Abstract

Experimental studies of second harmonic generation (SHG) from electric-field poled PMMA - DR1 system show occurrence of a maximum in diagonal and off diagonal tensor components χ (2)(−2ω; ω, ω) at 15 mol % concentration and a rapid decrease above, with a stabilization. The origin of the observed concentration dependence is studied using the Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. We find that presence of maximum is conditioned by the pre-poling history of the sample, when entanglement of linear dipolar structures takes place. Length of the pre-poling interval is an important kinetic parameter which differentiates between various non-exponential kinetics of build-up of polar phase responsible for strong/weak SHG susceptibility.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo simulations of temperature dependence of the kinetics of diffraction gratings formation in a polymer matrix containing azobenzene chromophores,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 13, 481–489 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Poling of Electro-Optic Materials: Paradigms and Concepts,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 40, 57–63 (2010).

F. Kajzar, O. Krupka, G. Pawlik, A. Mitus, and I. Rau, “Concentration Variation of Quadratic NLO Susceptibility in PMMA-DR1 Side Chain Polymer,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 522, 180–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

L. Favaretto, G. Barbarella, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, S. Caria, M. Murgia, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient second harmonic generation from thin films of V-shaped benzo[b]thiophene based molecules,” Opt. Express 17, 2557–2564 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo Modeling of Chosen Non–Linear Optical Effects for Systems of Guest Molecules in Polymeric and Liquid–Crystal Matrices,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 227–244 (2009).

2008 (3)

A. C. Mitus, G. Pawlik, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Computer Simulations of Poled Guest-Host Systems,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 141–162 (2008).

I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Second harmonic generation and its applications,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 99–140 (2008).

M. Rutkis, A. Jurgis, V. Kampars, A. Vembris, A. Tokmakovs, and V. Kokars, “New Figure of Merit for Tailoring Optimal Structure of the Second Order NLO Chromophore for Guest-Host Polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 485, 903–914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

I. Rau, P. Armatys, P.-A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, Y. Bretonniere, and C. Andraud, “Aggregation: A new mechanism of relaxation of polar order in electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 329–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Rommel, and B. H. Robinson, “Orientation of Electro-optic Chromophores under Poling Conditions: A Spheroidal Model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18765–18777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tu, Q. Zhang, and H. Agren, “Electric field poled polymeric nonlinear optical systems: molecular dynamics simulations of poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with disperse red chromophores,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3591–3598 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

Y. Tu, Y. Luo, and H. Agren, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations Applied to Electric Field Induced Second Harmonic Generation in Dipolar Chromophore Solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 8971–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, P. D. Cunningham, J. A. French, and L. M. Hayden, “Atomistic Molecular Modeling of the Effect of Chromophore Concentration on the Electro-optic Coefficient in Nonlinear Optical Polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 5792–5797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, “Polymer – Dye Complexes: A Facile Method for High Doping Level and Aggregation Control of Dye Molecules,” Chem. Mater. 17, 5798–5802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo simulations of temperature dependence of the kinetics of diffraction gratings formation in a polymer matrix containing azobenzene chromophores,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 13, 481–489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Reis H., “M. Makowska-Janusik, and M.G. Papadopoulos, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of poled guest–host systems: A computational study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8931–8940 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Makowska-Janusik, H. Reis, M. G. Papadopoulos, I. Economou, and N. J. Zacharopoulos, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Electric Field Poled Nonlinear Optical Chromophores Incorporated in a Polymer Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 588–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. R. Dalton, “Rational Design of Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, R897–R934 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, “Systematic Development of High Bandwidth, Low Drive Voltage Organic Electrooptic Devices and Their Applications,” Opt. Mater. 21, 19–28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Reyes–Esqueda, and B. Darracq, “J. Garcia – Macedo, M. Canva, M. Blanchard – Desce, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.P. Boilot, A. Brun, and Y. Levy, “Effect of chromophore – chromophore electrostatic interactions in the NLO response of functionalized organic – inorganic sol – gel materials,” Opt. Commun. 198, 207–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Pereverzev, O. V. Prezhdo, and L. R. Dalton, “Mean-field theory of acentric order of chromophores with displaced dipoles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 328–335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

