Abstract

Traditional imaging systems capture and replicate the imaged environment in terms of color and intensity. One important property of light, which the human eye is blind to and is ignored by traditional imaging systems, is polarization. In this paper we present a novel, low power imaging sensor capable of recording the optical properties of partially linearly polarized light in real-time. The imaging sensor combines polymer polarization filters with a CMOS image sensor in order to compute the first three Stokes parameters at the focal plane. The imaging array contains 100 x 100 pixels and consumes 48mW at 30 fps.

© 2010 OSA

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2010

V. Gruev, Z. Yang, J. Van der Spiegel, and R. Etienne-Cummings, “Current Mode Image Sensor with Two Transistors per Pixel,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(6), 1154–1165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Blockstein and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Crosstalk quantification, analysis, and trends in CMOS image sensors,” Appl. Opt. 49(24), 4483–4488 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. S. Tyo, C. F. LaCasse, and B. M. Ratliff, “Total elimination of sampling errors in polarization imagery obtained with integrated microgrid polarimeters,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3187–3189 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tokuda, S. Sato, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarisation-analysing CMOS photosensor with monolithically embedded wire grid polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 228–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, F. Boussaid, A. Bermak, and V. G. Chigrinov, “Thin Photo-Patterned Micropolarizer Array for CMOS Image Sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 805–807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Treibitz and Y. Y. Schechner, “Active polarization descattering,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 31(3), 385–399 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2003

H. Mutoh, “3-D optical and electrical simulation for CMOS image sensors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(1), 19–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Germer and M. Fasolka, “Characterizing surface roughness of thin films by polarized light,” Proc. SPIE 518, 264–275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. A. Farlow, D. B. Chenault, K. D. Spradley, M. G. Gulley, M. W. Jones, and C. M. Persons, “Imaging polarimeter development and applications,” Proc. SPIE 4481, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Andreou and Z. Kalayjian, “Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters,” IEEE Sens. J. 2(6), 566–576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Harnett and H. G. Craighead, “Liquid-crystal micropolarizer array for polarization-difference imaging,” Appl. Opt. 41(7), 1291–1296 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Cronin and J. Marshall, “Parallel processing and image analysis in the eyes of mantis shrimps,” Biol. Bull. 200(2), 177–183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1997

E. R. Fossum, “CMOS image sensors: electronic camera-on-a-chip,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(10), 1689–1698 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1992

1988

T. Labhart, “Polarization opponent interneurons in the insect visual system,” Nature 331(6155), 435–437 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982

R. M. A. Azzam, “Division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters of light,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 29, 685–689 (1982).

1963

W. Plucknett and R. Dowd, “Refraction and Polarization Properties of Binary Solutions of the Nitrotoluene Isomers with the Xylene Isomers, Chloroform and Cyclohexane,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 8(2), 207–210 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Andreou, A.

A. Andreou and Z. Kalayjian, “Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters,” IEEE Sens. J. 2(6), 566–576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, E.

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins, “Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, “Division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters of light,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 29, 685–689 (1982).

Bermak, A.

X. Zhao, F. Boussaid, A. Bermak, and V. G. Chigrinov, “Thin Photo-Patterned Micropolarizer Array for CMOS Image Sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 805–807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Black, W. T.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blockstein, L.

Boger, J. K.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins, “Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boussaid, F.

X. Zhao, F. Boussaid, A. Bermak, and V. G. Chigrinov, “Thin Photo-Patterned Micropolarizer Array for CMOS Image Sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 805–807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, D. L.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins, “Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F. M.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chenault, D. B.

J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5453–5469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Farlow, D. B. Chenault, K. D. Spradley, M. G. Gulley, M. W. Jones, and C. M. Persons, “Imaging polarimeter development and applications,” Proc. SPIE 4481, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

X. Zhao, F. Boussaid, A. Bermak, and V. G. Chigrinov, “Thin Photo-Patterned Micropolarizer Array for CMOS Image Sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 805–807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

Cronin, T. W.

T. W. Cronin and J. Marshall, “Parallel processing and image analysis in the eyes of mantis shrimps,” Biol. Bull. 200(2), 177–183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deuzé, J. L.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, C.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dole, G. A.

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins, “Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dowd, R.

W. Plucknett and R. Dowd, “Refraction and Polarization Properties of Binary Solutions of the Nitrotoluene Isomers with the Xylene Isomers, Chloroform and Cyclohexane,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 8(2), 207–210 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

Etienne-Cummings, R.

V. Gruev, Z. Yang, J. Van der Spiegel, and R. Etienne-Cummings, “Current Mode Image Sensor with Two Transistors per Pixel,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(6), 1154–1165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Farlow, C. A.

