Abstract

The far-field pattern of Gaussian beams transformed by conical refraction in biaxial crystal is analyzed. It is shown that one of the two outgoing beam components acquires, under certain conditions, a profile with a dominating central peak. The width of this peak can be made significantly smaller than the width of the parent diffraction-limited Gaussian beam at the same propagation distance. The formation of such structurally-stable sub-diffraction beam core improves the beam directivity. Another component is a charge-one optical vortex, that forms the annular shell of the beam and carries the rest of the beam power.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Durnin, "Exact solution for nondiffracting beams: I. The scalar theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651-654 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Belyi, A. Forbes, N. Kazak, N. Khilo, and P. Ropot, "Bessel-like beams with z-dependent cone angles," Opt. Express 18, 1966-1973 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri= oe-18-3-1966
  4. V. Bagini, F. Frezza, M. Santarsiero, G. Schettini, and G. S. Spagnolo, "Generalized Bessel-Gauss beams," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1155-1166 (1996).
  5. M. V. Berry, "Conical diffraction asymptotics: fine structure of Poggendorff rings and axial spike," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 289-300 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. V. Berry, M. R. Jeffrey, and J. G. Lunney, "Conical diffraction: observations and theory," Proc. R. Soc. A 462, 1629-1642 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. V. Berry and M. R. Jeffrey, "Conical diffraction: Hamilton’s diabolical point at the heart of crystal optics," Prog. Opt. 50, 13-50 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Belsky and M. A. Stepanov, "Internal conical refraction of coherent light beams," Opt. Commun. 167, 1-5 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. F. Phelan, D. P. O’Dwyer, Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, and J. G. Lunney, "Conical diffraction and Bessel beam formation with a high optical quality biaxial crystal," Opt. Express 17, 12891-12899 (2009), http: //www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12891
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Peet and D. Zolotukhin,"Free-space evolution of focused Gaussian beams transformed by conical diffraction in a biaxial crystal," Opt. Commun. 283, 3011-3016 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. A. King, W. Hogervorst, N. S. Kazak, N. A. Khilo, and A. A. Ryzhevich, "Formation of higher-order Bessel light beams in biaxial crystals," Opt. Commun. 187, 407-414 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. P. O’Dwyer, C. F. Phelan, Y. P. Rakovich, P. R. Eastham, J. G. Lunney, and J. F. Donegan, "Generation of continuously tunable fractional optical orbital angular momentum using internal conical diffraction," Opt. Express 18 16480-16485 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstractcfm?uri=oe-18-16-16480
  13. A. Abdolvand, K. G. Wilcox, T. K. Kalkandjiev, and E. U. Rafailov, "Conical refraction Nd : KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Express 18 2753-2759 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri= oe-18-3-2753
  14. K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, T. K. Kalkandjiev, and E. U. Rafailov, " Laser with simultaneous Gaussian and conical refraction outputs," Appl. Phys. B 99619-622 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010

V. Peet and D. Zolotukhin,"Free-space evolution of focused Gaussian beams transformed by conical diffraction in a biaxial crystal," Opt. Commun. 283, 3011-3016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, T. K. Kalkandjiev, and E. U. Rafailov, " Laser with simultaneous Gaussian and conical refraction outputs," Appl. Phys. B 99619-622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

M. V. Berry and M. R. Jeffrey, "Conical diffraction: Hamilton’s diabolical point at the heart of crystal optics," Prog. Opt. 50, 13-50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. V. Berry, M. R. Jeffrey, and J. G. Lunney, "Conical diffraction: observations and theory," Proc. R. Soc. A 462, 1629-1642 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. V. Berry, "Conical diffraction asymptotics: fine structure of Poggendorff rings and axial spike," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 289-300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. A. King, W. Hogervorst, N. S. Kazak, N. A. Khilo, and A. A. Ryzhevich, "Formation of higher-order Bessel light beams in biaxial crystals," Opt. Commun. 187, 407-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. M. Belsky and M. A. Stepanov, "Internal conical refraction of coherent light beams," Opt. Commun. 167, 1-5 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

V. Bagini, F. Frezza, M. Santarsiero, G. Schettini, and G. S. Spagnolo, "Generalized Bessel-Gauss beams," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1155-1166 (1996).

1987

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Durnin, "Exact solution for nondiffracting beams: I. The scalar theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651-654 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abdolvand, A.

K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, T. K. Kalkandjiev, and E. U. Rafailov, " Laser with simultaneous Gaussian and conical refraction outputs," Appl. Phys. B 99619-622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bagini, V.

V. Bagini, F. Frezza, M. Santarsiero, G. Schettini, and G. S. Spagnolo, "Generalized Bessel-Gauss beams," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1155-1166 (1996).

Belsky, A. M.

A. M. Belsky and M. A. Stepanov, "Internal conical refraction of coherent light beams," Opt. Commun. 167, 1-5 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry and M. R. Jeffrey, "Conical diffraction: Hamilton’s diabolical point at the heart of crystal optics," Prog. Opt. 50, 13-50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Berry, M. R. Jeffrey, and J. G. Lunney, "Conical diffraction: observations and theory," Proc. R. Soc. A 462, 1629-1642 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Berry, "Conical diffraction asymptotics: fine structure of Poggendorff rings and axial spike," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 289-300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donegan, J. F.

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Durnin, "Exact solution for nondiffracting beams: I. The scalar theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651-654 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Frezza, F.

V. Bagini, F. Frezza, M. Santarsiero, G. Schettini, and G. S. Spagnolo, "Generalized Bessel-Gauss beams," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1155-1166 (1996).

