Abstract

We propose and demonstrate bend-insensitive fibers equipped with higher-order mode strippers. The mode stripper is realized by filling a section of air holes with epoxy to attenuate any higher-order modes that are excited at fiber junctions and are confined by the air holes surrounding the core. We found that the higher-order modes are well suppressed with 5 cm-long epoxy columns. An ultralow bending loss of 0.025 dB/turn at a bend diameter of 10 mm, together with single-modeness, is experimentally demonstrated in a bend-insensitive fiber with six air holes 16 μm in diameter.

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References

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  1. I. Sakabe, H. Ishikawa, H. Tanji, Y. Terasawa, T. Ueda, and M. Itou, “Bend-Insensitive SM Fiber and Its Applications to Access Network Systems,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C(5), 896–903 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Han, “Single-mode optical fiber design with wide-band ultra low bending-loss for FTTH application,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1180–1185 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, P. A. Weimann, C. J. Martin, A. McCurdy, “Solid Low-Bend Loss Transmission Fibers using Resonant Suppression of High-Order Modes,” ECOC’08, Brussels, paper Mo.4.B.4 (2008).
  4. L.-A. de Montmorillon, F. Gooijer, N. Montaigne, S. Geerings, D. Boivin, L. Provost, P. Sillard, “All-Solid G.652.D Fiber with Ultra Low Bend Losses down to 5 mm Bend Radius,” OFC’09, San Diego, CA, paper OTuL3 (2009).
  5. D Nishioka, T Hasegawa, T Saito, E Sasaoka, and T Hosoya, “Development of Holey Fiber Supporting Extra Small Diameter Bending,” SEI Tech. Rev. 58, 42–47 (2004).
  6. Y. Bing, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, “Low-loss Holey Fiber,” Hitachi Cable Rev. 24, 1–5 (2005).
  7. T. W. Wu, L. Dong, and H. Winful, “Bend performance of leakage channel fibers,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4278–4285 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Englebert, “Ultra-Low Bending Loss Single-Mode Fiber for FTTH,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 376–382 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Boivin, L.-A. de Montmorillon, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, “Coherent Multipath Interference in Bend-Insensitive Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1891–1893 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Hsieh, P. Mach, F. Cattaneo, S. Yang, T. Krupenkine, K. Baldwin, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable microfluidic optical-fiber devices based on electrowetting pumps and plastic microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 81–83 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

D. Boivin, L.-A. de Montmorillon, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, “Coherent Multipath Interference in Bend-Insensitive Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Englebert, “Ultra-Low Bending Loss Single-Mode Fiber for FTTH,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 376–382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2005 (2)

Y. Bing, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, “Low-loss Holey Fiber,” Hitachi Cable Rev. 24, 1–5 (2005).

I. Sakabe, H. Ishikawa, H. Tanji, Y. Terasawa, T. Ueda, and M. Itou, “Bend-Insensitive SM Fiber and Its Applications to Access Network Systems,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C(5), 896–903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D Nishioka, T Hasegawa, T Saito, E Sasaoka, and T Hosoya, “Development of Holey Fiber Supporting Extra Small Diameter Bending,” SEI Tech. Rev. 58, 42–47 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. Hsieh, P. Mach, F. Cattaneo, S. Yang, T. Krupenkine, K. Baldwin, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable microfluidic optical-fiber devices based on electrowetting pumps and plastic microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 81–83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, K.

J. Hsieh, P. Mach, F. Cattaneo, S. Yang, T. Krupenkine, K. Baldwin, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable microfluidic optical-fiber devices based on electrowetting pumps and plastic microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 81–83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bickham, S. R.

Bing, Y.

Y. Bing, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, “Low-loss Holey Fiber,” Hitachi Cable Rev. 24, 1–5 (2005).

Boivin, D.

D. Boivin, L.-A. de Montmorillon, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, “Coherent Multipath Interference in Bend-Insensitive Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bookbinder, D. C.

Cattaneo, F.

J. Hsieh, P. Mach, F. Cattaneo, S. Yang, T. Krupenkine, K. Baldwin, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable microfluidic optical-fiber devices based on electrowetting pumps and plastic microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 81–83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Montmorillon, L.-A.

D. Boivin, L.-A. de Montmorillon, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, “Coherent Multipath Interference in Bend-Insensitive Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Desorcie, R. B.

Dong, L.

Englebert, J. J.

Han, W. T.

Hasegawa, T

D Nishioka, T Hasegawa, T Saito, E Sasaoka, and T Hosoya, “Development of Holey Fiber Supporting Extra Small Diameter Bending,” SEI Tech. Rev. 58, 42–47 (2004).

Hosoya, T

D Nishioka, T Hasegawa, T Saito, E Sasaoka, and T Hosoya, “Development of Holey Fiber Supporting Extra Small Diameter Bending,” SEI Tech. Rev. 58, 42–47 (2004).

Hsieh, J.

J. Hsieh, P. Mach, F. Cattaneo, S. Yang, T. Krupenkine, K. Baldwin, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable microfluidic optical-fiber devices based on electrowetting pumps and plastic microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 81–83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

I. Sakabe, H. Ishikawa, H. Tanji, Y. Terasawa, T. Ueda, and M. Itou, “Bend-Insensitive SM Fiber and Its Applications to Access Network Systems,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C(5), 896–903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Itou, M.

I. Sakabe, H. Ishikawa, H. Tanji, Y. Terasawa, T. Ueda, and M. Itou, “Bend-Insensitive SM Fiber and Its Applications to Access Network Systems,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C(5), 896–903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. J.

Ju, S.

Krupenkine, T.

