N. A.

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

D. Pacifici, H. Lezec, and H. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pala, R. A.

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passian, A.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ponizovskaya, E.

Prasankumar, R. P.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivas, J. G.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rotenberg, N.

N. Rotenberg, J. N. Caspers, and H. M. van Driel, “Tunable ultrafast control of plasmonic coupling to gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Rotenberg, M. Betz, and H. M. van Driel, “Ultrafast control of grating-assisted light coupling to surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2137–2139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sámson, Z. L.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sederberg, S.

Shen, Y. R.

Shimizu, K. T.

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thundat, T.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Upadhya, P. C.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van, V.

van Driel, H. M.

N. Rotenberg, J. N. Caspers, and H. M. van Driel, “Tunable ultrafast control of plasmonic coupling to gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Rotenberg, M. Betz, and H. M. van Driel, “Ultrafast control of grating-assisted light coupling to surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2137–2139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Wang, S.-Y.

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

Xia, F.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zheludev, N.

K. MacDonald, A. Krasavin, and N. Zheludev, “Optical modulation of surface plasmon-polariton coupling in a gallium/aluminium composite,” Opt. Commun. 278(1), 207–210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the active grating coupler. A grating at a silicon-gold interfaces couples light from a p-polarized probe pulse to a SPP. The coupling is modulated by a 775 nm pump pulse that induces free carriers in the silicon. The sapphire layer on top of the silicon has been removed for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation of the induced changes to silicon dielectric function and shift of the SPP resonance for a grating with 2 π / G = 500 nm. (a) The spectral shift of SPP resonances that are originally centered at 1400 nm (blue) and 1550 nm (red) as a function of pump fluence and induced free carrier density. (b) The changes to both the real part (solid line, left axis) and the imaginary part (dashed line, right axis) of the relative dielectric function of silicon at 1400 nm (blue) and 1550 nm (red) as a function of incident pump fluence and free carrier density.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angle dependent SPP excitation. Zero-order reflectivity spectra for 6°, 9°, and 12° incident angles at the silicon-gold interface show different SPP resonances. The small dip near 1415 nm for the 6° curve is due to a Wood-Rayleigh anomaly. The symbols represent the measured values and the curves are guides to the eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Probe reflectivity and plasmonic coupling dynamics. (a) Zero-order reflectivity spectra for different delay times. The A,B,C, D letters indicate the order in time. The symbols are the measured values and the curves are guides to the eye. (b) The change in reflectivity as a function of time delay for 3 different wavelengths on the short wavelength side of the SPP resonance. The circles with the letters indicate the time delays that correspond to the reflectivity curves shown in (a). The inset shows the behaviour at 1370 nm for small time delays after the temporal overlap of pump and probe pulses. (c) The coupling efficiency as a function of wavelength for the same time delays as in (a). (d) The differential coupling efficiency (the modulation of the coupling efficiency normalized to the original coupling efficiency at 1400 nm) as a function of delay time. The inset shows the shift of the SPP center wavelength as a function of delay time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The pump fluence dependency of the plasmonic shifts and modulations. The normalized resonance shift (left axis, red curve), the maximum spectral shifts divided by the FWHM of the resonance, and the peak modulation of the coupling efficiency (right axis, blue curve) at 1400 nm are shown as a function of the pump fluence. The symbols represent the measured values and the curves are guides to the eye.

Equations (4)

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k 0 s i n ( θ ) + m G = k S P P ,
k S P P = k 0 ε S i ε A u ε S i + ε A u .
Δ ε = ω p 2 ω 2 + i γ ω ,
ω p = N c q 2 ε 0 m * .

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