Y. V. Pereverzev, and O. V. Prezhdo, “Mean-field theory of acentric order of dipolar chromophores in polymeric electro-optic materials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62, 8324–8334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Monte Carlo Statistical Mechanical Simulations of the Competition of Intermolecular Electrostatic and Poling Field Interactions in Defining Macroscopic Electrooptic Activity for Organic Chromophore/Polymer Materials,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4785–4795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Metzler, and J. Klafter, “The random walk’s guide to anomalous diffusion: A fractional dynamics approach,” Phys. Rep. 339, 1–77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Won-Kook, and L. M. Hayden, “Fully atomistic modeling of an electric field poled guest–host nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 5212–5222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Z. Patashinski, and M. A. Ratner, “Orientation relaxation in glassy polymers. II. Dipole-size spectroscopy and short-time kinetics,” J. Chem. Phys. 103, 10779–10789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational Relaxation in Electric Field Poled Guest – Host and Side – Chain Polymers below Tg,” Macromol. 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Morichere, M. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Nonlinear properties of poled polymer films: SHG and electrooptic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 1560, 214–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

A. K. Hamanoue, S. Hirayama, M. Amano, K. Nakajima, T. Nakayama, and H. Teranishi, “Spectroscopic Study of 10-Benzoyl-9-anthrol and Its Anion in Basic Media. An Estimation of Microscopic Polarity of PMMA,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 55, 3104–3108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Agren, H.

Y. Tu, Q. Zhang, and H. Agren, “Electric field poled polymeric nonlinear optical systems: molecular dynamics simulations of poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with disperse red chromophores,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3591–3598 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tu, Y. Luo, and H. Agren, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations Applied to Electric Field Induced Second Harmonic Generation in Dipolar Chromophore Solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 8971–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amano, M.

A. K. Hamanoue, S. Hirayama, M. Amano, K. Nakajima, T. Nakayama, and H. Teranishi, “Spectroscopic Study of 10-Benzoyl-9-anthrol and Its Anion in Basic Media. An Estimation of Microscopic Polarity of PMMA,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 55, 3104–3108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Amend, J.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, W. W.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andraud, C.

I. Rau, P. Armatys, P.-A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, Y. Bretonniere, and C. Andraud, “Aggregation: A new mechanism of relaxation of polar order in electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 329–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aniszfeld, R.

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Armatys, P.

I. Rau, P. Armatys, P.-A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, Y. Bretonniere, and C. Andraud, “Aggregation: A new mechanism of relaxation of polar order in electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 329–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barbarella, G.

Barto, R. R.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bedworth, P. V.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bretonniere, Y.

I. Rau, P. Armatys, P.-A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, Y. Bretonniere, and C. Andraud, “Aggregation: A new mechanism of relaxation of polar order in electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 329–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational Relaxation in Electric Field Poled Guest – Host and Side – Chain Polymers below Tg,” Macromol. 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Caria, S.

Carlson, B.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cattaneo, S.

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, “Polymer – Dye Complexes: A Facile Method for High Doping Level and Aggregation Control of Dye Molecules,” Chem. Mater. 17, 5798–5802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harper, S. S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, and B. H. Robinson, “Translating Microscopic Optical Nonlinearity to Macroscopic Optical Nonlinearity: The Role of Chromophore-Chromophore Electrostatic Interactions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 329–337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chollet, P.-A.

I. Rau, P. Armatys, P.-A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, Y. Bretonniere, and C. Andraud, “Aggregation: A new mechanism of relaxation of polar order in electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 329–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, P. D.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, P. D. Cunningham, J. A. French, and L. M. Hayden, “Atomistic Molecular Modeling of the Effect of Chromophore Concentration on the Electro-optic Coefficient in Nonlinear Optical Polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 5792–5797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, L. R.

L. R. Dalton, “Rational Design of Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, R897–R934 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, “Systematic Development of High Bandwidth, Low Drive Voltage Organic Electrooptic Devices and Their Applications,” Opt. Mater. 21, 19–28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Pereverzev, O. V. Prezhdo, and L. R. Dalton, “Mean-field theory of acentric order of chromophores with displaced dipoles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 328–335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Monte Carlo Statistical Mechanical Simulations of the Competition of Intermolecular Electrostatic and Poling Field Interactions in Defining Macroscopic Electrooptic Activity for Organic Chromophore/Polymer Materials,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4785–4795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harper, S. S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, and B. H. Robinson, “Translating Microscopic Optical Nonlinearity to Macroscopic Optical Nonlinearity: The Role of Chromophore-Chromophore Electrostatic Interactions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 329–337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Darracq, B.