C. A. Farlow, D. B. Chenault, K. D. Spradley, M. G. Gulley, M. W. Jones, and C. M. Persons, “Imaging polarimeter development and applications,” Proc. SPIE 4481, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fasolka, M.

T. Germer and M. Fasolka, “Characterizing surface roughness of thin films by polarized light,” Proc. SPIE 518, 264–275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fetrow, M. P.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins, “Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fossum, E. R.

E. R. Fossum, “CMOS image sensors: electronic camera-on-a-chip,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(10), 1689–1698 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Germer, T.

T. Germer and M. Fasolka, “Characterizing surface roughness of thin films by polarized light,” Proc. SPIE 518, 264–275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, D.

Goldstein, D. L.

Goloub, P.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gramer, M. E.

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins, “Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gruev, V.

V. Gruev, Z. Yang, J. Van der Spiegel, and R. Etienne-Cummings, “Current Mode Image Sensor with Two Transistors per Pixel,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(6), 1154–1165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Gruev, A. Ortu, N. Lazarus, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Fabrication of a dual-tier thin film micropolarization array,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4994–5007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gulley, M. G.

C. A. Farlow, D. B. Chenault, K. D. Spradley, M. G. Gulley, M. W. Jones, and C. M. Persons, “Imaging polarimeter development and applications,” Proc. SPIE 4481, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harnett, C. K.

Herman, M.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hubbs, J. E.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins, “Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. W.

C. A. Farlow, D. B. Chenault, K. D. Spradley, M. G. Gulley, M. W. Jones, and C. M. Persons, “Imaging polarimeter development and applications,” Proc. SPIE 4481, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalayjian, Z.

A. Andreou and Z. Kalayjian, “Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters,” IEEE Sens. J. 2(6), 566–576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Labhart, T.

T. Labhart, “Polarization opponent interneurons in the insect visual system,” Nature 331(6155), 435–437 (1988).
[CrossRef]

LaCasse, C. F.

Lafrance, B.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lazarus, N.

Lin, S. S.

Lin, S.-S.

Maestas-Jepson, D.

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins, “Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maignan, F.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, A.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, J.

T. W. Cronin and J. Marshall, “Parallel processing and image analysis in the eyes of mantis shrimps,” Biol. Bull. 200(2), 177–183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Momeni, M.

M. Momeni and A. H. Titus, “An analog VLSI chip emulating polarization vision of Octopus retina,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 17(1), 222–232 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mutoh, H.

H. Mutoh, “3-D optical and electrical simulation for CMOS image sensors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(1), 19–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nadal, F.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, J.

T. Tokuda, S. Sato, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarisation-analysing CMOS photosensor with monolithically embedded wire grid polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 228–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, S. E.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ortu, A.

Perry, G.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Persons, C. M.

C. A. Farlow, D. B. Chenault, K. D. Spradley, M. G. Gulley, M. W. Jones, and C. M. Persons, “Imaging polarimeter development and applications,” Proc. SPIE 4481, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Plucknett, W.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of the integrated CMOS image sensor with polymer micropolarization filters. Analog circuits are implemented at the focal plane and in the periphery of the imaging array in order to compute the first three Stokes parameters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The photo response of three neighboring pixels with respect to linearly polarized light is presented. The incident light is linearly polarized and the angle of polarization is swept from 0 to 180 degrees in steps of 5 degrees. The two polarization filters are offset by 45 degrees, while the third pixel records the total intensity of the incident light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The extinction ratio of a pixel with 0 degree polarization filter as a function of the incident angle of light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The extinction ratio of two neighboring pixels with polarization filters offset by 45 degrees is recorded as a function of the integration time of one frame. The extinction ratios of the polarization filters degrade with longer integration times

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The computed angle and degree of polarization as a function of incident linearly polarized light is presented. The angle of polarization computed by the sensor closely follows the angle of polarization of the incident light. The degree of polarization for linearly polarized light is about 0.96+/−0.01.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Sample target used for this experiment recorded with a regular CCD image sensor; (b) Raw image data of the pixels with 0 degree polarization filters; (c) Raw image data of the pixels with 45 degree polarization filters; (d) Raw image data of the pixels with no polarization filters.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The second Stokes image and (b) the third Stokes image as computed on chip. The bidirectional current output from the CMOS image sensor is encoded in sign magnitude images.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The computed (a) degree and (b) angle of polarization from the Stokes image presented in Fig. 7. The high degree of polarization is due to the intrinsic properties of the linear filters in the stimulus image. The four linear filters in the stimulus target are offset by 90 degrees and the computed angles of polarizations have the same offset.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The values of the Brewster angle for five different materials with real index of refraction are presented. The theoretical value is presented for references purposes.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the CMOS polymer polarization imaging sensor

Equations (1)

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D o L P = S 1 2 + S 2 2 S o             A o P = 1 2 arctan ( S 2 S 1 ) .

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