Abstract

Segmentation of anatomical and pathological structures in ophthalmic images is crucial for the diagnosis and study of ocular diseases. However, manual segmentation is often a time-consuming and subjective process. This paper presents an automatic approach for segmenting retinal layers in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography images using graph theory and dynamic programming. Results show that this method accurately segments eight retinal layer boundaries in normal adult eyes more closely to an expert grader as compared to a second expert grader.

© 2010 OSA

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  27. H. Takeda, S. Farsiu, and P. Milanfar, “Kernel regression for image processing and reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 16(2), 349–366 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

I. C. Han and G. J. Jaffe, “Evaluation of Artifacts Associated with Macular Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 117, 1177–1189. (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Mishra, A. Wong, K. Bizheva, and D. A. Clausi, “Intra-retinal layer segmentation in optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23719–23728 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Schuman, A. F. Koreishi, S. Farsiu, S. Jung, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Photoreceptor Layer Thinning over Drusen in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Imaged In Vivo with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 116, 488–496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. S. Schuman, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3978–3979 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Farsiu, S. J. Chiu, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6844, 68440D (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tolliver, I. Koutis, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, and G. L. Miller, “Automatic Multiple Retinal Layer Segmentation in Spectral Domain OCT Scans via Spectral Rounding,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci . 49, 1878- (2008).

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69148 (2008).

2007

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. D. Abramoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 6512, 651214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takeda, S. Farsiu, and P. Milanfar, “Kernel regression for image processing and reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 16(2), 349–366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group, “The Age-Related Eye Disease Study system for classifying age-related macular degeneration from stereoscopic color fundus photographs: the Age-Related Eye Disease Study Report Number 6,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132(5), 668–681 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000

J. Shi and J. Malik, “Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22(8), 888–905 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

N. Otsu, “Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cyber. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1962

R. W. Floyd, “Algorithm 97: Shortest path,” Commun. ACM 5(6), 345 (1962).
[CrossRef]

S. Warshall, “A Theorem on Boolean Matrices,” J. ACM 9(1), 11–12 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1959

E. W. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connexion with graphs,” Numerische Mathematik 1(1), 269–271 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958

R. Bellman, “On a Routing Problem,” Q. Appl. Math. 16, 87–90 (1958).

1956

P. Elias, A. Feinstein, and C. Shannon, “A note on the maximum flow through a network,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory 2(4), 117–119 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Abramoff, M. D.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69148 (2008).

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. D. Abramoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 6512, 651214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abràmoff, M. D.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaton, S.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellman, R.

R. Bellman, “On a Routing Problem,” Q. Appl. Math. 16, 87–90 (1958).

Bizheva, K.

Burns, T. L.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrera Fernández, D.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, C.

S. Lu, C. Cheung, J. Liu, J. Lim, C. Leung, and T. Wong, “Automated Layer Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Chiu, S. J.

S. Farsiu, S. J. Chiu, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6844, 68440D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clausi, D. A.

Dijkstra, E. W.

E. W. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connexion with graphs,” Numerische Mathematik 1(1), 269–271 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Elias, P.

P. Elias, A. Feinstein, and C. Shannon, “A note on the maximum flow through a network,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory 2(4), 117–119 (1956).
[CrossRef]

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabritius, T.

Farsiu, S.

S. G. Schuman, A. F. Koreishi, S. Farsiu, S. Jung, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Photoreceptor Layer Thinning over Drusen in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Imaged In Vivo with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 116, 488–496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Farsiu, S. J. Chiu, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6844, 68440D (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Takeda, S. Farsiu, and P. Milanfar, “Kernel regression for image processing and reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 16(2), 349–366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feinstein, A.

P. Elias, A. Feinstein, and C. Shannon, “A note on the maximum flow through a network,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory 2(4), 117–119 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Floyd, R. W.

R. W. Floyd, “Algorithm 97: Shortest path,” Commun. ACM 5(6), 345 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. S. Schuman, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3978–3979 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garvin, M. K.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69148 (2008).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haeker, M.

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. D. Abramoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 6512, 651214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, I. C.

I. C. Han and G. J. Jaffe, “Evaluation of Artifacts Associated with Macular Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 117, 1177–1189. (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

D. A. Tolliver, I. Koutis, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, and G. L. Miller, “Automatic Multiple Retinal Layer Segmentation in Spectral Domain OCT Scans via Spectral Rounding,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci . 49, 1878- (2008).

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

S. G. Schuman, A. F. Koreishi, S. Farsiu, S. Jung, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Photoreceptor Layer Thinning over Drusen in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Imaged In Vivo with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 116, 488–496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Farsiu, S. J. Chiu, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6844, 68440D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jaffe, G. J.

I. C. Han and G. J. Jaffe, “Evaluation of Artifacts Associated with Macular Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 117, 1177–1189. (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, S.