Hogervorst, W.

T. A. King, W. Hogervorst, N. S. Kazak, N. A. Khilo, and A. A. Ryzhevich, "Formation of higher-order Bessel light beams in biaxial crystals," Opt. Commun. 187, 407-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeffrey, M. R.

M. V. Berry and M. R. Jeffrey, "Conical diffraction: Hamilton’s diabolical point at the heart of crystal optics," Prog. Opt. 50, 13-50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Berry, M. R. Jeffrey, and J. G. Lunney, "Conical diffraction: observations and theory," Proc. R. Soc. A 462, 1629-1642 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalkandjiev, T. K.

K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, T. K. Kalkandjiev, and E. U. Rafailov, " Laser with simultaneous Gaussian and conical refraction outputs," Appl. Phys. B 99619-622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kazak, N. S.

T. A. King, W. Hogervorst, N. S. Kazak, N. A. Khilo, and A. A. Ryzhevich, "Formation of higher-order Bessel light beams in biaxial crystals," Opt. Commun. 187, 407-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khilo, N. A.

T. A. King, W. Hogervorst, N. S. Kazak, N. A. Khilo, and A. A. Ryzhevich, "Formation of higher-order Bessel light beams in biaxial crystals," Opt. Commun. 187, 407-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

T. A. King, W. Hogervorst, N. S. Kazak, N. A. Khilo, and A. A. Ryzhevich, "Formation of higher-order Bessel light beams in biaxial crystals," Opt. Commun. 187, 407-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lunney, J. G.

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O’Dwyer, D. P.

Peet, V.

V. Peet and D. Zolotukhin,"Free-space evolution of focused Gaussian beams transformed by conical diffraction in a biaxial crystal," Opt. Commun. 283, 3011-3016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phelan, C. F.

Rafailov, E. U.

K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, T. K. Kalkandjiev, and E. U. Rafailov, " Laser with simultaneous Gaussian and conical refraction outputs," Appl. Phys. B 99619-622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rakovich, Y. P.

Ryzhevich, A. A.

T. A. King, W. Hogervorst, N. S. Kazak, N. A. Khilo, and A. A. Ryzhevich, "Formation of higher-order Bessel light beams in biaxial crystals," Opt. Commun. 187, 407-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Santarsiero, M.

V. Bagini, F. Frezza, M. Santarsiero, G. Schettini, and G. S. Spagnolo, "Generalized Bessel-Gauss beams," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1155-1166 (1996).

Schettini, G.

V. Bagini, F. Frezza, M. Santarsiero, G. Schettini, and G. S. Spagnolo, "Generalized Bessel-Gauss beams," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1155-1166 (1996).

Spagnolo, G. S.

V. Bagini, F. Frezza, M. Santarsiero, G. Schettini, and G. S. Spagnolo, "Generalized Bessel-Gauss beams," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1155-1166 (1996).

Stepanov, M. A.

A. M. Belsky and M. A. Stepanov, "Internal conical refraction of coherent light beams," Opt. Commun. 167, 1-5 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, K. G.

K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, T. K. Kalkandjiev, and E. U. Rafailov, " Laser with simultaneous Gaussian and conical refraction outputs," Appl. Phys. B 99619-622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zolotukhin, D.

V. Peet and D. Zolotukhin,"Free-space evolution of focused Gaussian beams transformed by conical diffraction in a biaxial crystal," Opt. Commun. 283, 3011-3016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, T. K. Kalkandjiev, and E. U. Rafailov, " Laser with simultaneous Gaussian and conical refraction outputs," Appl. Phys. B 99619-622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

V. Bagini, F. Frezza, M. Santarsiero, G. Schettini, and G. S. Spagnolo, "Generalized Bessel-Gauss beams," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1155-1166 (1996).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

M. V. Berry, "Conical diffraction asymptotics: fine structure of Poggendorff rings and axial spike," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 289-300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

A. M. Belsky and M. A. Stepanov, "Internal conical refraction of coherent light beams," Opt. Commun. 167, 1-5 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Peet and D. Zolotukhin,"Free-space evolution of focused Gaussian beams transformed by conical diffraction in a biaxial crystal," Opt. Commun. 283, 3011-3016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. A. King, W. Hogervorst, N. S. Kazak, N. A. Khilo, and A. A. Ryzhevich, "Formation of higher-order Bessel light beams in biaxial crystals," Opt. Commun. 187, 407-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. A

M. V. Berry, M. R. Jeffrey, and J. G. Lunney, "Conical diffraction: observations and theory," Proc. R. Soc. A 462, 1629-1642 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt.

M. V. Berry and M. R. Jeffrey, "Conical diffraction: Hamilton’s diabolical point at the heart of crystal optics," Prog. Opt. 50, 13-50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. Belyi, A. Forbes, N. Kazak, N. Khilo, and P. Ropot, "Bessel-like beams with z-dependent cone angles," Opt. Express 18, 1966-1973 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri= oe-18-3-1966

D. P. O’Dwyer, C. F. Phelan, Y. P. Rakovich, P. R. Eastham, J. G. Lunney, and J. F. Donegan, "Generation of continuously tunable fractional optical orbital angular momentum using internal conical diffraction," Opt. Express 18 16480-16485 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstractcfm?uri=oe-18-16-16480

A. Abdolvand, K. G. Wilcox, T. K. Kalkandjiev, and E. U. Rafailov, "Conical refraction Nd : KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Express 18 2753-2759 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri= oe-18-3-2753

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