Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate an optical pumping technique to pump a dilute rubidium vapor into the mF = 0 ground states. The technique utilizes selection rules that forbid the excitation of the mF = 0 states by linearly-polarized light. A substantial increase in the transparency contrast of the coherent-population-trapping resonance used for frequency standards is demonstrated.

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  1. J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” Prog. Opt. 35, 257–354 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: Effect of optical pumping,” PRA 67(6), 065801 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Y. Jau, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, A. M. Braun, M. V. Romalis, and W. Happer, in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE Int. Freq. Control Symp. & PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th Euro. Freq. and Time Forum, 33 (2003).
  5. Y. Y. Jau, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, A. M. Braun, M. V. Romalis, and W. Happer, “Intense, narrow atomic-clock resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 110801 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey Fringes With Optical CPT Pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 776–779 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Rosenbluh, V. Shah, S. Knappe, and J. Kitching, “Differentially detected coherent population trapping resonances excited by orthogonally polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6588–6594 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80(4), 236 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+–σ- optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Zhu, “High Contrast Signal in a Coherent Population Trapping Based Atomic Frequency Standard Application,” in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th European Frequency and Time Forum, 16 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. E. E. Mikhailov, T. Horrom, N. Belcher, and I. Novikova, “Performance of a prototype atomic clock based on lin||lin coherent population trapping resonances in Rb atomic vapor,” arXiv:0910.5881 (2009).
  14. G. Kazakov, I. Mazets, Yu. Rozhdestvensky, G. Mileti, J. Delporte, and B. Matisov, “High-contrast dark resonance on D2-line of 87Rb in a vapor cell with different directions of the pump-probe waves,” Eur. Phys. J. D 35(3), 445–448 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. A. Steck, Rubidium 87 D Line Data, Theoretical Division (T-8), MS B285 Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 25 September 2001 (revision 1.6, 14 October 2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, and R. Wynands, “Temperature dependence of coherent population trapping resonances,” Appl. Phys. B 74(3), 217–222 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, Y. Sagi, A. Ben-kish, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, “Ramsey-like measurement of the decoherence rate between Zeeman sublevels,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063818 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (5)

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey Fringes With Optical CPT Pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Kazakov, I. Mazets, Yu. Rozhdestvensky, G. Mileti, J. Delporte, and B. Matisov, “High-contrast dark resonance on D2-line of 87Rb in a vapor cell with different directions of the pump-probe waves,” Eur. Phys. J. D 35(3), 445–448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

Y. Y. Jau, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, A. M. Braun, M. V. Romalis, and W. Happer, “Intense, narrow atomic-clock resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 110801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80(4), 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+–σ- optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: Effect of optical pumping,” PRA 67(6), 065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, and R. Wynands, “Temperature dependence of coherent population trapping resonances,” Appl. Phys. B 74(3), 217–222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” Prog. Opt. 35, 257–354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. Happer, “Optical Pumping,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 44(2), 169–249 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” Prog. Opt. 35, 257–354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ben-kish, A.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, Y. Sagi, A. Ben-kish, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, “Ramsey-like measurement of the decoherence rate between Zeeman sublevels,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063818 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A. M.

Y. Y. Jau, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, A. M. Braun, M. V. Romalis, and W. Happer, “Intense, narrow atomic-clock resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 110801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clairon, A.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey Fringes With Optical CPT Pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, Y. Sagi, A. Ben-kish, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, “Ramsey-like measurement of the decoherence rate between Zeeman sublevels,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063818 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Clercq, E.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey Fringes With Optical CPT Pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, M.

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: Effect of optical pumping,” PRA 67(6), 065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delporte, J.

G. Kazakov, I. Mazets, Yu. Rozhdestvensky, G. Mileti, J. Delporte, and B. Matisov, “High-contrast dark resonance on D2-line of 87Rb in a vapor cell with different directions of the pump-probe waves,” Eur. Phys. J. D 35(3), 445–448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dimarcq, N.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey Fringes With Optical CPT Pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Firstenberg, O.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, Y. Sagi, A. Ben-kish, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, “Ramsey-like measurement of the decoherence rate between Zeeman sublevels,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063818 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guerandel, S.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey Fringes With Optical CPT Pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Happer, W.

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Jau, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, A. M. Braun, M. V. Romalis, and W. Happer, “Intense, narrow atomic-clock resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 110801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Happer, “Optical Pumping,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 44(2), 169–249 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+–σ- optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80(4), 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, and R. Wynands, “Temperature dependence of coherent population trapping resonances,” Appl. Phys. B 74(3), 217–222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holleville, D.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey Fringes With Optical CPT Pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, D.

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: Effect of optical pumping,” PRA 67(6), 065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jau, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Jau, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, A. M. Braun, M. V. Romalis, and W. Happer, “Intense, narrow atomic-clock resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 110801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kargapoltsev, S. V.

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+–σ- optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80(4), 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kazakov, G.

G. Kazakov, I. Mazets, Yu. Rozhdestvensky, G. Mileti, J. Delporte, and B. Matisov, “High-contrast dark resonance on D2-line of 87Rb in a vapor cell with different directions of the pump-probe waves,” Eur. Phys. J. D 35(3), 445–448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

M. Rosenbluh, V. Shah, S. Knappe, and J. Kitching, “Differentially detected coherent population trapping resonances excited by orthogonally polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6588–6594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+–σ- optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80(4), 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, and R. Wynands, “Temperature dependence of coherent population trapping resonances,” Appl. Phys. B 74(3), 217–222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, S.