S. G. Schuman, A. F. Koreishi, S. Farsiu, S. Jung, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Photoreceptor Layer Thinning over Drusen in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Imaged In Vivo with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 116, 488–496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kardon, R.

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. D. Abramoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 6512, 651214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koreishi, A. F.

S. G. Schuman, A. F. Koreishi, S. Farsiu, S. Jung, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Photoreceptor Layer Thinning over Drusen in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Imaged In Vivo with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 116, 488–496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koutis, I.

D. A. Tolliver, I. Koutis, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, and G. L. Miller, “Automatic Multiple Retinal Layer Segmentation in Spectral Domain OCT Scans via Spectral Rounding,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci . 49, 1878- (2008).

Kwon, Y. H.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leung, C.

S. Lu, C. Cheung, J. Liu, J. Lim, C. Leung, and T. Wong, “Automated Layer Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Lim, J.

S. Lu, C. Cheung, J. Liu, J. Lim, C. Leung, and T. Wong, “Automated Layer Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

S. Lu, C. Cheung, J. Liu, J. Lim, C. Leung, and T. Wong, “Automated Layer Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Lu, S.

S. Lu, C. Cheung, J. Liu, J. Lim, C. Leung, and T. Wong, “Automated Layer Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Makita, S.

Malik, J.

J. Shi and J. Malik, “Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22(8), 888–905 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milanfar, P.

H. Takeda, S. Farsiu, and P. Milanfar, “Kernel regression for image processing and reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 16(2), 349–366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, G. L.

D. A. Tolliver, I. Koutis, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, and G. L. Miller, “Automatic Multiple Retinal Layer Segmentation in Spectral Domain OCT Scans via Spectral Rounding,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci . 49, 1878- (2008).

Mishra, A.

Miura, M.

Myllylä, R.

Niemeijer, M.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69148 (2008).

Otsu, N.

N. Otsu, “Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cyber. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, S. R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salinas, H. M.

Schuman, J. S.

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. S. Schuman, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3978–3979 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Tolliver, I. Koutis, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, and G. L. Miller, “Automatic Multiple Retinal Layer Segmentation in Spectral Domain OCT Scans via Spectral Rounding,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci . 49, 1878- (2008).

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, S. G.

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M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina,” Proc. SPIE 6914, 69148 (2008).

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M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Target retinal layers of a cross-sectional SDOCT image (B-scan) centered at the macula.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A generalized layer segmentation algorithm schematic.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example graph weights (adjacency matrix) for three connected nodes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

An example segmentation using automatic endpoint initialization.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Segmentation of Fig. 6b using Dijkstra’s algorithm, automatic endpoint initialization, and search space limitation. (a) The vitreous-NFL layer boundary segmented. (b) The pilot IS-OS layer boundary segmented.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eight retinal layer boundary segmentation algorithm schematic for SDOCT images.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Image flattening. (a) The original retinal SDOCT image. (b) The flattened image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Gradient images used for calculating graph weights for Fig. 6b. (a) Dark-to-light image for segmenting a darker layer above a lighter layer. (b) Light-to-dark image for segmenting a lighter layer above a darker layer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Contrast enhancement. (a) A flattened retinal SDOCT image. (b) The contrast-enhanced image.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) A binary mask of the filtered image in Fig. 9b. The red arrows mark the location of the holes corresponding to the GCL-IPL complex. (b) A zoomed in binary mask with disconnected layers achieved by interpolating the lower boundaries of corresponding holes from Fig. 10a. The green arrows point to vertical breaks used to separate clusters that were not disconnected through interpolation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Retinal layer assignments, where blue = NFL, green = IPL, yellow = OPL, cyan = IS-OS, magenta = RPE. (a) Column-wise layer assignments of the mask in Fig. 10a. Note the conflicts in the top three layer assignments. (b) Cluster layer assignments of the mask in Fig. 10b.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Connectivity-based segmentation of retinal layers using the layer assignments from Fig. 11b.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Vessel detection. (a) NFL-GCL without vessel detection. (b) NFL-GCL with vessel detection.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

NFL-GCL segmentation. (a) NFL-GCL before correction. (b) NFL-GCL after correction.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Fovea correction. (a) Segmented image before correction. (b) Segmented image after correction.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Comparison of automatic (cyan) versus manual (magenta) segmentation.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Segmentation of anatomical and pathological images of the eye. (a-c) Level 3 aged-macular degeneration retinas with drusen. (d) Pediatric retina. (e) Pediatric retina with edema. (f) Cornea.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Differences in retinal layer thickness segmentation between two expert manual graders for 29 B-scans (Column I), as compared to the thickness differences between the automatic segmentation and one expert manual grader of the same 29 B-scans (Column II). Column III reports the automatic and manual segmentation (of one grader) differences for a larger subset of 100 B-scans. Each pixel is 3.23 μm.

Equations (1)

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w a b = 2 ( g a + g b ) + w min ,  where

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