Abstract

In Er3+/Yb3+ codoped Na2O-ZnO-PbO-GeO2-TeO2 (NZPGT) glass fiber, a clear and compact green upconversion amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) trace is observed, and the NZPGT glasses are proved to be a desirable candidate in fabricating low-phonon energy fiber. Intense green upconversion luminescence of Er3+, balanced green and red upconversion emissions of Ho3+, and dominant three-photon blue upconversion fluorescence of Tm3+ have been represented. By varying the excitation power of 974nm wavelength laser diode, a series of green and white fluorescences have been achieved in Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+ and Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ triply doped glass systems, respectively. These results reveal that high-intensity blue, green, and white upconversion ASE fluorescences, which can be adopted for lighting in minimally invasive photodynamic therapy and minimally invasive surgery, are reasonable to be expected in rare-earth doped NZPGT glass fibers.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. A. Serra, M. Pineiro, N. Pereira, A. R. Gonsalves, M. Laranjo, M. Abrantes, and F. Botelho, “A look at clinical applications and developments of photodynamic therapy,” Oncol. Rev. 2(4), 235–249 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Brancaleon and H. Moseley, “Laser and non-laser light sources for photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 17(3), 173–186 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Efficient green and red fluorescence upconversion in erbium doped new low phonon antimony glasses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 609–618 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, A. C. M. Afonso, J. F. Nascimento, E. B. Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Yb3+- and Tb3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorogermanate glass and glass ceramic,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 509–514 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. K. Giri, S. B. Rai, and A. Rai, “Intense green and red upconversion emissions from Ho3+ in presence of Yb3+ in Li:TeO2 glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 74(5), 1115–1119 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. A. Simpson, W. E. K. Gibbs, S. F. Collins, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, P. Peterka, and G. W. Baxter, “Visible and near infra-red up-conversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped silica fibers under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13781–13799 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. V. Padlyak, Cz Koepke, D Piatkowski, K Wisniewski, and B Kuklinski, “Excited state absorption and up-conversion luminescence of Ho3+ centers in 3CaO-Ga2O3-3GeO2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1338–1341 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Deng, S. Xu, S. Zhao, C. Li, H. Wang, and H. Ju, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+-codoped glass ceramic containing LiYF4 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 129(11), 1266–1270 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Balakrishnaiah, D. W. Kim, S. S. Yi, K. D. Kim, S. H. Kim, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Frequency upconversion fluorescence studies of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped KNbO3 phosphors,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4138–4142 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+-doped and Er3+, Yb3+-codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. K. Komarala, Y. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Nonlinear optical properties of Er3+/Yb3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 490(4-6), 189–193 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Gebavi, D. Milanese, G. Liao, Q. Chen, M. Ferraris, M. Ivanda, O. Gamulin, and S. Taccheo, “Spectroscopic investigation and optical characterization of novel highly thulium doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(9), 548–555 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Balda, R. I. Merino, J. I. Pena, V. M. Orera, M. A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernandez, “Spectroscopic properties and frequency upconversion of Er3+-doped 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 eutectic glass,” Opt. Mater. 31(7), 1105–1108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. De la Rosa, P. Salas, H. Desirena, C. Angeles, and R. A. Rodriguez, “Strong green upconversion emission in ZrO2: Yb3+-Ho3+ nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241912 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, A. C. Bento, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens study of energy transfer in Yb3+/Tm3+-co-doped glasses,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9232–9238 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. Zhang, F. Song, J. Su, L. Han, J. Liang, X. Zhang, L. Yan, J. Tian, and J. Xu, “Three-photon indirect sensitization in green upconversion luminescence of Er/Tm codoped NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12584–12589 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 483–485 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Lahoz, “Ho3+-doped nanophase glass ceramics for efficiency enhancement in silicon solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2982–2984 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer frequency upconversion in Ho3+ doped fluoroindate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1272–1275 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and E. Osiac, “Upconversion emission of RE3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic under 800nm pumping,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 744–749 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. Yu, Q. Yang, C. Xu, and Y. Liu, “Upconversion white-light emitting of Tm3+ and Er3+ codoped oxyfluoride and its achieving mechanism,” Mater. Res. Bull. 44(7), 1576–1580 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Duan, J. Zhang, W. Xiang, H. Sun, and L. Hu, “Multicolor upconversion of Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 61(11-12), 2200–2203 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Liu and J. Heo, “Generation of white light from oxy-fluoride nano-glass doped with Ho3+, Tm3+ and Yb3+,” Mater. Lett. 61(17), 3751–3754 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Gong, D. L. Yang, X. Zhao, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Upconversion color tunability and white light generation in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped aluminum germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(4), 554–559 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. N. K. Giri, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “Multicolor upconversion emission from Tm3++Ho3++Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass on NIR excitations,” Appl. Phys. B 91(3-4), 437–441 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. X. Sun, H. Gong, B. J. Chen, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Multicolor upconversion and color tunability in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped opaque aluminum tellurite ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 106109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. E. C. da Silva, G. F. de Sa, and P. A. Santa-Cruz, “White light simulation by upconversion in fluoride glass host,” J. Alloy. Comp. 344(1-2), 260–263 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, and A. Briones, “Infrared-laser induced photon avalanche upconversion in Ho3+-Yb3+ codoped fluoroindate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 2957–2962 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. A. Kumar, A. Martinez, E. Mejia, and J. G. Eden, “Fluorescence and upconversion spectral studies of Ho3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 365(1-2), 117–120 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  34. X. Zou and H. Toratani, “Dynamics and mechanisms of up-conversion processes in Yb3+ sensitized Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped fluorozircoaluminate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(1-2), 87–99 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Komarala, Y. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Nonlinear optical properties of Er3+/Yb3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 490(4-6), 189–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Gong, D. L. Yang, X. Zhao, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Upconversion color tunability and white light generation in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped aluminum germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(4), 554–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. X. Sun, H. Gong, B. J. Chen, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Multicolor upconversion and color tunability in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped opaque aluminum tellurite ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 106109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and E. Osiac, “Upconversion emission of RE3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic under 800nm pumping,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 744–749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, Q. Yang, C. Xu, and Y. Liu, “Upconversion white-light emitting of Tm3+ and Er3+ codoped oxyfluoride and its achieving mechanism,” Mater. Res. Bull. 44(7), 1576–1580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Gebavi, D. Milanese, G. Liao, Q. Chen, M. Ferraris, M. Ivanda, O. Gamulin, and S. Taccheo, “Spectroscopic investigation and optical characterization of novel highly thulium doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(9), 548–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, R. I. Merino, J. I. Pena, V. M. Orera, M. A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernandez, “Spectroscopic properties and frequency upconversion of Er3+-doped 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 eutectic glass,” Opt. Mater. 31(7), 1105–1108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Padlyak, Cz Koepke, D Piatkowski, K Wisniewski, and B Kuklinski, “Excited state absorption and up-conversion luminescence of Ho3+ centers in 3CaO-Ga2O3-3GeO2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1338–1341 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Deng, S. Xu, S. Zhao, C. Li, H. Wang, and H. Ju, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+-codoped glass ceramic containing LiYF4 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 129(11), 1266–1270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Balakrishnaiah, D. W. Kim, S. S. Yi, K. D. Kim, S. H. Kim, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Frequency upconversion fluorescence studies of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped KNbO3 phosphors,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4138–4142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+-doped and Er3+, Yb3+-codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Efficient green and red fluorescence upconversion in erbium doped new low phonon antimony glasses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 609–618 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Giri, S. B. Rai, and A. Rai, “Intense green and red upconversion emissions from Ho3+ in presence of Yb3+ in Li:TeO2 glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 74(5), 1115–1119 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

