Abstract

This paper presents a new photonic integrated circuit, namely optical pulse-train generator, which is developed based on the transfer matrix analysis of microrings and utilizes a time-interleaved architecture. This circuit can generate multiple optical pulses sequentially from a single trigger pulse, with the timing and amplitude of each pulse determined by circuit design. Hence it can be applied in optical arbitrary waveform generation and ultrafast electro-optic modulation. A four-tap prototype pulse-train generator design is demonstrated, and the challenge of distributed optical power combining is discussed. The design techniques presented in this paper will find use in other large scale photonic integrated circuit applications.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultracompact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Little, S. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009

Y. Zhu, J. Zuegel, J. Marciante, and H. Wu, "Distributed waveform generator: A new circuit technique for ultra wideband pulse generation, filtering and modulation," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 808-823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, "Low loss etchless silicon photonic waveguides," Opt. Express 17, 4752-4757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, "Photonic analog-to-digital converters," Opt. Express 15, 1955-1982 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2002

2001

2000

B. Little, S. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultracompact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1982

1980

W. C. Black, and D. A. Hodges, "Time interleaved converter arrays," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-15, 1022-1029 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Black, W. C.

W. C. Black, and D. A. Hodges, "Time interleaved converter arrays," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-15, 1022-1029 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, J.

Cerrina, F.

Chen, L.

Chu, S.

B. Little, S. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultracompact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

Foresi, J.

B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultracompact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Greene, W.

B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultracompact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, S. A.

Haus, H.

B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultracompact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hodges, D. A.

W. C. Black, and D. A. Hodges, "Time interleaved converter arrays," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-15, 1022-1029 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Ippen, E.

T. Barwicz, M. Popovic, M. Watts, P. Rakich, E. Ippen, and H. Smith, "Fabrication of add-drop filters based on frequency-matched microring resonators," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2207-2218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultracompact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Izutsu, M.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kimerling, L.

B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultracompact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kokubun, Y.

B. Little, S. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Lim, D. R.

Lipson, M.

Little, B.

B. Little, S. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultracompact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

Marciante, J.

Y. Zhu, J. Zuegel, J. Marciante, and H. Wu, "Distributed waveform generator: A new circuit technique for ultra wideband pulse generation, filtering and modulation," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 808-823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S.

Mookherjea, S.

Murphy, T. E.

Nakai, Y.

Paloczi, G.

Pan, W.

B. Little, S. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

Poon, J.

Popovic, M.

Popovíc, M. A.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

Rakich, P.

Rakich, P. T.

Robinson, B. S.

Robinson, J. T.

Savage, S. J.

Scheuer, J.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. S.

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

Shin, J.

Smith, H.

Smith, H. I.

Socci, L.

Steinmeyer, G.

B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultracompact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sueta, T.

Thoen, E.

B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultracompact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

Valley, G. C.

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov, and S. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watts, M.

Watts, M. R.

Wu, H.

Y. Zhu, J. Zuegel, J. Marciante, and H. Wu, "Distributed waveform generator: A new circuit technique for ultra wideband pulse generation, filtering and modulation," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 808-823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius," Opt. Express 16, 4309-4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, J. Zuegel, J. Marciante, and H. Wu, "Distributed waveform generator: A new circuit technique for ultra wideband pulse generation, filtering and modulation," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 808-823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zuegel, J.

Y. Zhu, J. Zuegel, J. Marciante, and H. Wu, "Distributed waveform generator: A new circuit technique for ultra wideband pulse generation, filtering and modulation," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 808-823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

W. C. Black, and D. A. Hodges, "Time interleaved converter arrays," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-15, 1022-1029 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, J. Zuegel, J. Marciante, and H. Wu, "Distributed waveform generator: A new circuit technique for ultra wideband pulse generation, filtering and modulation," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 808-823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultracompact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Little, S. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photonics

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, "Corona: System implications of emerging nanophotonic technology," in ISCA ’08: Proceedings of the 35th International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 2008), pp. 153-164.

B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007), 2nd ed.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovíc, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, "Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits," in Silicon Photonics III, J. A. Kubby and G. T. Reed, eds., Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

An M-tap pulse-train generator. Microring in each stage is shown as a single-ring for clear illustration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) An Nth order add-drop filter; (b) An M-tap, Nth order microring network for the pulse-train generation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The schematic of a four-tap, first order pulse-train generator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Normalized drop port transmission of the add-drop filter in each stage, Dropm = b N+1,m /a 0,m ; (b) Normalized transmission at each stage output in a microring network, DROPm = b N+1,m /a 0,1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time domain behavior of the four-tap, first order pulse-train generator. (a) Pulse propagation in the input trigger waveguide (stage input) and each stage output; (b) Pulse waveform at input, output and through port.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The change of resonant wavelength vs. the microring width. The ring has a nominal radius of 5 µm and a cross section of 450 nm × 250 nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Coherent combination of the two-branch inputs; (b) Transmission of a single branch input; (c) Combination of two asynchronously timed pulses.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ a N + 1 b N + 1 ] = P out Q ( P Q ) N 1 P in [ a 0 b 0 ] [ A B C D ] [ a 0 b 0 ]
Thru ( ω ) = b 0 a 0 = A B
Drop ( ω ) = b N + 1 a 0 = C AD B
b 0 , m = A m B m a 0 , m
b N + 1 , m = ( C m A m D m B m ) a 0 , m
a 0 , m = b 0 , m 1 e i β L = A m 1 B m 1 e i β L a 0 , m 1
= = ( 1 ) m 1 A m 1 A m 2 A 1 B m 1 B m 2 B 1 e i ( m 1 ) β L a 0 , 1
THRU ( ω ) = b 0 , M a 0 , 1 = ( 1 ) M A M A M 1 A 1 B M B M 1 B 1 e i ( M 1 ) β L
OUT ( ω ) = O N + 1 a 0 , 1 = 1 M m = 1 M b N + 1 , m e i β d a 0 , 1
= 1 M m = 1 M ( 1 ) m 1 ( C m A m D m B m ) A m 1 A m 2 A 1 B m 1 B m 2 B 1 e i ( m 1 ) β L e i β d

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