Abstract

While the upwelling radiance distribution in the ocean can be highly polarized, there are few measurements of this parameter in the open ocean. To obtain the polarized in-water upwelling spectral radiance distribution data we have developed the POLRADS instrument. This instrument is based on the NuRADS radiance distribution camera systems in which linear polarizer’s have been installed. By combining simultaneous images from three NuRADS instruments, three Stokes parameters (I, Q, U) for the water leaving radiance can be obtained for all upwelling angles simultaneously. This system measures the Stokes parameters Q/I and U/I with a 0.05-0.06 uncertainty and I with a 7-10% uncertainty.

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References

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2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

H. Loisel, L. Duforet, D. Dessailly, M. Chami, and P. Dubuisson, “Investigation of the variations in the water leaving polarized reflectance from the POLDER satellite data over two biogeochemical contrasted oceanic areas,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12905–12918 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. J. Voss, A. Morel, and D. Antoine, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case 1 waters for application to ocean color imagery,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 781–789 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Shueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2003 (1)

T. W. Cronin, N. Shashar, R. L. Caldwell, J. Marshall, A. G. Cheroske, and T. H. Chiou, “Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43(4), 549–558 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, and A. Barnard, “Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles,” Appl. Opt. 40(9), 1442–1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Cronin and N. Shashar, “The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization and e-vector angle,” J. Exp. Biol. 204(Pt 14), 2461–2467 (2001).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

L. B. Wollf and A. G. Andreau, “Polarization camera sensors,” Image Vis. Comput. 13(6), 497–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

K. J. Voss, “Electro-optic camera system for measurement of the underwater radiance distribution,” Opt. Eng. 28, 241–247 (1989).

K. J. Voss, “Use of the radiance distribution to measure the optical absorption coefficient in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1614–1622 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a spectral electro-optic “fisheye’ camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6(4), 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1971 (1)

B. Lundgren, “On the polarization of the daylight in the sea,” (Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark 17, 34 (1971).

1957 (1)

Ahmed, S. A.

Andreau, A. G.

L. B. Wollf and A. G. Andreau, “Polarization camera sensors,” Image Vis. Comput. 13(6), 497–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

K. J. Voss, A. Morel, and D. Antoine, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case 1 waters for application to ocean color imagery,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 781–789 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

Banner, M. L.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A.

Barta, A.

Boss, E.

Cairns, B.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Shueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caldwell, R. L.

T. W. Cronin, N. Shashar, R. L. Caldwell, J. Marshall, A. G. Cheroske, and T. H. Chiou, “Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43(4), 549–558 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chami, M.

Chapin, A. L.

Chenault, D. B.

Cheroske, A. G.

T. W. Cronin, N. Shashar, R. L. Caldwell, J. Marshall, A. G. Cheroske, and T. H. Chiou, “Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43(4), 549–558 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiou, T. H.

T. W. Cronin, N. Shashar, R. L. Caldwell, J. Marshall, A. G. Cheroske, and T. H. Chiou, “Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43(4), 549–558 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corrada-Emmanuel, A.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

Cronin, T. W.

T. W. Cronin, N. Shashar, R. L. Caldwell, J. Marshall, A. G. Cheroske, and T. H. Chiou, “Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43(4), 549–558 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Cronin and N. Shashar, “The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization and e-vector angle,” J. Exp. Biol. 204(Pt 14), 2461–2467 (2001).
[PubMed]

Darecki, M.

Dessailly, D.

Dubuisson, P.

Duforet, L.

Fafaul, B. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Shueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

Franz, B. A.

Fry, E. S.

Gál, J.

Gilerson, A.

Goldstein, D. L.

Gray, D. J.

Gross, B. M.

Haiman, O.

Hansen, J. E.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Shueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harnett, C. K.

Hooker, R. J.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Shueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horváth, G.

Itchkawich, T.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Shueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

Kopp, G.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Shueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwiatkowska, E. J.

Liu, Y.

Loisel, H.

Lundgren, B.

B. Lundgren, “On the polarization of the daylight in the sea,” (Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark 17, 34 (1971).

Maring, H. B.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Shueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, J.

T. W. Cronin, N. Shashar, R. L. Caldwell, J. Marshall, A. G. Cheroske, and T. H. Chiou, “Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43(4), 549–558 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McClain, C. R.

Meister, G.

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Shueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

K. J. Voss, A. Morel, and D. Antoine, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case 1 waters for application to ocean color imagery,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 781–789 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moshary, F.

Patt, F. S.

Schenck, H.

Schultz, H.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shashar, N.

T. W. Cronin, N. Shashar, R. L. Caldwell, J. Marshall, A. G. Cheroske, and T. H. Chiou, “Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43(4), 549–558 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Cronin and N. Shashar, “The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization and e-vector angle,” J. Exp. Biol. 204(Pt 14), 2461–2467 (2001).
[PubMed]

Shaw, J. A.

Shueler, C. F.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Shueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

Suhai, B.

Tonizzo, A.

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Shueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

Tyo, J. S.

Voss, K. J.

