Abstract

We report the first study of nanoscale integrated photonic devices constructed with semiconductor-insulator-metal strip (SIMS) waveguides for use at telecom wavelengths. These waveguides support hybrid plasmonic modes transmitting through a 5-nm thick insulating region with a normalized intensity of 200-300 μm−2. Their fundamental mode, unique transmission and dispersion properties are consistent with photonic devices for guiding and routing of signals in communication applications. It has been demonstrated using Finite Element Methods (FEM) that the high performance SIMS waveguide can be used to fabricate deep sub-wavelength integrated plasmonic devices such as directional couplers with the ultra short coupling lengths, sharply bent waveguides, and ring resonators having a functional size of ≈1 µm and with low insertion losses and nearly zero radiation losses.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (3)

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mandal, X. Serey, and D. Erickson, “Nanomanipulation using silicon photonic crystal resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 99–104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Zhang, A. Hu, T. Zhang, X. J. Xue, J. Z. Wen, and W. W. Duley, “Subwavelength plasmonic waveguides based on ZnO nanowires and nanotubes: A theoretical study of thermo-optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (11)

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, “Vertical coupling between short range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical analysis of thermally tunable microring resonator filters made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. J. Yang, T. Lerdsuchatawanich, and D. Erickson, “Forces and transport velocities for a particle in a slot waveguide,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1182–1188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, “Nanoscale mode selector in silicon waveguide for on chip nanofocusing applications,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3381–3386 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Han, V. Van, W. N. Herman, and P.-T. Ho, “Aperture-coupled MIM plasmonic ring resonators with sub-diffraction modal volumes,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12678–12684 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12678 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (8)

Z. Zheng, M. Iqbal, and J. Liu, “Dispersion characteristics of SOI-based slot optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281(20), 5151–5155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 045425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Salvador, A. Martínez, C. Garía-Meca, R. Ortuño, and J. Martí, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. K. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2925–2929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Polman, “Applied physics. Plasmonics applied,” Science 322(5903), 868–869 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Majkić, M. Koechlin, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Optical microring resonators in fluorineimplanted lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8769–8779 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-12-8769 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

D. Goldring, U. Levy, and D. Mendlovic, “Highly dispersive micro-ring resonator based on one dimensional photonic crystal waveguide design and analysis,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3156–3168 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3156 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hosseini and Y. Massoud, “Nanoscale surface plasmon based resonator using rectangular geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silicamicrophotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 430–435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. D. L. Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1988 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Atwater, H. A.

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. K. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2925–2929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. D. L. Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

Bartal, G.

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carmon, T.

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silicamicrophotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 430–435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chapelle, M. L. D. L.

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. D. L. Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, T.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desiatov, B.

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, “Nanoscale mode selector in silicon waveguide for on chip nanofocusing applications,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3381–3386 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. K. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2925–2929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duley, W. W.

X. Y. Zhang, A. Hu, T. Zhang, X. J. Xue, J. Z. Wen, and W. W. Duley, “Subwavelength plasmonic waveguides based on ZnO nanowires and nanotubes: A theoretical study of thermo-optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erickson, D.

S. Mandal, X. Serey, and D. Erickson, “Nanomanipulation using silicon photonic crystal resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 99–104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. H. J. Yang, T. Lerdsuchatawanich, and D. Erickson, “Forces and transport velocities for a particle in a slot waveguide,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1182–1188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garía-Meca, C.

R. Salvador, A. Martínez, C. Garía-Meca, R. Ortuño, and J. Martí, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E.-J.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldring, D.

Gondarenko, A.

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goykhman, I.

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, “Nanoscale mode selector in silicon waveguide for on chip nanofocusing applications,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3381–3386 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimault, A.-S.