M. Rosenbluh, V. Shah, S. Knappe, and J. Kitching, “Differentially detected coherent population trapping resonances excited by orthogonally polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6588–6594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, and R. Wynands, “Temperature dependence of coherent population trapping resonances,” Appl. Phys. B 74(3), 217–222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuzma, N. N.

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Jau, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, A. M. Braun, M. V. Romalis, and W. Happer, “Intense, narrow atomic-clock resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 110801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levine, M. W.

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: Effect of optical pumping,” PRA 67(6), 065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matisov, B.

G. Kazakov, I. Mazets, Yu. Rozhdestvensky, G. Mileti, J. Delporte, and B. Matisov, “High-contrast dark resonance on D2-line of 87Rb in a vapor cell with different directions of the pump-probe waves,” Eur. Phys. J. D 35(3), 445–448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazets, I.

G. Kazakov, I. Mazets, Yu. Rozhdestvensky, G. Mileti, J. Delporte, and B. Matisov, “High-contrast dark resonance on D2-line of 87Rb in a vapor cell with different directions of the pump-probe waves,” Eur. Phys. J. D 35(3), 445–448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mileti, G.

G. Kazakov, I. Mazets, Yu. Rozhdestvensky, G. Mileti, J. Delporte, and B. Matisov, “High-contrast dark resonance on D2-line of 87Rb in a vapor cell with different directions of the pump-probe waves,” Eur. Phys. J. D 35(3), 445–448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miron, E.

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novikova, I.

I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. F.

I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Post, A. B.

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Jau, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, A. M. Braun, M. V. Romalis, and W. Happer, “Intense, narrow atomic-clock resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 110801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romalis, M. V.

Y. Y. Jau, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, A. M. Braun, M. V. Romalis, and W. Happer, “Intense, narrow atomic-clock resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 110801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ron, A.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, Y. Sagi, A. Ben-kish, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, “Ramsey-like measurement of the decoherence rate between Zeeman sublevels,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063818 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluh, M.

Rozhdestvensky, Yu.

G. Kazakov, I. Mazets, Yu. Rozhdestvensky, G. Mileti, J. Delporte, and B. Matisov, “High-contrast dark resonance on D2-line of 87Rb in a vapor cell with different directions of the pump-probe waves,” Eur. Phys. J. D 35(3), 445–448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sagi, Y.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, Y. Sagi, A. Ben-kish, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, “Ramsey-like measurement of the decoherence rate between Zeeman sublevels,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063818 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V.

Shuker, M.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, Y. Sagi, A. Ben-kish, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, “Ramsey-like measurement of the decoherence rate between Zeeman sublevels,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 063818 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taichenachev, A. V.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+–σ- optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80(4), 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tremine, S.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey Fringes With Optical CPT Pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: Effect of optical pumping,” PRA 67(6), 065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Velichansky, V. L.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+–σ- optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80(4), 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walsworth, R. L.

I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wynands, R.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80(4), 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, and R. Wynands, “Temperature dependence of coherent population trapping resonances,” Appl. Phys. B 74(3), 217–222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.

I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, V. I.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+–σ- optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80(4), 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zanon, T.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey Fringes With Optical CPT Pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, S. A.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, and R. Wynands, “Temperature dependence of coherent population trapping resonances,” Appl. Phys. B 74(3), 217–222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

G. Kazakov, I. Mazets, Yu. Rozhdestvensky, G. Mileti, J. Delporte, and B. Matisov, “High-contrast dark resonance on D2-line of 87Rb in a vapor cell with different directions of the pump-probe waves,” Eur. Phys. J. D 35(3), 445–448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. De Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman–Ramsey Fringes With Optical CPT Pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 776–779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

I. Novikova, Y. Xiao, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “EIT and diffusion of atomic coherence,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2381–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Energy levels diagram for the CPT clock in 87Rb D1 line. The green bars are an illustration of the expected population distribution. (a) Without the repump beam: the σ+-beam create the CPT resonance while pumping the population towards the end state (mF = 2). (b) With the modulated repump beam: the π transitions (F = 1, mF = 0) → (F' = 1, mF = 0) and (F = 2, mF = 0) → (F' = 2, mF = 0) are forbidden, and thus the repump beam repumps the population to the m F= 0 states. (c) The effective states and allowed transitions in the numerical model are marked: the CPT states (1, 2, and 3), the 'trap state' (4), the 'π-excited state' (5), and the 'off-resonance pumping states' (6 and 7). The dashed arrows represent the off-resonant π-excitations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. Left: VCSEL – vertical cavity surface emitting laser; PBS – polarizing beam-splitter; QWP – ¼-wave plate (Not shown: three sets of Helmholtz coils within the magnetic shield). Right: The cross-shaped glass vapor cell with Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) heaters pressed against its four facets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) The CPT contrast (left) and FWHM (right) as a function of the repump-VCSEL intensity at different CPT-VCSEL intensities (* Black 1440µW/cm2, x Blue 4320µW/cm2, ◊ Red 5760µW/cm2, + Orange 8640µW/cm2, ○ Brown 12960µW/cm2). The lines are our model's results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) The CPT contrast (circles) and the CPT FWHM (asterisks) without the repump beam (black) and with the repump beam (red). For each intensity of the CPT beam, the maximal contrast, obtained by scanning the repump-beam intensity, is shown. The solid lines are model results.

Equations (2)

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H = i = 1 7 ω i | i i | { i , j } [ Ω i j e i ( ω i ω j + Δ i j ) t | i j | + H . c . ] ,
L ρ = m γ m ( C m ρ C m + 1 2 ρ C m + C m 1 2 C m + C m ρ ) ,

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