D. A. Simpson, W. E. K. Gibbs, S. F. Collins, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, P. Peterka, and G. W. Baxter, “Visible and near infra-red up-conversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped silica fibers under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13781–13799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lahoz, “Ho3+-doped nanophase glass ceramics for efficiency enhancement in silicon solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2982–2984 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, A. C. M. Afonso, J. F. Nascimento, E. B. Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Yb3+- and Tb3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorogermanate glass and glass ceramic,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 509–514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Serra, M. Pineiro, N. Pereira, A. R. Gonsalves, M. Laranjo, M. Abrantes, and F. Botelho, “A look at clinical applications and developments of photodynamic therapy,” Oncol. Rev. 2(4), 235–249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Giri, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “Multicolor upconversion emission from Tm3++Ho3++Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass on NIR excitations,” Appl. Phys. B 91(3-4), 437–441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, A. C. Bento, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens study of energy transfer in Yb3+/Tm3+-co-doped glasses,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9232–9238 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Duan, J. Zhang, W. Xiang, H. Sun, and L. Hu, “Multicolor upconversion of Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 61(11-12), 2200–2203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu and J. Heo, “Generation of white light from oxy-fluoride nano-glass doped with Ho3+, Tm3+ and Yb3+,” Mater. Lett. 61(17), 3751–3754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Zhang, F. Song, J. Su, L. Han, J. Liang, X. Zhang, L. Yan, J. Tian, and J. Xu, “Three-photon indirect sensitization in green upconversion luminescence of Er/Tm codoped NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12584–12589 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. De la Rosa, P. Salas, H. Desirena, C. Angeles, and R. A. Rodriguez, “Strong green upconversion emission in ZrO2: Yb3+-Ho3+ nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, and A. Briones, “Infrared-laser induced photon avalanche upconversion in Ho3+-Yb3+ codoped fluoroindate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 2957–2962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Kumar, A. Martinez, E. Mejia, and J. G. Eden, “Fluorescence and upconversion spectral studies of Ho3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 365(1-2), 117–120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

L. Brancaleon and H. Moseley, “Laser and non-laser light sources for photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 17(3), 173–186 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer frequency upconversion in Ho3+ doped fluoroindate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1272–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. C. da Silva, G. F. de Sa, and P. A. Santa-Cruz, “White light simulation by upconversion in fluoride glass host,” J. Alloy. Comp. 344(1-2), 260–263 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 483–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

X. Zou and H. Toratani, “Dynamics and mechanisms of up-conversion processes in Yb3+ sensitized Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped fluorozircoaluminate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(1-2), 87–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abrantes, M.