J. Reyes–Esqueda, and B. Darracq, “J. Garcia – Macedo, M. Canva, M. Blanchard – Desce, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.P. Boilot, A. Brun, and Y. Levy, “Effect of chromophore – chromophore electrostatic interactions in the NLO response of functionalized organic – inorganic sol – gel materials,” Opt. Commun. 198, 207–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

D. Morichere, M. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Nonlinear properties of poled polymer films: SHG and electrooptic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 1560, 214–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Economou, I.

M. Makowska-Janusik, H. Reis, M. G. Papadopoulos, I. Economou, and N. J. Zacharopoulos, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Electric Field Poled Nonlinear Optical Chromophores Incorporated in a Polymer Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 588–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ermer, S.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Favaretto, L.

Fifield, L.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frank, C. W.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

French, J. A.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, P. D. Cunningham, J. A. French, and L. M. Hayden, “Atomistic Molecular Modeling of the Effect of Chromophore Concentration on the Electro-optic Coefficient in Nonlinear Optical Polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 5792–5797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gadret, G.

D. Morichere, M. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Nonlinear properties of poled polymer films: SHG and electrooptic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 1560, 214–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S. M.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harper, S. S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, and B. H. Robinson, “Translating Microscopic Optical Nonlinearity to Macroscopic Optical Nonlinearity: The Role of Chromophore-Chromophore Electrostatic Interactions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 329–337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamanoue, A. K.

A. K. Hamanoue, S. Hirayama, M. Amano, K. Nakajima, T. Nakayama, and H. Teranishi, “Spectroscopic Study of 10-Benzoyl-9-anthrol and Its Anion in Basic Media. An Estimation of Microscopic Polarity of PMMA,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 55, 3104–3108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Harper, A. W.

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harper, S. S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, and B. H. Robinson, “Translating Microscopic Optical Nonlinearity to Macroscopic Optical Nonlinearity: The Role of Chromophore-Chromophore Electrostatic Interactions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 329–337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, P. D. Cunningham, J. A. French, and L. M. Hayden, “Atomistic Molecular Modeling of the Effect of Chromophore Concentration on the Electro-optic Coefficient in Nonlinear Optical Polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 5792–5797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Won-Kook, and L. M. Hayden, “Fully atomistic modeling of an electric field poled guest–host nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 5212–5222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, S.

A. K. Hamanoue, S. Hirayama, M. Amano, K. Nakajima, T. Nakayama, and H. Teranishi, “Spectroscopic Study of 10-Benzoyl-9-anthrol and Its Anion in Basic Media. An Estimation of Microscopic Polarity of PMMA,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 55, 3104–3108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Houbrecht, S.

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ikkala, O.

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, “Polymer – Dye Complexes: A Facile Method for High Doping Level and Aggregation Control of Dye Molecules,” Chem. Mater. 17, 5798–5802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Irwin, L.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-J.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, “Systematic Development of High Bandwidth, Low Drive Voltage Organic Electrooptic Devices and Their Applications,” Opt. Mater. 21, 19–28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jurgis, A.

M. Rutkis, A. Jurgis, V. Kampars, A. Vembris, A. Tokmakovs, and V. Kokars, “New Figure of Merit for Tailoring Optimal Structure of the Second Order NLO Chromophore for Guest-Host Polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 485, 903–914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Poling of Electro-Optic Materials: Paradigms and Concepts,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 40, 57–63 (2010).

F. Kajzar, O. Krupka, G. Pawlik, A. Mitus, and I. Rau, “Concentration Variation of Quadratic NLO Susceptibility in PMMA-DR1 Side Chain Polymer,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 522, 180–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Favaretto, G. Barbarella, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, S. Caria, M. Murgia, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient second harmonic generation from thin films of V-shaped benzo[b]thiophene based molecules,” Opt. Express 17, 2557–2564 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo Modeling of Chosen Non–Linear Optical Effects for Systems of Guest Molecules in Polymeric and Liquid–Crystal Matrices,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 227–244 (2009).

I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Second harmonic generation and its applications,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 99–140 (2008).

A. C. Mitus, G. Pawlik, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Computer Simulations of Poled Guest-Host Systems,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 141–162 (2008).

I. Rau, P. Armatys, P.-A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, Y. Bretonniere, and C. Andraud, “Aggregation: A new mechanism of relaxation of polar order in electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 329–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo simulations of temperature dependence of the kinetics of diffraction gratings formation in a polymer matrix containing azobenzene chromophores,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 13, 481–489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Morichere, M. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Nonlinear properties of poled polymer films: SHG and electrooptic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 1560, 214–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kalluri, S.

