Abstract

Macroscopic visualization of functional and molecular features of cardiovascular disease is emerging as an important tool in basic research and clinical translation of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. We showcase the application of Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) techniques to noninvasively image different aspects of the mouse cardiovascular system macroscopically in real-time and in vivo, an unprecedented ability compared to optical or optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging approaches documented so far. In particular, we demonstrate imaging of the carotid arteries, the aorta and the cardiac wall. We further demonstrate the ability to dynamically visualize circulating gold nanorods that can be used to enhance contrast and be extended to molecular imaging applications. We discuss the potential of this imaging ability in cardiovascular disease (CVD) research and clinical applications.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. K. Zarins, D. P. Giddens, B. K. Bharadvaj, V. S. Sottiurai, R. F. Mabon, and S. Glagov, “Carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. Quantitative correlation of plaque localization with flow velocity profiles and wall shear stress,” Circ. Res. 53(4), 502–514 (1983).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (4)

F. Kiessling, D. Razansky, and F. Alves, “Anatomical and microstructural imaging of angiogenesis,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fast semi-analytical model-based acoustic inversion for quantitative optoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1275–1285 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and D. Razansky, “Molecular imaging by means of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT),” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2783–2794 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Buehler, E. Herzog, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, “Video rate optoacoustic tomography of mouse kidney perfusion,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2475–2477 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, “A real-time photoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10489–10498 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ma, A. Taruttis, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, “Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) scanner for whole-body small animal imaging,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21414–21426 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Didychuk, P. Ephrat, A. Chamson-Reig, S. L. Jacques, and J. J. L. Carson, “Depth of photothermal conversion of gold nanorods embedded in a tissue-like phantom,” Nanotechnology 20(19), 195102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, J. Baeten, and V. Ntziachristos, “Sensitivity of molecular target detection by multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT),” Med. Phys. 36(3), 939–945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Song and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of the thoracic cavity and the kidney in small and large animals,” Med. Phys. 35(10), 4524–4529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Spectroscopic intravascular photoacoustic imaging to differentiate atherosclerotic plaques,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3362–3367 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Realtime photoacoustic microscopy of murine cardiovascular dynamics,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18551–18556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Li, C. R. C. Wang, D. B. Shieh, C. W. Wei, C. K. Liao, C. Poe, S. Jhan, A. A. Ding, and Y. N. Wu, “In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging with simultaneous multiple selective targeting using antibody-conjugated gold nanorods,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18605–18615 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

S. Manohar, S. E. Vaartjes, J. C. G. van Hespen, J. M. Klaase, F. M. van den Engh, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Initial results of in vivo non-invasive cancer imaging in the human breast using near-infrared photoacoustics,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12277–12285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, C. Vinegoni, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of fluorochromes in small animals,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2891–2893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular imaging of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 116(9), 1052–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Eghtedari, A. Oraevsky, J. A. Copland, N. A. Kotov, A. Conjusteau, and M. Motamedi, “High sensitivity of in vivo detection of gold nanorods using a laser optoacoustic imaging system,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1914–1918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, M. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation variations in single vessels in vivo using photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 625–627 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, “Thermoacoustic molecular imaging of small animals,” Mol. Imaging 2(2), 113–123 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

S. S. Chang, C. W. Shih, C. D. Chen, W. C. Lai, and C. R. C. Wang, “The shape transition of gold nanorods,” Langmuir 15(3), 701–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Thermoacoustic computed tomography--technical considerations,” Med. Phys. 26(9), 1832–1837 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

C. K. Zarins, D. P. Giddens, B. K. Bharadvaj, V. S. Sottiurai, R. F. Mabon, and S. Glagov, “Carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. Quantitative correlation of plaque localization with flow velocity profiles and wall shear stress,” Circ. Res. 53(4), 502–514 (1983).
[PubMed]

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, A.

Alves, F.

F. Kiessling, D. Razansky, and F. Alves, “Anatomical and microstructural imaging of angiogenesis,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amirian, J. H.

Ashkenazi, S.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baeten, J.

D. Razansky, J. Baeten, and V. Ntziachristos, “Sensitivity of molecular target detection by multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT),” Med. Phys. 36(3), 939–945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, P.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bharadvaj, B. K.