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. D. L. Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

Halas, N. J.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

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R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, “Vertical coupling between short range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141104 (2009).
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L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
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A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 045425 (2008).
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O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical analysis of thermally tunable microring resonator filters made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093109 (2009).
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E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. K. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2925–2929 (2008).
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L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
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T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
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S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
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G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
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A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
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Z. Zheng, M. Iqbal, and J. Liu, “Dispersion characteristics of SOI-based slot optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281(20), 5151–5155 (2008).
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L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
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A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
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E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
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L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
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P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
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T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
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P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
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P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
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R. Salvador, A. Martínez, C. Garía-Meca, R. Ortuño, and J. Martí, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
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V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, “Vertical coupling between short range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141104 (2009).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
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L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
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E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
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L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
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R. Salvador, A. Martínez, C. Garía-Meca, R. Ortuño, and J. Martí, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
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A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
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S. Mandal, X. Serey, and D. Erickson, “Nanomanipulation using silicon photonic crystal resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 99–104 (2010).
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V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
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J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
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O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical analysis of thermally tunable microring resonator filters made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093109 (2009).
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E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. K. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2925–2929 (2008).
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A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. D. L. Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085416 (2005).
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S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
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R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, “Vertical coupling between short range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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X. Y. Zhang, A. Hu, T. Zhang, X. J. Xue, J. Z. Wen, and W. W. Duley, “Subwavelength plasmonic waveguides based on ZnO nanowires and nanotubes: A theoretical study of thermo-optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
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Xue, X. J.

X. Y. Zhang, A. Hu, T. Zhang, X. J. Xue, J. Z. Wen, and W. W. Duley, “Subwavelength plasmonic waveguides based on ZnO nanowires and nanotubes: A theoretical study of thermo-optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043109 (2010).
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Yan, W.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. J. Yang, T. Lerdsuchatawanich, and D. Erickson, “Forces and transport velocities for a particle in a slot waveguide,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1182–1188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical analysis of thermally tunable microring resonator filters made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
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A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 045425 (2008).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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Zhang, T.

X. Y. Zhang, A. Hu, T. Zhang, X. J. Xue, J. Z. Wen, and W. W. Duley, “Subwavelength plasmonic waveguides based on ZnO nanowires and nanotubes: A theoretical study of thermo-optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. Y.

X. Y. Zhang, A. Hu, T. Zhang, X. J. Xue, J. Z. Wen, and W. W. Duley, “Subwavelength plasmonic waveguides based on ZnO nanowires and nanotubes: A theoretical study of thermo-optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

Z. Zheng, M. Iqbal, and J. Liu, “Dispersion characteristics of SOI-based slot optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281(20), 5151–5155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, “Vertical coupling between short range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Zhang, A. Hu, T. Zhang, X. J. Xue, J. Z. Wen, and W. W. Duley, “Subwavelength plasmonic waveguides based on ZnO nanowires and nanotubes: A theoretical study of thermo-optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini and Y. Massoud, “Nanoscale surface plasmon based resonator using rectangular geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Salvador, A. Martínez, C. Garía-Meca, R. Ortuño, and J. Martí, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical analysis of thermally tunable microring resonator filters made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nano Lett. (5)