K. J. Voss, A. Morel, and D. Antoine, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case 1 waters for application to ocean color imagery,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 781–789 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and A. L. Chapin, “Upwelling radiance distribution camera system, NURADS,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4250–4262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss and Y. Liu, “Polarized radiance distribution measurements of skylight. I. System description and characterization,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 6083–6094 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a spectral electro-optic “fisheye’ camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6(4), 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, “Use of the radiance distribution to measure the optical absorption coefficient in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1614–1622 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, “Electro-optic camera system for measurement of the underwater radiance distribution,” Opt. Eng. 28, 241–247 (1989).

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23(23), 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, L. B.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wollf, L. B.

L. B. Wollf and A. G. Andreau, “Polarization camera sensors,” Image Vis. Comput. 13(6), 497–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yalcin, J.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

You, Y.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

Zappa, C. J.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Zibordi, G.

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a spectral electro-optic “fisheye’ camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6(4), 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, and A. Barnard, “Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles,” Appl. Opt. 40(9), 1442–1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth, A. Barta, J. Gál, B. Suhai, and O. Haiman, “Ground-based full-sky imaging polarimetry of rapidly changing skies and its use for polarimetric cloud detection,” Appl. Opt. 41(3), 543–559 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Harnett and H. G. Craighead, “Liquid-crystal micropolarizer array for polarization-difference imaging,” Appl. Opt. 41(7), 1291–1296 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44(26), 5524–5535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5453–5469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23(23), 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss and Y. Liu, “Polarized radiance distribution measurements of skylight. I. System description and characterization,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 6083–6094 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. You, D. Stramski, M. Darecki, and G. W. Kattawar, “Modeling of wave-induced irradiance fluctuations at near-surface depths in the ocean: a comparison with measurements,” Appl. Opt. 49(6), 1041–1053 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biogeosciences (1)

K. J. Voss, A. Morel, and D. Antoine, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case 1 waters for application to ocean color imagery,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 781–789 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Shueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark (1)

B. Lundgren, “On the polarization of the daylight in the sea,” (Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark 17, 34 (1971).

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

L. B. Wollf and A. G. Andreau, “Polarization camera sensors,” Image Vis. Comput. 13(6), 497–510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Integr. Comp. Biol. (1)

T. W. Cronin, N. Shashar, R. L. Caldwell, J. Marshall, A. G. Cheroske, and T. H. Chiou, “Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43(4), 549–558 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a spectral electro-optic “fisheye’ camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6(4), 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Biol. (1)

T. W. Cronin and N. Shashar, “The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization and e-vector angle,” J. Exp. Biol. 204(Pt 14), 2461–2467 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

K. J. Voss, “Use of the radiance distribution to measure the optical absorption coefficient in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1614–1622 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. J. Voss, “Electro-optic camera system for measurement of the underwater radiance distribution,” Opt. Eng. 28, 241–247 (1989).

Opt. Express (3)

Other (4)

J. L. Pezzaniti and D. B. Chenault, “A division of aperture MWIR imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880V (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 1983).

G. W. Kattawar, “Polarization of light in the Ocean,” in Ocean Optics, R. W. Spinrad, K. L. Carder, and M. J. Perry, eds., (Oxford University Press, New York, NY. 1994).

T. H. Waterman, “Underwater light and orientation of animals,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielsen eds., (Academic Press, New York, NY. 1974).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polrads assembly with three NuRADS cameras in a triangular arrangement. Shown without the cover plates, and glass dome windows.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized rolloff for the three cameras. The rolloff correction is less than 10% at angles less than 75°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radiance, I, (A), Q/I and U/I (B). Fisheye projection such that sun is towards the upper part of the figure, nadir angle is proportional to distance from center with center of each hemisphere representing the nadir direction. Units for Radiance are μW cm−2 nm−1 sr−1, while Q/I and U/I range are normalized and range from −1 to 1. Data is at 526 nm. White lines are at 30° and 60° nadir angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated percent standard deviation in I, Q/I and U/I shown in Fig. 3. White lines are at 30° and 60° nadir angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Percent DOLP (A) and plane of polarization (B). Maximum DOLP is >60%. White lines are at 30° and 60° nadir angle.

Equations (14)

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E L = E o x exp [ i ( ω t + δ x ) ]
E R = E o y exp [ i ( ω t + δ y ) ]
I = E L E L * + E R E R * = E o x 2 + E o y 2
Q = E L E L * E R E R * = E o x 2 E o y 2
U = E L E R * + E R E L * = 2 E o x E o y cos δ
V = E L E R * + E R E L * = 2 E o x     E o y sin δ
δ = δ y δ x
[ I Q U ] = [ a b c d e f g h i ] [ S 1 S 2 S 3 ]
I ψ = 1
Q ψ = cos ( 2 ψ + Δ )
U ψ = sin ( 2 ψ + Δ )
I ψ = a S 1 ψ + b S 2 ψ + c S 3 ψ
Q ψ = d S 1 ψ + e S 2 ψ + f S 3 ψ
U ψ = g S 1 ψ + h S 2 ψ + i S 3 ψ

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