J. Hsieh, P. Mach, F. Cattaneo, S. Yang, T. Krupenkine, K. Baldwin, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable microfluidic optical-fiber devices based on electrowetting pumps and plastic microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 81–83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, T.

Y. Bing, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, “Low-loss Holey Fiber,” Hitachi Cable Rev. 24, 1–5 (2005).

Kurosawa, Y.

Y. Bing, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, “Low-loss Holey Fiber,” Hitachi Cable Rev. 24, 1–5 (2005).

Lewis, K. A.

Li, M.-J.

Mach, P.

J. Hsieh, P. Mach, F. Cattaneo, S. Yang, T. Krupenkine, K. Baldwin, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable microfluidic optical-fiber devices based on electrowetting pumps and plastic microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 81–83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McDermott, M. A.

Nishioka, D

D Nishioka, T Hasegawa, T Saito, E Sasaoka, and T Hosoya, “Development of Holey Fiber Supporting Extra Small Diameter Bending,” SEI Tech. Rev. 58, 42–47 (2004).

Nolan, D. A.

Ohsono, K.

Y. Bing, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, “Low-loss Holey Fiber,” Hitachi Cable Rev. 24, 1–5 (2005).

Provost, L.

D. Boivin, L.-A. de Montmorillon, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, “Coherent Multipath Interference in Bend-Insensitive Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

J. Hsieh, P. Mach, F. Cattaneo, S. Yang, T. Krupenkine, K. Baldwin, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable microfluidic optical-fiber devices based on electrowetting pumps and plastic microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 81–83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saito, T

D Nishioka, T Hasegawa, T Saito, E Sasaoka, and T Hosoya, “Development of Holey Fiber Supporting Extra Small Diameter Bending,” SEI Tech. Rev. 58, 42–47 (2004).

Sakabe, I.

I. Sakabe, H. Ishikawa, H. Tanji, Y. Terasawa, T. Ueda, and M. Itou, “Bend-Insensitive SM Fiber and Its Applications to Access Network Systems,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C(5), 896–903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sasaoka, E

D Nishioka, T Hasegawa, T Saito, E Sasaoka, and T Hosoya, “Development of Holey Fiber Supporting Extra Small Diameter Bending,” SEI Tech. Rev. 58, 42–47 (2004).

Sillard, P.

D. Boivin, L.-A. de Montmorillon, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, “Coherent Multipath Interference in Bend-Insensitive Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tachikura, M.

Y. Bing, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, “Low-loss Holey Fiber,” Hitachi Cable Rev. 24, 1–5 (2005).

Tandon, P.

Tanji, H.

I. Sakabe, H. Ishikawa, H. Tanji, Y. Terasawa, T. Ueda, and M. Itou, “Bend-Insensitive SM Fiber and Its Applications to Access Network Systems,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C(5), 896–903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Terasawa, Y.

I. Sakabe, H. Ishikawa, H. Tanji, Y. Terasawa, T. Ueda, and M. Itou, “Bend-Insensitive SM Fiber and Its Applications to Access Network Systems,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C(5), 896–903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, T.

I. Sakabe, H. Ishikawa, H. Tanji, Y. Terasawa, T. Ueda, and M. Itou, “Bend-Insensitive SM Fiber and Its Applications to Access Network Systems,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C(5), 896–903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watekar, P. R.

Winful, H.

Wu, T. W.

Yang, S.

J. Hsieh, P. Mach, F. Cattaneo, S. Yang, T. Krupenkine, K. Baldwin, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable microfluidic optical-fiber devices based on electrowetting pumps and plastic microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 81–83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hitachi Cable Rev. (1)

Y. Bing, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, “Low-loss Holey Fiber,” Hitachi Cable Rev. 24, 1–5 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Boivin, L.-A. de Montmorillon, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, “Coherent Multipath Interference in Bend-Insensitive Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hsieh, P. Mach, F. Cattaneo, S. Yang, T. Krupenkine, K. Baldwin, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable microfluidic optical-fiber devices based on electrowetting pumps and plastic microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 81–83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

I. Sakabe, H. Ishikawa, H. Tanji, Y. Terasawa, T. Ueda, and M. Itou, “Bend-Insensitive SM Fiber and Its Applications to Access Network Systems,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C(5), 896–903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

SEI Tech. Rev. (1)

D Nishioka, T Hasegawa, T Saito, E Sasaoka, and T Hosoya, “Development of Holey Fiber Supporting Extra Small Diameter Bending,” SEI Tech. Rev. 58, 42–47 (2004).

Other (2)

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, P. A. Weimann, C. J. Martin, A. McCurdy, “Solid Low-Bend Loss Transmission Fibers using Resonant Suppression of High-Order Modes,” ECOC’08, Brussels, paper Mo.4.B.4 (2008).

L.-A. de Montmorillon, F. Gooijer, N. Montaigne, S. Geerings, D. Boivin, L. Provost, P. Sillard, “All-Solid G.652.D Fiber with Ultra Low Bend Losses down to 5 mm Bend Radius,” OFC’09, San Diego, CA, paper OTuL3 (2009).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Bend-insensitive fiber structure with six large air holes, and (b) its SEM picture. The dashed line in (a) denotes the boundary between inner and outer claddings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of cladding mode stripper.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabrication method of the mode stripper. (a) Dipping of a bend-insensitive fiber in a tube filled with epoxy, (b) side view of epoxy-filled fiber, (c) SEM image of cross-section of the mode stripper, and (d) the epoxy infiltration length as a function of epoxy tube length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental setup for modal interference measurement. (b) Transmission spectra for different lengths (l) of mode stripper. (c) Multi-path interference values calculated from (b) as a function of stripper length.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)-(f) Far field patterns at the end of the fiber for epoxy lengths of l = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mm, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Bending loss of the BIF at various wavelengths.

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