Kampars, V.

M. Rutkis, A. Jurgis, V. Kampars, A. Vembris, A. Tokmakovs, and V. Kokars, “New Figure of Merit for Tailoring Optimal Structure of the Second Order NLO Chromophore for Guest-Host Polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 485, 903–914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, “Polymer – Dye Complexes: A Facile Method for High Doping Level and Aggregation Control of Dye Molecules,” Chem. Mater. 17, 5798–5802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kincaid, C.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klafter, J.

R. Metzler, and J. Klafter, “The random walk’s guide to anomalous diffusion: A fractional dynamics approach,” Phys. Rep. 339, 1–77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kokars, V.

M. Rutkis, A. Jurgis, V. Kampars, A. Vembris, A. Tokmakovs, and V. Kokars, “New Figure of Merit for Tailoring Optimal Structure of the Second Order NLO Chromophore for Guest-Host Polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 485, 903–914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krupka, O.

F. Kajzar, O. Krupka, G. Pawlik, A. Mitus, and I. Rau, “Concentration Variation of Quadratic NLO Susceptibility in PMMA-DR1 Side Chain Polymer,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 522, 180–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leahy-Hoppa, M. R.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, P. D. Cunningham, J. A. French, and L. M. Hayden, “Atomistic Molecular Modeling of the Effect of Chromophore Concentration on the Electro-optic Coefficient in Nonlinear Optical Polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 5792–5797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ledoux, I.

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. S.

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, V. Y.

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational Relaxation in Electric Field Poled Guest – Host and Side – Chain Polymers below Tg,” Macromol. 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Levy, Y.

D. Morichere, M. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Nonlinear properties of poled polymer films: SHG and electrooptic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 1560, 214–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Londergan, T. M.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. D.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Y. Tu, Y. Luo, and H. Agren, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations Applied to Electric Field Induced Second Harmonic Generation in Dipolar Chromophore Solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 8971–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Makowska-Janusik, M.

M. Makowska-Janusik, H. Reis, M. G. Papadopoulos, I. Economou, and N. J. Zacharopoulos, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Electric Field Poled Nonlinear Optical Chromophores Incorporated in a Polymer Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 588–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Metzler, R.

R. Metzler, and J. Klafter, “The random walk’s guide to anomalous diffusion: A fractional dynamics approach,” Phys. Rep. 339, 1–77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational Relaxation in Electric Field Poled Guest – Host and Side – Chain Polymers below Tg,” Macromol. 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miniewicz, A.

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo simulations of temperature dependence of the kinetics of diffraction gratings formation in a polymer matrix containing azobenzene chromophores,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 13, 481–489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitus, A.

F. Kajzar, O. Krupka, G. Pawlik, A. Mitus, and I. Rau, “Concentration Variation of Quadratic NLO Susceptibility in PMMA-DR1 Side Chain Polymer,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 522, 180–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitus, A. C.

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Poling of Electro-Optic Materials: Paradigms and Concepts,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 40, 57–63 (2010).

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo Modeling of Chosen Non–Linear Optical Effects for Systems of Guest Molecules in Polymeric and Liquid–Crystal Matrices,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 227–244 (2009).

A. C. Mitus, G. Pawlik, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Computer Simulations of Poled Guest-Host Systems,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 141–162 (2008).

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo simulations of temperature dependence of the kinetics of diffraction gratings formation in a polymer matrix containing azobenzene chromophores,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 13, 481–489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morichere, D.

D. Morichere, M. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Nonlinear properties of poled polymer films: SHG and electrooptic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 1560, 214–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Murgia, M.

Nakajima, K.

A. K. Hamanoue, S. Hirayama, M. Amano, K. Nakajima, T. Nakayama, and H. Teranishi, “Spectroscopic Study of 10-Benzoyl-9-anthrol and Its Anion in Basic Media. An Estimation of Microscopic Polarity of PMMA,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 55, 3104–3108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, T.

A. K. Hamanoue, S. Hirayama, M. Amano, K. Nakajima, T. Nakayama, and H. Teranishi, “Spectroscopic Study of 10-Benzoyl-9-anthrol and Its Anion in Basic Media. An Estimation of Microscopic Polarity of PMMA,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 55, 3104–3108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, R.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, “Systematic Development of High Bandwidth, Low Drive Voltage Organic Electrooptic Devices and Their Applications,” Opt. Mater. 21, 19–28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Papadopoulos, M. G.