A. Serra, M. Pineiro, N. Pereira, A. R. Gonsalves, M. Laranjo, M. Abrantes, and F. Botelho, “A look at clinical applications and developments of photodynamic therapy,” Oncol. Rev. 2(4), 235–249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, A. C. M.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, A. C. M. Afonso, J. F. Nascimento, E. B. Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Yb3+- and Tb3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorogermanate glass and glass ceramic,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 509–514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andrade, A. A.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Angeles, C.

E. De la Rosa, P. Salas, H. Desirena, C. Angeles, and R. A. Rodriguez, “Strong green upconversion emission in ZrO2: Yb3+-Ho3+ nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arriandiaga, M. A.

R. Balda, R. I. Merino, J. I. Pena, V. M. Orera, M. A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernandez, “Spectroscopic properties and frequency upconversion of Er3+-doped 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 eutectic glass,” Opt. Mater. 31(7), 1105–1108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Astrath, N. G. C.

Baesso, M. L.

C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, A. C. Bento, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens study of energy transfer in Yb3+/Tm3+-co-doped glasses,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9232–9238 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnaiah, R.

R. Balakrishnaiah, D. W. Kim, S. S. Yi, K. D. Kim, S. H. Kim, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Frequency upconversion fluorescence studies of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped KNbO3 phosphors,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4138–4142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

R. Balda, R. I. Merino, J. I. Pena, V. M. Orera, M. A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernandez, “Spectroscopic properties and frequency upconversion of Er3+-doped 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 eutectic glass,” Opt. Mater. 31(7), 1105–1108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

Bento, A. C.

Bettinelli, M.

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+-doped and Er3+, Yb3+-codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, W.

Botelho, F.

A. Serra, M. Pineiro, N. Pereira, A. R. Gonsalves, M. Laranjo, M. Abrantes, and F. Botelho, “A look at clinical applications and developments of photodynamic therapy,” Oncol. Rev. 2(4), 235–249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brancaleon, L.

L. Brancaleon and H. Moseley, “Laser and non-laser light sources for photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 17(3), 173–186 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briones, A.

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, and A. Briones, “Infrared-laser induced photon avalanche upconversion in Ho3+-Yb3+ codoped fluoroindate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 2957–2962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bueno, L. A.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, A. C. M. Afonso, J. F. Nascimento, E. B. Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Yb3+- and Tb3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorogermanate glass and glass ceramic,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 509–514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Catunda, T.

C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, A. C. Bento, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens study of energy transfer in Yb3+/Tm3+-co-doped glasses,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9232–9238 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. J.

L. X. Sun, H. Gong, B. J. Chen, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Multicolor upconversion and color tunability in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped opaque aluminum tellurite ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 106109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

H. Gebavi, D. Milanese, G. Liao, Q. Chen, M. Ferraris, M. Ivanda, O. Gamulin, and S. Taccheo, “Spectroscopic investigation and optical characterization of novel highly thulium doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(9), 548–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chung, P. S.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 483–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S. F.

Costa, E. B.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, A. C. M. Afonso, J. F. Nascimento, E. B. Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Yb3+- and Tb3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorogermanate glass and glass ceramic,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 509–514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

da Costa, E. B.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, E. A.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, J. E. C.

J. E. C. da Silva, G. F. de Sa, and P. A. Santa-Cruz, “White light simulation by upconversion in fluoride glass host,” J. Alloy. Comp. 344(1-2), 260–263 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, C. B.

N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer frequency upconversion in Ho3+ doped fluoroindate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1272–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, M. T.

De la Rosa, E.

E. De la Rosa, P. Salas, H. Desirena, C. Angeles, and R. A. Rodriguez, “Strong green upconversion emission in ZrO2: Yb3+-Ho3+ nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Sa, G. F.

J. E. C. da Silva, G. F. de Sa, and P. A. Santa-Cruz, “White light simulation by upconversion in fluoride glass host,” J. Alloy. Comp. 344(1-2), 260–263 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deng, D.

D. Deng, S. Xu, S. Zhao, C. Li, H. Wang, and H. Ju, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+-codoped glass ceramic containing LiYF4 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 129(11), 1266–1270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Desirena, H.

E. De la Rosa, P. Salas, H. Desirena, C. Angeles, and R. A. Rodriguez, “Strong green upconversion emission in ZrO2: Yb3+-Ho3+ nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

do Nascimento, R. F.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

do Nascimento, V. B.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Z.