C. K. Zarins, D. P. Giddens, B. K. Bharadvaj, V. S. Sottiurai, R. F. Mabon, and S. Glagov, “Carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. Quantitative correlation of plaque localization with flow velocity profiles and wall shear stress,” Circ. Res. 53(4), 502–514 (1983).
[PubMed]

Bitton, R.

Bodapati, S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brecht, H. P.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buehler, A.

Carson, J. J. L.

C. L. Didychuk, P. Ephrat, A. Chamson-Reig, S. L. Jacques, and J. J. L. Carson, “Depth of photothermal conversion of gold nanorods embedded in a tissue-like phantom,” Nanotechnology 20(19), 195102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamson-Reig, A.

C. L. Didychuk, P. Ephrat, A. Chamson-Reig, S. L. Jacques, and J. J. L. Carson, “Depth of photothermal conversion of gold nanorods embedded in a tissue-like phantom,” Nanotechnology 20(19), 195102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. S.

S. S. Chang, C. W. Shih, C. D. Chen, W. C. Lai, and C. R. C. Wang, “The shape transition of gold nanorods,” Langmuir 15(3), 701–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. D.

S. S. Chang, C. W. Shih, C. D. Chen, W. C. Lai, and C. R. C. Wang, “The shape transition of gold nanorods,” Langmuir 15(3), 701–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conjusteau, A.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eghtedari, A. Oraevsky, J. A. Copland, N. A. Kotov, A. Conjusteau, and M. Motamedi, “High sensitivity of in vivo detection of gold nanorods using a laser optoacoustic imaging system,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1914–1918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Copland, J. A.

M. Eghtedari, A. Oraevsky, J. A. Copland, N. A. Kotov, A. Conjusteau, and M. Motamedi, “High sensitivity of in vivo detection of gold nanorods using a laser optoacoustic imaging system,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1914–1918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, H.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, K. C.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Day, M.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De La Zerda, A.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Didychuk, C. L.

C. L. Didychuk, P. Ephrat, A. Chamson-Reig, S. L. Jacques, and J. J. L. Carson, “Depth of photothermal conversion of gold nanorods embedded in a tissue-like phantom,” Nanotechnology 20(19), 195102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, A. A.

Distel, M.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eghtedari, M.

M. Eghtedari, A. Oraevsky, J. A. Copland, N. A. Kotov, A. Conjusteau, and M. Motamedi, “High sensitivity of in vivo detection of gold nanorods using a laser optoacoustic imaging system,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1914–1918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwell, C.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emelianov, S. Y.

Ephrat, P.

C. L. Didychuk, P. Ephrat, A. Chamson-Reig, S. L. Jacques, and J. J. L. Carson, “Depth of photothermal conversion of gold nanorods embedded in a tissue-like phantom,” Nanotechnology 20(19), 195102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ermilov, S. A.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frenz, M.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fronheiser, M.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gambhir, S. S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamelin, J.

Giddens, D. P.

C. K. Zarins, D. P. Giddens, B. K. Bharadvaj, V. S. Sottiurai, R. F. Mabon, and S. Glagov, “Carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. Quantitative correlation of plaque localization with flow velocity profiles and wall shear stress,” Circ. Res. 53(4), 502–514 (1983).
[PubMed]

Glagov, S.

C. K. Zarins, D. P. Giddens, B. K. Bharadvaj, V. S. Sottiurai, R. F. Mabon, and S. Glagov, “Carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. Quantitative correlation of plaque localization with flow velocity profiles and wall shear stress,” Circ. Res. 53(4), 502–514 (1983).
[PubMed]

Guo, P.

Herzog, E.

Hu, S.

Huang, F.

Huang, S. W.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

C. L. Didychuk, P. Ephrat, A. Chamson-Reig, S. L. Jacques, and J. J. L. Carson, “Depth of photothermal conversion of gold nanorods embedded in a tissue-like phantom,” Nanotechnology 20(19), 195102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaeger, M.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaffer, F. A.

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular imaging of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 116(9), 1052–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jhan, S.

Keren, S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiessling, F.

F. Kiessling, D. Razansky, and F. Alves, “Anatomical and microstructural imaging of angiogenesis,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiser, W. L.