M. Makowska-Janusik, H. Reis, M. G. Papadopoulos, I. Economou, and N. J. Zacharopoulos, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Electric Field Poled Nonlinear Optical Chromophores Incorporated in a Polymer Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 588–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patashinski, A. Z.

A. Z. Patashinski, and M. A. Ratner, “Orientation relaxation in glassy polymers. II. Dipole-size spectroscopy and short-time kinetics,” J. Chem. Phys. 103, 10779–10789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pawlik, G.

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Poling of Electro-Optic Materials: Paradigms and Concepts,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 40, 57–63 (2010).

F. Kajzar, O. Krupka, G. Pawlik, A. Mitus, and I. Rau, “Concentration Variation of Quadratic NLO Susceptibility in PMMA-DR1 Side Chain Polymer,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 522, 180–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo Modeling of Chosen Non–Linear Optical Effects for Systems of Guest Molecules in Polymeric and Liquid–Crystal Matrices,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 227–244 (2009).

A. C. Mitus, G. Pawlik, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Computer Simulations of Poled Guest-Host Systems,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 141–162 (2008).

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo simulations of temperature dependence of the kinetics of diffraction gratings formation in a polymer matrix containing azobenzene chromophores,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 13, 481–489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pereverzev, Y. V.

Y. V. Pereverzev, O. V. Prezhdo, and L. R. Dalton, “Mean-field theory of acentric order of chromophores with displaced dipoles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 328–335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Pereverzev, and O. V. Prezhdo, “Mean-field theory of acentric order of dipolar chromophores in polymeric electro-optic materials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62, 8324–8334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phelan, G.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prezhdo, O. V.

Y. V. Pereverzev, O. V. Prezhdo, and L. R. Dalton, “Mean-field theory of acentric order of chromophores with displaced dipoles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 328–335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Pereverzev, and O. V. Prezhdo, “Mean-field theory of acentric order of dipolar chromophores in polymeric electro-optic materials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62, 8324–8334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Priimagi, A.

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, “Polymer – Dye Complexes: A Facile Method for High Doping Level and Aggregation Control of Dye Molecules,” Chem. Mater. 17, 5798–5802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ras, R. H. A.

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, “Polymer – Dye Complexes: A Facile Method for High Doping Level and Aggregation Control of Dye Molecules,” Chem. Mater. 17, 5798–5802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ratner, M. A.

A. Z. Patashinski, and M. A. Ratner, “Orientation relaxation in glassy polymers. II. Dipole-size spectroscopy and short-time kinetics,” J. Chem. Phys. 103, 10779–10789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rau, I.

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Poling of Electro-Optic Materials: Paradigms and Concepts,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 40, 57–63 (2010).

F. Kajzar, O. Krupka, G. Pawlik, A. Mitus, and I. Rau, “Concentration Variation of Quadratic NLO Susceptibility in PMMA-DR1 Side Chain Polymer,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 522, 180–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Favaretto, G. Barbarella, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, S. Caria, M. Murgia, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient second harmonic generation from thin films of V-shaped benzo[b]thiophene based molecules,” Opt. Express 17, 2557–2564 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo Modeling of Chosen Non–Linear Optical Effects for Systems of Guest Molecules in Polymeric and Liquid–Crystal Matrices,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 227–244 (2009).

A. C. Mitus, G. Pawlik, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Computer Simulations of Poled Guest-Host Systems,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 141–162 (2008).

I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Second harmonic generation and its applications,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 99–140 (2008).

I. Rau, P. Armatys, P.-A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, Y. Bretonniere, and C. Andraud, “Aggregation: A new mechanism of relaxation of polar order in electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 329–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reis, H.

M. Makowska-Janusik, H. Reis, M. G. Papadopoulos, I. Economou, and N. J. Zacharopoulos, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Electric Field Poled Nonlinear Optical Chromophores Incorporated in a Polymer Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 588–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ren, A. S.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reyes–Esqueda, J.

J. Reyes–Esqueda, and B. Darracq, “J. Garcia – Macedo, M. Canva, M. Blanchard – Desce, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.P. Boilot, A. Brun, and Y. Levy, “Effect of chromophore – chromophore electrostatic interactions in the NLO response of functionalized organic – inorganic sol – gel materials,” Opt. Commun. 198, 207–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. H.