Z. Duan, J. Zhang, W. Xiang, H. Sun, and L. Hu, “Multicolor upconversion of Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 61(11-12), 2200–2203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

Eden, J. G.

G. A. Kumar, A. Martinez, E. Mejia, and J. G. Eden, “Fluorescence and upconversion spectral studies of Ho3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 365(1-2), 117–120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Einarsrud, M.

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, J.

R. Balda, R. I. Merino, J. I. Pena, V. M. Orera, M. A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernandez, “Spectroscopic properties and frequency upconversion of Er3+-doped 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 eutectic glass,” Opt. Mater. 31(7), 1105–1108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferraris, M.

H. Gebavi, D. Milanese, G. Liao, Q. Chen, M. Ferraris, M. Ivanda, O. Gamulin, and S. Taccheo, “Spectroscopic investigation and optical characterization of novel highly thulium doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(9), 548–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, K.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gamulin, O.

H. Gebavi, D. Milanese, G. Liao, Q. Chen, M. Ferraris, M. Ivanda, O. Gamulin, and S. Taccheo, “Spectroscopic investigation and optical characterization of novel highly thulium doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(9), 548–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garskaite, E.

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gebavi, H.

H. Gebavi, D. Milanese, G. Liao, Q. Chen, M. Ferraris, M. Ivanda, O. Gamulin, and S. Taccheo, “Spectroscopic investigation and optical characterization of novel highly thulium doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(9), 548–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gheorghe, C.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and E. Osiac, “Upconversion emission of RE3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic under 800nm pumping,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 744–749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, W. E. K.

Giri, N. K.

N. K. Giri, S. B. Rai, and A. Rai, “Intense green and red upconversion emissions from Ho3+ in presence of Yb3+ in Li:TeO2 glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 74(5), 1115–1119 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Giri, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “Multicolor upconversion emission from Tm3++Ho3++Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass on NIR excitations,” Appl. Phys. B 91(3-4), 437–441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, H.

H. Gong, D. L. Yang, X. Zhao, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Upconversion color tunability and white light generation in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped aluminum germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(4), 554–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. X. Sun, H. Gong, B. J. Chen, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Multicolor upconversion and color tunability in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped opaque aluminum tellurite ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 106109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gonsalves, A. R.

A. Serra, M. Pineiro, N. Pereira, A. R. Gonsalves, M. Laranjo, M. Abrantes, and F. Botelho, “A look at clinical applications and developments of photodynamic therapy,” Oncol. Rev. 2(4), 235–249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, A. C. M. Afonso, J. F. Nascimento, E. B. Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Yb3+- and Tb3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorogermanate glass and glass ceramic,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 509–514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grande, T.

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, L.

Hehlen, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J.

C. Liu and J. Heo, “Generation of white light from oxy-fluoride nano-glass doped with Ho3+, Tm3+ and Yb3+,” Mater. Lett. 61(17), 3751–3754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, T.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Honda, H.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

Z. Duan, J. Zhang, W. Xiang, H. Sun, and L. Hu, “Multicolor upconversion of Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 61(11-12), 2200–2203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and E. Osiac, “Upconversion emission of RE3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic under 800nm pumping,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 744–749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ivanda, M.

H. Gebavi, D. Milanese, G. Liao, Q. Chen, M. Ferraris, M. Ivanda, O. Gamulin, and S. Taccheo, “Spectroscopic investigation and optical characterization of novel highly thulium doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(9), 548–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jacinto, C.

C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, A. C. Bento, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens study of energy transfer in Yb3+/Tm3+-co-doped glasses,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9232–9238 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K.

R. Balakrishnaiah, D. W. Kim, S. S. Yi, K. D. Kim, S. H. Kim, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Frequency upconversion fluorescence studies of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped KNbO3 phosphors,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4138–4142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J. H.

R. Balakrishnaiah, D. W. Kim, S. S. Yi, K. D. Kim, S. H. Kim, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Frequency upconversion fluorescence studies of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped KNbO3 phosphors,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4138–4142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ju, H.

D. Deng, S. Xu, S. Zhao, C. Li, H. Wang, and H. Ju, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+-codoped glass ceramic containing LiYF4 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 129(11), 1266–1270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karmakar, B.

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Efficient green and red fluorescence upconversion in erbium doped new low phonon antimony glasses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 609–618 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kato, H.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

R. Balakrishnaiah, D. W. Kim, S. S. Yi, K. D. Kim, S. H. Kim, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Frequency upconversion fluorescence studies of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped KNbO3 phosphors,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4138–4142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. D.

R. Balakrishnaiah, D. W. Kim, S. S. Yi, K. D. Kim, S. H. Kim, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Frequency upconversion fluorescence studies of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped KNbO3 phosphors,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4138–4142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

R. Balakrishnaiah, D. W. Kim, S. S. Yi, K. D. Kim, S. H. Kim, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Frequency upconversion fluorescence studies of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped KNbO3 phosphors,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4138–4142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, Cz

B. V. Padlyak, Cz Koepke, D Piatkowski, K Wisniewski, and B Kuklinski, “Excited state absorption and up-conversion luminescence of Ho3+ centers in 3CaO-Ga2O3-3GeO2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1338–1341 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Komarala, V. K.

