Abstract

With the imminent commercialisation of silicon photonic devices comes the requirement for a fabrication process capable of high yield and device performance repeatability. The precise alignment of the different elements of a device can be a major fabrication challenge for minimising performance variation or even device failure. In this paper a new design of high speed carrier depletion silicon optical modulator is introduced which features the use of a self-aligned fabrication process to form the pn junction. Experimental results are presented from an initial fabrication run, which has demonstrated a 6dB modulation depth at 10Gbit/s from a 3.5mm long device.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. D. D’Andrea, “CMOS Photonics Today & Tomorrow,” in Proc. OFC 2009, San Diego, (2009).
  2. F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-B. You, M. Park, J.-W. Park, and G. Kim, “12.5 Gbps optical modulation of silicon racetrack resonator based on carrier-depletion in asymmetric p-n diode,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18340–18344 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, M. Halbwax, S. Maine, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and J. F. Damlencourt, “Optical modulation by carrier depletion in a silicon PIN diode,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10838–10843 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” Micro, IEEE 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. Park, J.-B. You, I. G. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-modulation efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator based on carrier depletion in a PN Diode,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15520–15524 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Narasimha, S. AbdaIla, C. Bradbury, A. Clark, J. Clymore, J. Coyne, A. Dahl, S. Gloeckner, A. Gruenberg, D. Guckenberger, S. Gutierrez, M. Harrison, D. Kucharski, K. Leap, R. LeBlanc, V. Liang, M. Mack, D. Martinez, G. Masini, A. Mekis, R. Menigoz, C. Ogden, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, J. Redman, J. Rodriguez, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, V. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, W. Xu, K. Vokoyama and P. D. DobbeIaere, “An Ultra Low Power CMOS Photonics Technology Platform for H/S Optoelectronic Transceivers at less than $1 per Gbps,” in Proc. OFC 2010, San Diego, USA (2010).
  9. T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Modulators and Germanium Photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic Integration, Compatibility, and Performance Optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” 2008 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (2008).
  12. N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Modulators and Germanium Photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic Integration, Compatibility, and Performance Optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2007

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Ang, K.-W.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Modulators and Germanium Photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic Integration, Compatibility, and Performance Optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, J.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brimont, A.

Carothers, D.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, Y.-K.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Damlencourt, J. F.

Dong, F.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Fang, Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Modulators and Germanium Photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic Integration, Compatibility, and Performance Optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fédéli, J. M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Gardes, F. Y.

Gill, D. M.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” Micro, IEEE 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Halbwax, M.

Hill, C.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kamocsai, R.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

Kim, I. G.

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Kwong, D.-L.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Modulators and Germanium Photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic Integration, Compatibility, and Performance Optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Le Roux, X.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

Liow, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Modulators and Germanium Photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic Integration, Compatibility, and Performance Optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Modulators and Germanium Photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic Integration, Compatibility, and Performance Optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maine, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Martí, J.

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. W.

Park, J.-W.

Park, M.

Pascal, D.

Patel, S. S.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Rasigade, G.

Rasras, M.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

Shafiiha, R.

Song, J.-F.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Modulators and Germanium Photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic Integration, Compatibility, and Performance Optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K.-Y.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

White, A. E.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.-Z.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Modulators and Germanium Photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic Integration, Compatibility, and Performance Optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, J.-B.

Yu, M.-B.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Modulators and Germanium Photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic Integration, Compatibility, and Performance Optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Electron. Lett.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Modulators and Germanium Photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic Integration, Compatibility, and Performance Optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Siring Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Micro, IEEE

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” Micro, IEEE 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, M. Halbwax, S. Maine, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and J. F. Damlencourt, “Optical modulation by carrier depletion in a silicon PIN diode,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10838–10843 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-B. You, M. Park, J.-W. Park, and G. Kim, “12.5 Gbps optical modulation of silicon racetrack resonator based on carrier-depletion in asymmetric p-n diode,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18340–18344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Park, J.-B. You, I. G. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-modulation efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator based on carrier depletion in a PN Diode,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15520–15524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” 2008 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (2008).

D. D’Andrea, “CMOS Photonics Today & Tomorrow,” in Proc. OFC 2009, San Diego, (2009).

A. Narasimha, S. AbdaIla, C. Bradbury, A. Clark, J. Clymore, J. Coyne, A. Dahl, S. Gloeckner, A. Gruenberg, D. Guckenberger, S. Gutierrez, M. Harrison, D. Kucharski, K. Leap, R. LeBlanc, V. Liang, M. Mack, D. Martinez, G. Masini, A. Mekis, R. Menigoz, C. Ogden, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, J. Redman, J. Rodriguez, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, V. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, W. Xu, K. Vokoyama and P. D. DobbeIaere, “An Ultra Low Power CMOS Photonics Technology Platform for H/S Optoelectronic Transceivers at less than $1 per Gbps,” in Proc. OFC 2010, San Diego, USA (2010).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

– Cross sectional diagram of phase modulator

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

– Self alignment of pn junction

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

– Scanning electron microscope images of the device cross section (left and centre), optical microscope image of the MZI end (right)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

- Modulator normalised spectral response

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

– Data transmission at 10Gbit/s

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

– Phase shift versus reverse bias voltage for a 1.5mm phase shifter

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

– Intrinsic dynamic response of a 1.5mm phase shifter

Tables (1)

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Table 1 – Design parameters

Equations (1)

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Δ φ = 2 π Δ λ F S R ,

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