H. L. Rommel, and B. H. Robinson, “Orientation of Electro-optic Chromophores under Poling Conditions: A Spheroidal Model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18765–18777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, “Systematic Development of High Bandwidth, Low Drive Voltage Organic Electrooptic Devices and Their Applications,” Opt. Mater. 21, 19–28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Monte Carlo Statistical Mechanical Simulations of the Competition of Intermolecular Electrostatic and Poling Field Interactions in Defining Macroscopic Electrooptic Activity for Organic Chromophore/Polymer Materials,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4785–4795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harper, S. S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, and B. H. Robinson, “Translating Microscopic Optical Nonlinearity to Macroscopic Optical Nonlinearity: The Role of Chromophore-Chromophore Electrostatic Interactions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 329–337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rommel, H. L.

H. L. Rommel, and B. H. Robinson, “Orientation of Electro-optic Chromophores under Poling Conditions: A Spheroidal Model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18765–18777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rutkis, M.

M. Rutkis, A. Jurgis, V. Kampars, A. Vembris, A. Tokmakovs, and V. Kokars, “New Figure of Merit for Tailoring Optimal Structure of the Second Order NLO Chromophore for Guest-Host Polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 485, 903–914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. A.

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational Relaxation in Electric Field Poled Guest – Host and Side – Chain Polymers below Tg,” Macromol. 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and R. Nielsen, “Systematic Development of High Bandwidth, Low Drive Voltage Organic Electrooptic Devices and Their Applications,” Opt. Mater. 21, 19–28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harper, S. S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, and B. H. Robinson, “Translating Microscopic Optical Nonlinearity to Macroscopic Optical Nonlinearity: The Role of Chromophore-Chromophore Electrostatic Interactions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 329–337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. S.

Tang, H.-Z.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. E.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teranishi, H.

A. K. Hamanoue, S. Hirayama, M. Amano, K. Nakajima, T. Nakayama, and H. Teranishi, “Spectroscopic Study of 10-Benzoyl-9-anthrol and Its Anion in Basic Media. An Estimation of Microscopic Polarity of PMMA,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 55, 3104–3108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Todorova, G.

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tokmakovs, A.

M. Rutkis, A. Jurgis, V. Kampars, A. Vembris, A. Tokmakovs, and V. Kokars, “New Figure of Merit for Tailoring Optimal Structure of the Second Order NLO Chromophore for Guest-Host Polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 485, 903–914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tu, Y.

Y. Tu, Q. Zhang, and H. Agren, “Electric field poled polymeric nonlinear optical systems: molecular dynamics simulations of poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with disperse red chromophores,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3591–3598 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tu, Y. Luo, and H. Agren, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations Applied to Electric Field Induced Second Harmonic Generation in Dipolar Chromophore Solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 8971–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Twieg, R. J.

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational Relaxation in Electric Field Poled Guest – Host and Side – Chain Polymers below Tg,” Macromol. 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Valkama, S.

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, “Polymer – Dye Complexes: A Facile Method for High Doping Level and Aggregation Control of Dye Molecules,” Chem. Mater. 17, 5798–5802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vembris, A.

M. Rutkis, A. Jurgis, V. Kampars, A. Vembris, A. Tokmakovs, and V. Kokars, “New Figure of Merit for Tailoring Optimal Structure of the Second Order NLO Chromophore for Guest-Host Polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 485, 903–914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Volksen, W.

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational Relaxation in Electric Field Poled Guest – Host and Side – Chain Polymers below Tg,” Macromol. 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, C. A.

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational Relaxation in Electric Field Poled Guest – Host and Side – Chain Polymers below Tg,” Macromol. 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Won-Kook, K.

K. Won-Kook, and L. M. Hayden, “Fully atomistic modeling of an electric field poled guest–host nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 5212–5222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zacharopoulos, N. J.

M. Makowska-Janusik, H. Reis, M. G. Papadopoulos, I. Economou, and N. J. Zacharopoulos, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Electric Field Poled Nonlinear Optical Chromophores Incorporated in a Polymer Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 588–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zamboni, R.

Zhang, C.

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Y. Tu, Q. Zhang, and H. Agren, “Electric field poled polymeric nonlinear optical systems: molecular dynamics simulations of poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with disperse red chromophores,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3591–3598 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zyss, J.