V. K. Komarala, Y. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Nonlinear optical properties of Er3+/Yb3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 490(4-6), 189–193 (2010).
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Kuklinski, B

B. V. Padlyak, Cz Koepke, D Piatkowski, K Wisniewski, and B Kuklinski, “Excited state absorption and up-conversion luminescence of Ho3+ centers in 3CaO-Ga2O3-3GeO2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1338–1341 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G. A.

G. A. Kumar, A. Martinez, E. Mejia, and J. G. Eden, “Fluorescence and upconversion spectral studies of Ho3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 365(1-2), 117–120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lahoz, F.

F. Lahoz, “Ho3+-doped nanophase glass ceramics for efficiency enhancement in silicon solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2982–2984 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, and A. Briones, “Infrared-laser induced photon avalanche upconversion in Ho3+-Yb3+ codoped fluoroindate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 2957–2962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laranjo, M.

A. Serra, M. Pineiro, N. Pereira, A. R. Gonsalves, M. Laranjo, M. Abrantes, and F. Botelho, “A look at clinical applications and developments of photodynamic therapy,” Oncol. Rev. 2(4), 235–249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

R. Balakrishnaiah, D. W. Kim, S. S. Yi, K. D. Kim, S. H. Kim, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Frequency upconversion fluorescence studies of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped KNbO3 phosphors,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4138–4142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

D. Deng, S. Xu, S. Zhao, C. Li, H. Wang, and H. Ju, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+-codoped glass ceramic containing LiYF4 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 129(11), 1266–1270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Liao, G.

H. Gebavi, D. Milanese, G. Liao, Q. Chen, M. Ferraris, M. Ivanda, O. Gamulin, and S. Taccheo, “Spectroscopic investigation and optical characterization of novel highly thulium doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(9), 548–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lima, S. M.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

H. Gong, D. L. Yang, X. Zhao, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Upconversion color tunability and white light generation in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped aluminum germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(4), 554–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. X. Sun, H. Gong, B. J. Chen, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Multicolor upconversion and color tunability in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped opaque aluminum tellurite ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 106109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindgren, M.

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lisiecki, R.

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+-doped and Er3+, Yb3+-codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu and J. Heo, “Generation of white light from oxy-fluoride nano-glass doped with Ho3+, Tm3+ and Yb3+,” Mater. Lett. 61(17), 3751–3754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Z. Yu, Q. Yang, C. Xu, and Y. Liu, “Upconversion white-light emitting of Tm3+ and Er3+ codoped oxyfluoride and its achieving mechanism,” Mater. Res. Bull. 44(7), 1576–1580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, A.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and E. Osiac, “Upconversion emission of RE3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic under 800nm pumping,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 744–749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, V.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and E. Osiac, “Upconversion emission of RE3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic under 800nm pumping,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 744–749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lüthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maciel, G. S.

N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer frequency upconversion in Ho3+ doped fluoroindate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1272–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Man, S. Q.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 483–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martin, I. R.

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, and A. Briones, “Infrared-laser induced photon avalanche upconversion in Ho3+-Yb3+ codoped fluoroindate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 2957–2962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

G. A. Kumar, A. Martinez, E. Mejia, and J. G. Eden, “Fluorescence and upconversion spectral studies of Ho3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 365(1-2), 117–120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mejia, E.

G. A. Kumar, A. Martinez, E. Mejia, and J. G. Eden, “Fluorescence and upconversion spectral studies of Ho3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 365(1-2), 117–120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Merino, R. I.

R. Balda, R. I. Merino, J. I. Pena, V. M. Orera, M. A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernandez, “Spectroscopic properties and frequency upconversion of Er3+-doped 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 eutectic glass,” Opt. Mater. 31(7), 1105–1108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, A. C. M. Afonso, J. F. Nascimento, E. B. Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Yb3+- and Tb3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorogermanate glass and glass ceramic,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 509–514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer frequency upconversion in Ho3+ doped fluoroindate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1272–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Messias, D. N.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milanese, D.

H. Gebavi, D. Milanese, G. Liao, Q. Chen, M. Ferraris, M. Ivanda, O. Gamulin, and S. Taccheo, “Spectroscopic investigation and optical characterization of novel highly thulium doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(9), 548–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monnom, G.

Moseley, H.

L. Brancaleon and H. Moseley, “Laser and non-laser light sources for photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 17(3), 173–186 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagatsuka, Y.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nascimento, J. F.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, A. C. M. Afonso, J. F. Nascimento, E. B. Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Yb3+- and Tb3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorogermanate glass and glass ceramic,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 509–514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohira, T.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okunaka, T.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orera, V. M.