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, “Thermoacoustic molecular imaging of small animals,” Mol. Imaging 2(2), 113–123 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klaase, J. M.

Köster, R. W.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kotov, N.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kotov, N. A.

M. Eghtedari, A. Oraevsky, J. A. Copland, N. A. Kotov, A. Conjusteau, and M. Motamedi, “High sensitivity of in vivo detection of gold nanorods using a laser optoacoustic imaging system,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1914–1918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruger, G. A.

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, “Thermoacoustic molecular imaging of small animals,” Mol. Imaging 2(2), 113–123 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Thermoacoustic computed tomography--technical considerations,” Med. Phys. 26(9), 1832–1837 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, “Thermoacoustic molecular imaging of small animals,” Mol. Imaging 2(2), 113–123 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Thermoacoustic computed tomography--technical considerations,” Med. Phys. 26(9), 1832–1837 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, W. C.

S. S. Chang, C. W. Shih, C. D. Chen, W. C. Lai, and C. R. C. Wang, “The shape transition of gold nanorods,” Langmuir 15(3), 701–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laufer, J.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, “Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(1), 141–168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lemor, R.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, J.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. L.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, P. C.

Liao, C. K.

Libby, P.

F. A. Jaffer, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Molecular imaging of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 116(9), 1052–1061 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litovsky, S. H.

Liu, Z.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lungu, G.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.

R. Ma, A. Taruttis, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, “Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) scanner for whole-body small animal imaging,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21414–21426 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, T. J.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mabon, R. F.

C. K. Zarins, D. P. Giddens, B. K. Bharadvaj, V. S. Sottiurai, R. F. Mabon, and S. Glagov, “Carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. Quantitative correlation of plaque localization with flow velocity profiles and wall shear stress,” Circ. Res. 53(4), 502–514 (1983).
[PubMed]

Manohar, S.

Maslov, K.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, M. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation variations in single vessels in vivo using photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 625–627 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maurudis, A.

Miller, K. D.

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, “Thermoacoustic molecular imaging of small animals,” Mol. Imaging 2(2), 113–123 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

M. Eghtedari, A. Oraevsky, J. A. Copland, N. A. Kotov, A. Conjusteau, and M. Motamedi, “High sensitivity of in vivo detection of gold nanorods using a laser optoacoustic imaging system,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1914–1918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niederhauser, J. J.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

A. Buehler, E. Herzog, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, “Video rate optoacoustic tomography of mouse kidney perfusion,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2475–2477 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fast semi-analytical model-based acoustic inversion for quantitative optoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1275–1285 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and D. Razansky, “Molecular imaging by means of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT),” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2783–2794 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ma, A. Taruttis, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, “Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) scanner for whole-body small animal imaging,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21414–21426 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Razansky, J. Baeten, and V. Ntziachristos, “Sensitivity of molecular target detection by multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT),” Med. Phys. 36(3), 939–945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, C. Vinegoni, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of fluorochromes in small animals,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2891–2893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donnell, M.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O’Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. T.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A.

M. Eghtedari, A. Oraevsky, J. A. Copland, N. A. Kotov, A. Conjusteau, and M. Motamedi, “High sensitivity of in vivo detection of gold nanorods using a laser optoacoustic imaging system,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1914–1918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oralkan, O.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrimon, N.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poe, C.

Razansky, D.

A. Buehler, E. Herzog, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, “Video rate optoacoustic tomography of mouse kidney perfusion,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2475–2477 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kiessling, D. Razansky, and F. Alves, “Anatomical and microstructural imaging of angiogenesis,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fast semi-analytical model-based acoustic inversion for quantitative optoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1275–1285 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and D. Razansky, “Molecular imaging by means of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT),” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2783–2794 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ma, A. Taruttis, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, “Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) scanner for whole-body small animal imaging,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21414–21426 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Razansky, J. Baeten, and V. Ntziachristos, “Sensitivity of molecular target detection by multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT),” Med. Phys. 36(3), 939–945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, C. Vinegoni, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of fluorochromes in small animals,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2891–2893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinecke, D. R.

R. A. Kruger, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, G. A. Kruger, and K. D. Miller, “Thermoacoustic molecular imaging of small animals,” Mol. Imaging 2(2), 113–123 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Thermoacoustic computed tomography--technical considerations,” Med. Phys. 26(9), 1832–1837 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenthal, A.

