Abstract

A record broadly tunable high-power external cavity InAs/GaAs quantum-dot diode laser with a tuning range of 202 nm (1122 nm-1324 nm) is demonstrated. A maximum output power of 480 mW and a side-mode suppression ratio greater than 45 dB are achieved in the central part of the tuning range. We exploit a number of strategies for enhancing the tuning range of external cavity quantum-dot lasers. Different waveguide designs, laser configurations and operation conditions (pump current and temperature) are investigated for optimization of output power and tunability.

© 2010 OSA

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2010

2008

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral range,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Rossetti, L. Lianhe, A. Markus, A. Fiore, L. Occhi, C. Velez, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “Characterization and Modeling of Broad Spectrum InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Superluminescent Diodes Emitting at 1.2-1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 676–686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Stevens, D. T. D. Childs, K. M. Groom, M. Hopkinson, and R. A. Hogg, “All semiconductor swept laser source utilizing quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Kovsh, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, J. Weimert, and A. Zhukov, “Quantum dot laser with 75 nm broad spectrum of emission,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 793–795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

N. Kuramoto and K. Fujii, “Volume determination of a silicon sphere using an improved interferometer with optical frequency tuning,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 868–871 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

S. C. Woodworth, D. T. Cassidy, and M. J. Hamp, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy by use of an asymmetric multiple-quantum-well diode laser in an external cavity,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6719–6724 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Eliseev, H. Li, T. Liu, T. C. Newell, L. F. Lester, and K. J. Malloy, “Ground-state emission and gain in ultralow-threshold InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(2), 135–142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang and D. G. Deppe, “Rate equation model for nonequilibrium operating conditions in a self-organized quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(5), 691–698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Low-threshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: High-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1185–1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

L. Ching-Fuh and J. Chaur-Shiuann, “Superluminescent diodes with bent waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 206–208 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 955–966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990

H. Tabuchi and H. Ishikawa, “External grating tunable MQW laser with wide tuning range of 240 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26(11), 742–743 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Bressel, U.

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral range,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: High-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1185–1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

Cataluna, M. A.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chaur-Shiuann, J.

L. Ching-Fuh and J. Chaur-Shiuann, “Superluminescent diodes with bent waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 206–208 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Childs, D. T. D.

B. J. Stevens, D. T. D. Childs, K. M. Groom, M. Hopkinson, and R. A. Hogg, “All semiconductor swept laser source utilizing quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ching-Fuh, L.

L. Ching-Fuh and J. Chaur-Shiuann, “Superluminescent diodes with bent waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 206–208 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

H. Huang and D. G. Deppe, “Rate equation model for nonequilibrium operating conditions in a self-organized quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(5), 691–698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eisele, Ch.

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral range,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eliseev, P. G.

P. G. Eliseev, H. Li, T. Liu, T. C. Newell, L. F. Lester, and K. J. Malloy, “Ground-state emission and gain in ultralow-threshold InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(2), 135–142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ernsting, I.

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral range,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

M. Rossetti, L. Lianhe, A. Markus, A. Fiore, L. Occhi, C. Velez, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “Characterization and Modeling of Broad Spectrum InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Superluminescent Diodes Emitting at 1.2-1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 676–686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, B.

P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Low-threshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, K.

N. Kuramoto and K. Fujii, “Volume determination of a silicon sphere using an improved interferometer with optical frequency tuning,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 868–871 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: High-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1185–1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Groom, K. M.

B. J. Stevens, D. T. D. Childs, K. M. Groom, M. Hopkinson, and R. A. Hogg, “All semiconductor swept laser source utilizing quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gubenko, A.

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral range,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hamp, M. J.

Hogg, R. A.

B. J. Stevens, D. T. D. Childs, K. M. Groom, M. Hopkinson, and R. A. Hogg, “All semiconductor swept laser source utilizing quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, M.

B. J. Stevens, D. T. D. Childs, K. M. Groom, M. Hopkinson, and R. A. Hogg, “All semiconductor swept laser source utilizing quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

H. Huang and D. G. Deppe, “Rate equation model for nonequilibrium operating conditions in a self-organized quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(5), 691–698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

H. Tabuchi and H. Ishikawa, “External grating tunable MQW laser with wide tuning range of 240 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26(11), 742–743 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jin, P.

Kovsh, A.