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. (1)

A. K. Hamanoue, S. Hirayama, M. Amano, K. Nakajima, T. Nakayama, and H. Teranishi, “Spectroscopic Study of 10-Benzoyl-9-anthrol and Its Anion in Basic Media. An Estimation of Microscopic Polarity of PMMA,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 55, 3104–3108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, “Polymer – Dye Complexes: A Facile Method for High Doping Level and Aggregation Control of Dye Molecules,” Chem. Mater. 17, 5798–5802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

B. H. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, A. S. Ren, F. Wang, C. Zhang, G. Todorova, M. S. Lee, R. Aniszfeld, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, S. Houbrecht, A. Persoons, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, and A. K. Y. Jen, “The Molecular and Supramolecular Engineering of Polymeric Electrooptic Materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 35–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

I. Rau, P. Armatys, P.-A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, Y. Bretonniere, and C. Andraud, “Aggregation: A new mechanism of relaxation of polar order in electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 329–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Pereverzev, O. V. Prezhdo, and L. R. Dalton, “Mean-field theory of acentric order of chromophores with displaced dipoles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 340, 328–335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Mater. (1)

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. S. Ren, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, T. M. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. K.-J. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9, 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

K. Won-Kook, and L. M. Hayden, “Fully atomistic modeling of an electric field poled guest–host nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 5212–5222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Patashinski, and M. A. Ratner, “Orientation relaxation in glassy polymers. II. Dipole-size spectroscopy and short-time kinetics,” J. Chem. Phys. 103, 10779–10789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo simulations of temperature dependence of the kinetics of diffraction gratings formation in a polymer matrix containing azobenzene chromophores,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 13, 481–489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (2)

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, P. D. Cunningham, J. A. French, and L. M. Hayden, “Atomistic Molecular Modeling of the Effect of Chromophore Concentration on the Electro-optic Coefficient in Nonlinear Optical Polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 5792–5797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Monte Carlo Statistical Mechanical Simulations of the Competition of Intermolecular Electrostatic and Poling Field Interactions in Defining Macroscopic Electrooptic Activity for Organic Chromophore/Polymer Materials,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4785–4795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (4)

Y. Tu, Y. Luo, and H. Agren, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations Applied to Electric Field Induced Second Harmonic Generation in Dipolar Chromophore Solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 8971–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tu, Q. Zhang, and H. Agren, “Electric field poled polymeric nonlinear optical systems: molecular dynamics simulations of poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with disperse red chromophores,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3591–3598 (2007).
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H. Reis H., “M. Makowska-Janusik, and M.G. Papadopoulos, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of poled guest–host systems: A computational study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8931–8940 (2004).
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M. Makowska-Janusik, H. Reis, M. G. Papadopoulos, I. Economou, and N. J. Zacharopoulos, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Electric Field Poled Nonlinear Optical Chromophores Incorporated in a Polymer Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 588–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

H. L. Rommel, and B. H. Robinson, “Orientation of Electro-optic Chromophores under Poling Conditions: A Spheroidal Model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18765–18777 (2007).
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J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

L. R. Dalton, “Rational Design of Organic Electrooptic Materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, R897–R934 (2003).
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Macromol. (2)

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational Relaxation in Electric Field Poled Guest – Host and Side – Chain Polymers below Tg,” Macromol. 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
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R. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, “Bonding and Molecular Environment Effects on Near – Infrared Optical Absorption Behavior in Nonlinear Optical Monoazo Chromophore – Polymer Materials,” Macromol. 39, 7566–7577 (2006).
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Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (2)

F. Kajzar, O. Krupka, G. Pawlik, A. Mitus, and I. Rau, “Concentration Variation of Quadratic NLO Susceptibility in PMMA-DR1 Side Chain Polymer,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 522, 180–190 (2010).
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M. Rutkis, A. Jurgis, V. Kampars, A. Vembris, A. Tokmakovs, and V. Kokars, “New Figure of Merit for Tailoring Optimal Structure of the Second Order NLO Chromophore for Guest-Host Polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 485, 903–914 (2008).
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Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. (4)

I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Second harmonic generation and its applications,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 99–140 (2008).

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo Modeling of Chosen Non–Linear Optical Effects for Systems of Guest Molecules in Polymeric and Liquid–Crystal Matrices,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 227–244 (2009).

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Poling of Electro-Optic Materials: Paradigms and Concepts,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 40, 57–63 (2010).