R. Balda, R. I. Merino, J. I. Pena, V. M. Orera, M. A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernandez, “Spectroscopic properties and frequency upconversion of Er3+-doped 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 eutectic glass,” Opt. Mater. 31(7), 1105–1108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osiac, E.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and E. Osiac, “Upconversion emission of RE3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic under 800nm pumping,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 744–749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Padlyak, B. V.

B. V. Padlyak, Cz Koepke, D Piatkowski, K Wisniewski, and B Kuklinski, “Excited state absorption and up-conversion luminescence of Ho3+ centers in 3CaO-Ga2O3-3GeO2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1338–1341 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pena, J. I.

R. Balda, R. I. Merino, J. I. Pena, V. M. Orera, M. A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernandez, “Spectroscopic properties and frequency upconversion of Er3+-doped 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 eutectic glass,” Opt. Mater. 31(7), 1105–1108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, N.

A. Serra, M. Pineiro, N. Pereira, A. R. Gonsalves, M. Laranjo, M. Abrantes, and F. Botelho, “A look at clinical applications and developments of photodynamic therapy,” Oncol. Rev. 2(4), 235–249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peterka, P.

Piatkowski, D

B. V. Padlyak, Cz Koepke, D Piatkowski, K Wisniewski, and B Kuklinski, “Excited state absorption and up-conversion luminescence of Ho3+ centers in 3CaO-Ga2O3-3GeO2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1338–1341 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pineiro, M.

A. Serra, M. Pineiro, N. Pereira, A. R. Gonsalves, M. Laranjo, M. Abrantes, and F. Botelho, “A look at clinical applications and developments of photodynamic therapy,” Oncol. Rev. 2(4), 235–249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

H. Gong, D. L. Yang, X. Zhao, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Upconversion color tunability and white light generation in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped aluminum germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(4), 554–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. X. Sun, H. Gong, B. J. Chen, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Multicolor upconversion and color tunability in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped opaque aluminum tellurite ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 106109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 483–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rai, A.

N. K. Giri, S. B. Rai, and A. Rai, “Intense green and red upconversion emissions from Ho3+ in presence of Yb3+ in Li:TeO2 glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 74(5), 1115–1119 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rai, D. K.

N. K. Giri, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “Multicolor upconversion emission from Tm3++Ho3++Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass on NIR excitations,” Appl. Phys. B 91(3-4), 437–441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rai, S. B.

N. K. Giri, S. B. Rai, and A. Rai, “Intense green and red upconversion emissions from Ho3+ in presence of Yb3+ in Li:TeO2 glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 74(5), 1115–1119 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Giri, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “Multicolor upconversion emission from Tm3++Ho3++Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass on NIR excitations,” Appl. Phys. B 91(3-4), 437–441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rakov, N.

N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer frequency upconversion in Ho3+ doped fluoroindate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1272–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, A. C. M. Afonso, J. F. Nascimento, E. B. Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Yb3+- and Tb3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorogermanate glass and glass ceramic,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 509–514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, R. A.

E. De la Rosa, P. Salas, H. Desirena, C. Angeles, and R. A. Rodriguez, “Strong green upconversion emission in ZrO2: Yb3+-Ho3+ nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+-doped and Er3+, Yb3+-codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salas, P.

E. De la Rosa, P. Salas, H. Desirena, C. Angeles, and R. A. Rodriguez, “Strong green upconversion emission in ZrO2: Yb3+-Ho3+ nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santa-Cruz, P. A.

J. E. C. da Silva, G. F. de Sa, and P. A. Santa-Cruz, “White light simulation by upconversion in fluoride glass host,” J. Alloy. Comp. 344(1-2), 260–263 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Serra, A.

A. Serra, M. Pineiro, N. Pereira, A. R. Gonsalves, M. Laranjo, M. Abrantes, and F. Botelho, “A look at clinical applications and developments of photodynamic therapy,” Oncol. Rev. 2(4), 235–249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, D. A.

Som, T.

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Efficient green and red fluorescence upconversion in erbium doped new low phonon antimony glasses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 609–618 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, F.

Speghini, A.

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+-doped and Er3+, Yb3+-codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

Suga, Y.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

Z. Duan, J. Zhang, W. Xiang, H. Sun, and L. Hu, “Multicolor upconversion of Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 61(11-12), 2200–2203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L. X.

L. X. Sun, H. Gong, B. J. Chen, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Multicolor upconversion and color tunability in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped opaque aluminum tellurite ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 106109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

H. Gebavi, D. Milanese, G. Liao, Q. Chen, M. Ferraris, M. Ivanda, O. Gamulin, and S. Taccheo, “Spectroscopic investigation and optical characterization of novel highly thulium doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(9), 548–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

Toratani, H.

X. Zou and H. Toratani, “Dynamics and mechanisms of up-conversion processes in Yb3+ sensitized Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped fluorozircoaluminate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(1-2), 87–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsuboi, M.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, H.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Udo, P. T.