A. H. J. Yang, T. Lerdsuchatawanich, and D. Erickson, “Forces and transport velocities for a particle in a slot waveguide,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1182–1188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, “Nanoscale mode selector in silicon waveguide for on chip nanofocusing applications,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3381–3386 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mandal, X. Serey, and D. Erickson, “Nanomanipulation using silicon photonic crystal resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 99–104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. K. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2925–2929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the proposed SIMS waveguide. (b) shows the local |E| distribution and the E-field lines of the mode with W = 75 nm and HAg = 200 nm. The |E| distributions (c)-(e) and the mode shapes (f)-(h) correspond to different geometries. W = 75 nm, HAg = 0 nm in (c) and (f), W = 75 nm, HAg = 200 nm in (d) and (g), W = 230 nm, HAg = 200 nm in (e) and (h).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode characteristics of the hybrid mode as a function of the height of the silver strip HAg with different values of HSi , W = 75 nm and λ = 1.55 μm. The real and imaginary parts of Neff are shown in (a) and (b). The normalized intensity Isio2 and the power flow Pw are shown in (c) and (d), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized average optical intensity ISiO2 in a SiO2 nanosheet and the power Pw existing in a sandwich strip waveguide with different h as a function of W. (b) Propagation length Lp corresponding to different values of h. The dashed line corresponds to the Lp of the MIM waveguide with h = 5 nm. The parameters HSi = HAg = 200 nm in (a) and (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nr (a) and the Ni (b) of the hybrid modes with h = 5 nm, HSi = HAg = 200 nm and different values of W as a function of λ. The circular symbols in (a) refer to the minimum wavelength λ which can support single-mode transmission. The dispersion parameter D at telecom wavelengths corresponds to different values of W with h = 5 nm, HSi = HAg = 200 nm in (c) and with h = 5 nm, W = 120 nm, HAg = 200 nm and different values of HSi in (d).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The calculated coupling length Lc with different W as a function of G by the coupled mode theory (curves) and 3D-FEM simulation (dots) with parameters h = 5 nm and HSi = HAg = 200 nm at λ = 1.55 μm. The dashed line refers to the minimum value of G corresponding to low loss coupling. Normalized power flow P at the x-z plane (y = 0 nm) along the z-axis of the waveguides with W = 75 nm and G = 100 nm is shown in the inset.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated eigenmodes of two adjoining SIMS waveguides with W = 75 nm, h = 5 nm, HSi = HAg = 200 nm and λ = 1.55 μm. (a) Geometry of the SIMS coupler. The real and imaginary parts of the eigenmodes as a function of the parameter G are shown in (b) and (c), respectively. In-phase and the high order opposite-phase eigenmodes |E| with G = 100 nm are shown in (d) and (e). In-phase and the high order opposite-phase eigenmodes |E| with G = 30 nm are shown in (f) and (g). The complex effective refractive index Neff is labeled for each case.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of 3D simulations of the 90° bends with different geometries at λ = 1.55 μm. (a) Calculated transmission Tb with different geometries as a function of the radius R. The dashed line represents the transmission Tb of a 3 μm linear waveguide. Comparisons of |ReEy |2 of the 90° bends with h = 5 nm, R = 200 nm and W = 150 nm and HAg = 200 nm in (b) and (e), W = 75 nm and HAg = 200 nm in (c) and (f), and W = 75 nm and HAg = 0 nm in (d) and (g).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulation of the SIMS ring resonators with R = 500 nm, h = 5 nm and HSi = HAg = 200 nm. The distribution of the ring resonators with W = 230 nm and G = 50 nm in (a) and W = 75 nm and G = 115 nm in (b). By downscaling the maximum value to 1/200 of the, the energy radiation of the ring cavity with W = 75 nm and G = 115 nm are shown in (c). Calculated transmission spectra, resonant spectra and the loss in ring resonators under optimized conditions with different values of W are shown in (d) - (f), respectively. The dots in (d) and (e) represent the 3D simulation results. The dashed line in (f) corresponds to the propagation loss in linear SIMS waveguides with W = 230 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) A comparison between transmission spectra of ring resonators based on waveguides having different dispersions. The structural parameters with the exception of b are chosen from the SIMS ring resonator with W = 230 nm and R = 500 nm. The solid line and the dashed line represent ring resonators with (N0 , b) = (2.5045, −1.24) and (2.5045, −0.124), respectively. (b) The relationship between the ΔλFSR and the dispersion of the waveguides. The dots refer to the ΔλFSR of the SIMS ring resonator with different W and the MIM ring resonator.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectral width (a) and quality factor (b) for SIMS ring resonators as a function of the coupling ratio k.

Equations (7)

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| E o u t / E i n | 2 = T l ( 1 r 0 ) [ 1 k ( 1 k A ) / ( 1 k ) 1 + A 2 A 1 / 2 cos ( 2 π R β r ) ]
| E r i n g / E i n | 2 = ( 1 r 0 ) k 1 + A 2 A 1 / 2 cos ( 2 π R β r )
k ( λ ) = k 0 ( 1 + e ( λ u ) / v )
α r = 2 π N i r / λ = 2 π N i ( 1 + e ( λ u ) / v ) / λ
N r = N 0 + b ( λ λ 0 )
δ λ F W H M = λ 0 2 arc sin [ 1 A 1 / 2 2 ( 1 + A ) ] π 2 R ( N 0 b λ 0 ) λ 0 arc sin [ 1 A 1 / 2 2 ( 1 + A ) ]
Q = λ 0 δ λ F W H M

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