A. Rosenthal, D. Razansky, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fast semi-analytical model-based acoustic inversion for quantitative optoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1275–1285 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sethuraman, S.

Shieh, D. B.

Shih, C. W.

S. S. Chang, C. W. Shih, C. D. Chen, W. C. Lai, and C. R. C. Wang, “The shape transition of gold nanorods,” Langmuir 15(3), 701–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shung, K. K.

Sivaramakrishnan, M.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, M. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation variations in single vessels in vivo using photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smalling, R. W.

Smith, B. R.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K. H.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of the thoracic cavity and the kidney in small and large animals,” Med. Phys. 35(10), 4524–4529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, L.

Sottiurai, V. S.

C. K. Zarins, D. P. Giddens, B. K. Bharadvaj, V. S. Sottiurai, R. F. Mabon, and S. Glagov, “Carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. Quantitative correlation of plaque localization with flow velocity profiles and wall shear stress,” Circ. Res. 53(4), 502–514 (1983).
[PubMed]

Steenbergen, W.

Stoica, G.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, M. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation variations in single vessels in vivo using photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 625–627 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, R.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taruttis, A.

Vaartjes, S. E.

Vaithilingam, S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, H. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Engh, F. M.

van Hespen, J. C. G.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Vinegoni, C.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Razansky, C. Vinegoni, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of fluorochromes in small animals,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2891–2893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. R. C.

Wang, L. V.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, “A real-time photoacoustic tomography system for small animals,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10489–10498 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of the thoracic cavity and the kidney in small and large animals,” Med. Phys. 35(10), 4524–4529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Realtime photoacoustic microscopy of murine cardiovascular dynamics,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18551–18556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, M. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation variations in single vessels in vivo using photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 625–627 (2005).
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H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, M. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation variations in single vessels in vivo using photoacoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053901 (2007).
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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (3077 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1186 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a: Schematic of the experimental setup. b: The setup during measurement of a mouse, where the red arrow indicates the illumination path from a fiber bundle output to the mouse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The normalized absorption spectrum of the AuNR.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a: Schematic of testbed used for rib cage ultrasound measurements. b: Rib cages excised from mice.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transverse optoacoustic slices of arteries in the upper thorax and neck (750 nm excitation). a: Slice though top of aortic arch. Aortic arch labeled ‘A’. Left and right superior vena cava labeled ‘SVC’. b: Slice showing arteries just above aortic arch. Innominate artery labeled ‘I’, left common carotid artery labeled ‘C’, left and right superior vena cava labeled ‘SVC’. c: Slice approximately 10 mm cranially from aortic arch showing carotid arteries near bifurcation. Carotid arteries labeled ‘C’, veins branching from external jugular vein ‘V’. Scale bar: 2 mm. d-f: Photographs of cryosections showing corresponding anatomical structures to the images in a-c respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optoacoustic detection of AuNR. Jugular veins labeled ‘JV’. a: Single-pulse transverse slice through neck prior to injection. b: The same slice during injection of AuNR. c: And 10 s after finishing the injection of AuNR. (Media 1) shows the captured frames in animation, frame spacing approximately 1s. d: Photograph of cryosection showing anatomical correspondences. e: MSOT image before injection. f: MSOT image post injection showing multispectrally resolved distribution of AuNR overlaid on a single wavelength image. Scale bar 3 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optoacoustic heart imaging (740 nm excitation). a: Single-pulse image showing heart wall (‘W’). Also visible are signals from blood inside the left and right ventricles (‘BL’ and ‘BR’) and the sternum (‘S’) and veins (‘V’). (Media 2) shows animation of further frames of the heart in motion. b: Single-pulse image taken during ventricular systole. c: Average image over 41 pulses showing motion-blur. d: Average image over 22 selected frames showing reduced motion-blur. Scale bar 2 mm (applies to optoacoustic images). e: Photograph of cryosection through the heart of a mouse showing features corresponding to optoacoustic images.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a: Measured ultrasound signals. Dotted: baseline, solid: through rib cage. b: Experimental ultrasound transmission through the murine rib cage plotted against frequency.

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