Usuda, J.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vermelho, M. V. D.

Wang, H.

D. Deng, S. Xu, S. Zhao, C. Li, H. Wang, and H. Ju, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+-codoped glass ceramic containing LiYF4 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 129(11), 1266–1270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

V. K. Komarala, Y. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Nonlinear optical properties of Er3+/Yb3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 490(4-6), 189–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wisniewski, K

B. V. Padlyak, Cz Koepke, D Piatkowski, K Wisniewski, and B Kuklinski, “Excited state absorption and up-conversion luminescence of Ho3+ centers in 3CaO-Ga2O3-3GeO2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1338–1341 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, W.

Z. Duan, J. Zhang, W. Xiang, H. Sun, and L. Hu, “Multicolor upconversion of Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 61(11-12), 2200–2203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

V. K. Komarala, Y. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Nonlinear optical properties of Er3+/Yb3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 490(4-6), 189–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Z. Yu, Q. Yang, C. Xu, and Y. Liu, “Upconversion white-light emitting of Tm3+ and Er3+ codoped oxyfluoride and its achieving mechanism,” Mater. Res. Bull. 44(7), 1576–1580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Xu, S.

D. Deng, S. Xu, S. Zhao, C. Li, H. Wang, and H. Ju, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+-codoped glass ceramic containing LiYF4 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 129(11), 1266–1270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.

Yang, D. L.

H. Gong, D. L. Yang, X. Zhao, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Upconversion color tunability and white light generation in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped aluminum germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(4), 554–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

Z. Yu, Q. Yang, C. Xu, and Y. Liu, “Upconversion white-light emitting of Tm3+ and Er3+ codoped oxyfluoride and its achieving mechanism,” Mater. Res. Bull. 44(7), 1576–1580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yi, S. S.

R. Balakrishnaiah, D. W. Kim, S. S. Yi, K. D. Kim, S. H. Kim, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Frequency upconversion fluorescence studies of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped KNbO3 phosphors,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4138–4142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, Q. Yang, C. Xu, and Y. Liu, “Upconversion white-light emitting of Tm3+ and Er3+ codoped oxyfluoride and its achieving mechanism,” Mater. Res. Bull. 44(7), 1576–1580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Z. Duan, J. Zhang, W. Xiang, H. Sun, and L. Hu, “Multicolor upconversion of Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 61(11-12), 2200–2203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, S.

D. Deng, S. Xu, S. Zhao, C. Li, H. Wang, and H. Ju, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+-codoped glass ceramic containing LiYF4 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 129(11), 1266–1270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

H. Gong, D. L. Yang, X. Zhao, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Upconversion color tunability and white light generation in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped aluminum germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(4), 554–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X.

X. Zou and H. Toratani, “Dynamics and mechanisms of up-conversion processes in Yb3+ sensitized Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped fluorozircoaluminate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(1-2), 87–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

N. K. Giri, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “Multicolor upconversion emission from Tm3++Ho3++Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass on NIR excitations,” Appl. Phys. B 91(3-4), 437–441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. De la Rosa, P. Salas, H. Desirena, C. Angeles, and R. A. Rodriguez, “Strong green upconversion emission in ZrO2: Yb3+-Ho3+ nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 483–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

V. K. Komarala, Y. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Nonlinear optical properties of Er3+/Yb3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 490(4-6), 189–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp.

J. E. C. da Silva, G. F. de Sa, and P. A. Santa-Cruz, “White light simulation by upconversion in fluoride glass host,” J. Alloy. Comp. 344(1-2), 260–263 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Kumar, A. Martinez, E. Mejia, and J. G. Eden, “Fluorescence and upconversion spectral studies of Ho3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 365(1-2), 117–120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, and A. Briones, “Infrared-laser induced photon avalanche upconversion in Ho3+-Yb3+ codoped fluoroindate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 2957–2962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. X. Sun, H. Gong, B. J. Chen, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Multicolor upconversion and color tunability in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped opaque aluminum tellurite ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 106109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Energy transfer frequency upconversion in Ho3+ doped fluoroindate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1272–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.

E. Garskaite, M. Lindgren, M. Einarsrud, and T. Grande, “Luminescent properties of rare earth (Er, Yb) doped yttrium aluminium garnet thin films and bulk samples synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel technique,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30(7), 1707–1715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

D. Deng, S. Xu, S. Zhao, C. Li, H. Wang, and H. Ju, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+-codoped glass ceramic containing LiYF4 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin. 129(11), 1266–1270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+-doped and Er3+, Yb3+-codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

B. V. Padlyak, Cz Koepke, D Piatkowski, K Wisniewski, and B Kuklinski, “Excited state absorption and up-conversion luminescence of Ho3+ centers in 3CaO-Ga2O3-3GeO2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1338–1341 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Gebavi, D. Milanese, G. Liao, Q. Chen, M. Ferraris, M. Ivanda, O. Gamulin, and S. Taccheo, “Spectroscopic investigation and optical characterization of novel highly thulium doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(9), 548–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zou and H. Toratani, “Dynamics and mechanisms of up-conversion processes in Yb3+ sensitized Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped fluorozircoaluminate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(1-2), 87–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, A. C. M. Afonso, J. F. Nascimento, E. B. Costa, Y. Messaddeq, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Yb3+- and Tb3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorogermanate glass and glass ceramic,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 509–514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Thorac. Oncol.