A. C. Mitus, G. Pawlik, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Computer Simulations of Poled Guest-Host Systems,” Nonl. Opt. Quant. Opt. 38, 141–162 (2008).

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J. Reyes–Esqueda, and B. Darracq, “J. Garcia – Macedo, M. Canva, M. Blanchard – Desce, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.P. Boilot, A. Brun, and Y. Levy, “Effect of chromophore – chromophore electrostatic interactions in the NLO response of functionalized organic – inorganic sol – gel materials,” Opt. Commun. 198, 207–215 (2001).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Morichere, M. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Nonlinear properties of poled polymer films: SHG and electrooptic measurements,” Proc. SPIE 1560, 214–225 (1991).
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Y.-Ch. Lee, “Role of Carbohydrates in Oxidative Modification of Fibrinogen and Other Plasma Proteins” in Photoactive Organic Materials: Science and Application, F. Kajzar, V. M. Agranovich and C. Y.-C. Lee, Eds. (NATO ASI Series High Technology Vol. 9, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1995), pp. 175–181.

L. R. Dalton, “Nonlinear Optical Polymeric Materials: From Chromophore Design to Commercial Applications” in Polymers for Photonics Applications I, Advances in Polymer Science, K. S. Lee, Ed., Vol. 158 (Springer Berlin/Heidelberg Publisher, 2002), pp. 1–86.

F. Kajzar, A. Jen, and K. S. Lee, “Polymeric Materials and Their Orientation Techniques for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, Polymers for Photonics Applications II: Nonlinear Optical, Photorefractive and Two-Photon Absorption Polymers,” in Advances in Polymer Science, K. S. Lee, and G. Wegner, Eds., Vol. 161 (Springer Verlag, 2003).

G. Pawlik, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, and F. Kajzar, “Monte Carlo kinetic study of chromophore distribution in poled guest–host systems,” Proc. SPIE 6891, 68910A–1 – 68910A–7 (2008).

G. Pawlik, D. Wronski, A. C. Mitus, I. Rau, C. Andraud, and F. Kajzar, “A new mechanism of relaxation in poled guest–host systems: Monte Carlo analysis of aggregation scenario,” Proc. SPIE 6653, 66530J–1 – 66530J–7 (2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorption spectra of thin films of PMMA–DR1 with different chromophore concentrations. The optical densities of the thin films were not normalized for film thickness and thus do not scale linearly with concentration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Molar chromophore concentration (in percents) dependence of dsp = χ (2) XXZ /2 and dpp = χ (2) ZZZ /2 for the studied thin films. The error bar (not shown) is 10%.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Poling electric field as function of number of MC steps: system with pre–poling phase (thin solid line) and without pre–poling phase (dashed line).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot of load parameter N < cos3 θ > ∝ χ (2) ZZZ as a function of number density N: with pre–poling history (left) and without pre–poling history (right) (note different scales on vertical axes).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

MC kinetics of acentric order parameter < cos3 θ > for N = 2.16 × 1020/cc. System with pre–poling history (left) and without pre–poling history (right). Solid lines: stretched–exponential fits.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Configuration of dipoles: initial configuration (a); after 8 × 105 MCS, without pre–poling history (b); after 105 MCS without electric field (pre–poling period) (c); after 8 × 105 MCS for poling started after 105 MCS (d). Polymeric chains are not shown.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Plot of normalized susceptibility χ (2)/χ (2) max against normalized concentration of dipoles (see text). 〇: experiment, ×: MC simulations, thick solid line: after Ref. [8], thin solid line: after Ref. [6].

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Equilibrium load parameter �� = N < cos3 θ > as function of pre–poling interval length �� for reduced density N = 5.12 × 1020/cc.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Maximum absorption wavelength for studied thin films for different DR1 concentrations.

Equations (4)

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χ ZZZ ( 2 ) ( 2 ω ; ω , ω ) = NF β zzz ( 2 ω ; ω , ω ) cos 3 θ ,
χ XXZ ( 2 ) ( 2 ω ; ω , ω ) = 1 2 NF β zzz ( 2 ω ; ω , ω ) sin 2 θ cos θ ,
Cw = N seg M dye N seg M seg + N mon M mon ,
U = i j 1 4 π ε 0 ε 1 r ij 3 [ μ i · μ j 3 ( μ i · r ̂ ij ) ( μ j · r ̂ ij ) ] i E · μ i + ε LJ i j ( σ r ij ) 12 ,

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