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral range,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kovsh, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, J. Weimert, and A. Zhukov, “Quantum dot laser with 75 nm broad spectrum of emission,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 793–795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rossetti, L. Lianhe, A. Markus, A. Fiore, L. Occhi, C. Velez, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “Characterization and Modeling of Broad Spectrum InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Superluminescent Diodes Emitting at 1.2-1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 676–686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krestnikov, I.

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral range,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kovsh, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, J. Weimert, and A. Zhukov, “Quantum dot laser with 75 nm broad spectrum of emission,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 793–795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rossetti, L. Lianhe, A. Markus, A. Fiore, L. Occhi, C. Velez, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “Characterization and Modeling of Broad Spectrum InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Superluminescent Diodes Emitting at 1.2-1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 676–686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuramoto, N.

N. Kuramoto and K. Fujii, “Volume determination of a silicon sphere using an improved interferometer with optical frequency tuning,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 868–871 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lester, L. F.

P. G. Eliseev, H. Li, T. Liu, T. C. Newell, L. F. Lester, and K. J. Malloy, “Ground-state emission and gain in ultralow-threshold InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(2), 135–142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Low-threshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

P. G. Eliseev, H. Li, T. Liu, T. C. Newell, L. F. Lester, and K. J. Malloy, “Ground-state emission and gain in ultralow-threshold InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(2), 135–142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Low-threshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lianhe, L.

M. Rossetti, L. Lianhe, A. Markus, A. Fiore, L. Occhi, C. Velez, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “Characterization and Modeling of Broad Spectrum InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Superluminescent Diodes Emitting at 1.2-1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 676–686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. T.

P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Low-threshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.

P. G. Eliseev, H. Li, T. Liu, T. C. Newell, L. F. Lester, and K. J. Malloy, “Ground-state emission and gain in ultralow-threshold InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(2), 135–142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D.

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral range,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kovsh, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, J. Weimert, and A. Zhukov, “Quantum dot laser with 75 nm broad spectrum of emission,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 793–795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lv, X. Q.

Malloy, K. J.

P. G. Eliseev, H. Li, T. Liu, T. C. Newell, L. F. Lester, and K. J. Malloy, “Ground-state emission and gain in ultralow-threshold InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(2), 135–142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Low-threshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Markus, A.

M. Rossetti, L. Lianhe, A. Markus, A. Fiore, L. Occhi, C. Velez, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “Characterization and Modeling of Broad Spectrum InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Superluminescent Diodes Emitting at 1.2-1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 676–686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mikhrin, S.

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral range,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kovsh, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, J. Weimert, and A. Zhukov, “Quantum dot laser with 75 nm broad spectrum of emission,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 793–795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rossetti, L. Lianhe, A. Markus, A. Fiore, L. Occhi, C. Velez, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “Characterization and Modeling of Broad Spectrum InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Superluminescent Diodes Emitting at 1.2-1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 676–686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nevsky, A. Yu.

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral range,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Newell, T. C.

P. G. Eliseev, H. Li, T. Liu, T. C. Newell, L. F. Lester, and K. J. Malloy, “Ground-state emission and gain in ultralow-threshold InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(2), 135–142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Low-threshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Occhi, L.

M. Rossetti, L. Lianhe, A. Markus, A. Fiore, L. Occhi, C. Velez, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “Characterization and Modeling of Broad Spectrum InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Superluminescent Diodes Emitting at 1.2-1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 676–686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okhapkin, M.

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral range,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rafailov, E. U.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rossetti, M.

M. Rossetti, L. Lianhe, A. Markus, A. Fiore, L. Occhi, C. Velez, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “Characterization and Modeling of Broad Spectrum InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Superluminescent Diodes Emitting at 1.2-1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 676–686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral range,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electroluminescence spectra of the QD gain chip for different bias and temperature conditions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light-current characteristics for InAs/GaAs QD-ECDL at 10°C. Inset: Simplified schematics of the QD-ECDL configuration (DG – diffraction grating, L – aspheric lens, OC – output coupler, GC – gain chip).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of output power on wavelength for different temperatures and configurations (a) and spectra (b) of the QD-ECDL with the gain chip, tuned across the 1122.5 nm – 1324.5 nm wavelength range, under an applied constant current of 1.7 A.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tuning range limits for the gain chip for different pump currents and temperatures without an output coupler (a) and with the 20% output coupler (b).

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