J. Usuda, H. Kato, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, H. Tsutsui, K. Yamada, Y. Suga, H. Honda, Y. Nagatsuka, T. Ohira, M. Tsuboi, and T. Hirano, “Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancers,” J. Thorac. Oncol. 1(5), 489–493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci.

L. Brancaleon and H. Moseley, “Laser and non-laser light sources for photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 17(3), 173–186 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Lett.

Z. Duan, J. Zhang, W. Xiang, H. Sun, and L. Hu, “Multicolor upconversion of Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 61(11-12), 2200–2203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu and J. Heo, “Generation of white light from oxy-fluoride nano-glass doped with Ho3+, Tm3+ and Yb3+,” Mater. Lett. 61(17), 3751–3754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull.

Z. Yu, Q. Yang, C. Xu, and Y. Liu, “Upconversion white-light emitting of Tm3+ and Er3+ codoped oxyfluoride and its achieving mechanism,” Mater. Res. Bull. 44(7), 1576–1580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oncol. Rev.

A. Serra, M. Pineiro, N. Pereira, A. R. Gonsalves, M. Laranjo, M. Abrantes, and F. Botelho, “A look at clinical applications and developments of photodynamic therapy,” Oncol. Rev. 2(4), 235–249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Efficient green and red fluorescence upconversion in erbium doped new low phonon antimony glasses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 609–618 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Gong, D. L. Yang, X. Zhao, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Upconversion color tunability and white light generation in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ doped aluminum germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(4), 554–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, R. I. Merino, J. I. Pena, V. M. Orera, M. A. Arriandiaga, and J. Fernandez, “Spectroscopic properties and frequency upconversion of Er3+-doped 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 eutectic glass,” Opt. Mater. 31(7), 1105–1108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and E. Osiac, “Upconversion emission of RE3+ in Sc2O3 ceramic under 800nm pumping,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 744–749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.

N. K. Giri, S. B. Rai, and A. Rai, “Intense green and red upconversion emissions from Ho3+ in presence of Yb3+ in Li:TeO2 glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 74(5), 1115–1119 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films

R. Balakrishnaiah, D. W. Kim, S. S. Yi, K. D. Kim, S. H. Kim, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Frequency upconversion fluorescence studies of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped KNbO3 phosphors,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4138–4142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Upconversion emission spectra of sample I (974nm laser pump powers for curves 1, 2, 3, and 4 are 367, 504, 641, and 845mW, respectively). Right inset: dependence of upconversion emission intensity on excitation power. Inserted photo: (a) photograph of upconversion ASE fluorescence generation and transmission in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped NZPGT glass fiber when 457mW 980nm single-mode laser was launched into the fiber end; (b) green fluorescence from sample I under 778mW 974nm laser excitation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectrum (solid line) and Gaussian-resolved results (seven dotted lines) of NZPGT host glass.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Upconversion emission spectra of sample II (974nm laser pump powers for curves 1, 2, and 3 are 236, 504, and 813mW, respectively). Right inset: dependence of up conversion emission intensity on excitation power. Inserted photo: yellowish-green fluorescence from sample II under 236mW pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy level diagram of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Yb3+ with possible ET and ESA processes in NZPGT glass system under 974nm diode laser excitation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Upconversion emission spectra of sample III (974nm laser pump powers for curve 1, 2, and 3 are 236, 504, and 845mW, respectively). Middle inset: dependence of upconversion emission intensity on excited power. Inserted photo: blue fluorescence from sample III under 236mW pump power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Upconversion emission spectra of sample IV normalized by the green 531nm wavelength peak intensity under 1042mW 974nm laser excitation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Luminescence photos (a), (b), (c), and (d) present the fluorescences of sample IV under 103, 367, 778, and 1024mW pump powers, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CIE (x, y) chromaticity diagram indicating the color coordinates of the multicolor upconversion fluorescences in sample IV (■) and sample V (◄). In sample IV, the pump powers corresponding to the points from right to left are 103, 367, 713, and 1042mW, respectively. In sample V, the pump powers corresponding to the points from right to left are 37, 103, 171, 236, and 367mW, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Upconversion emission spectra of sample V normalized by the blue 477nm peak intensity under 367mW 974nm laser excitation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Luminescence photos (a), (b), (c), and (d) present the fluorescences of sample V under 37, 367, 504, and 778mW pump powers, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 CIE-1931 color coordinates (x, y) and correlated color temperature (CCT) of the fluorescences from sample V under different excitation powers.

Metrics