Abstract

We have used the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect to directly compare the density correlations of a pulsed atom laser and a pulsed ultracold thermal source of metastable helium. It was found that the isotropic RF outcoupling of atoms from a Bose-Einstein condensate does not result in decoherence, while the ‘bunching’ typical of incoherent sources was observed for thermal atoms. This new method significantly increases data acquisition rates compared to previous measurements, and also permits future novel experiments which may allow us to probe processes such as the birth and death of a condensate by monitoring correlation effects.

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  1. R. Hanbury Brown, and R. Q. Twiss, "Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light," Nature 177, 27-29 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yasuda, and F. Shimizu, "Observation of Two-Atom Correlation of an Ultracold Neon Atomic Beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3090-3093 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. G. H. Baldwin, "Metastable helium: atom optics with nano-grenades," Contemp. Phys. 46, 105-120 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Drner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Fast Position and Time Resolved Read-Out of Micro-Channel plates with Delay-Line Technique for Single Particle and Photon Detection," Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Schellekens, R. Hoppeler, A. Perrin, J. Viana Gomes, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Hanbury Brown Twiss Effect for Ultracold Quantum Gases," Science 310, 648-651 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a bi-planar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 207, 255-261 (2006).
  9. M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, and C. G. Townsend, "andW. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Naraschewski, and R. J. Glauber, "Spatial coherence and density correlations of trapped Bose gases," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4595-4607 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Viana Gomes, A. Perrin, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and M. Besley, "Theory for a Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment with a ballistically expanding cloud of cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053607 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, A. G. Truscott, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, M. Jeppesen, and J. J. Hope, "Observation of transverse interference fringes on an atom laser beam," Opt. Express 15, 17673-17680 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Schellekens, "L’Effet Hanbury Brown et Twiss pour les Atomes Froids," PhD. Thesis (2007).
  14. I. Bloch, T. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition," Nature 403, 166-169 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, A. G. Truscott, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, M. Jeppesen, and J. J. Hope, "Observation of transverse interference fringes on an atom laser beam," Opt. Express 15, 17673-17680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. Viana Gomes, A. Perrin, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and M. Besley, "Theory for a Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment with a ballistically expanding cloud of cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a bi-planar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 207, 255-261 (2006).

2005

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. H. Baldwin, "Metastable helium: atom optics with nano-grenades," Contemp. Phys. 46, 105-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Schellekens, R. Hoppeler, A. Perrin, J. Viana Gomes, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Hanbury Brown Twiss Effect for Ultracold Quantum Gases," Science 310, 648-651 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

I. Bloch, T. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition," Nature 403, 166-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

M. Naraschewski, and R. J. Glauber, "Spatial coherence and density correlations of trapped Bose gases," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4595-4607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Drner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Fast Position and Time Resolved Read-Out of Micro-Channel plates with Delay-Line Technique for Single Particle and Photon Detection," Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, and C. G. Townsend, "andW. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Yasuda, and F. Shimizu, "Observation of Two-Atom Correlation of an Ultracold Neon Atomic Beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3090-3093 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1956

R. Hanbury Brown, and R. Q. Twiss, "Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light," Nature 177, 27-29 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. R.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, and C. G. Townsend, "andW. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schellekens, R. Hoppeler, A. Perrin, J. Viana Gomes, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Hanbury Brown Twiss Effect for Ultracold Quantum Gases," Science 310, 648-651 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldwin, K. G. H.

K. G. H. Baldwin, "Metastable helium: atom optics with nano-grenades," Contemp. Phys. 46, 105-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Besley, M.

J. Viana Gomes, A. Perrin, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and M. Besley, "Theory for a Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment with a ballistically expanding cloud of cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, I.

I. Bloch, T. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition," Nature 403, 166-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boiron, D.

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Viana Gomes, A. Perrin, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and M. Besley, "Theory for a Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment with a ballistically expanding cloud of cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Schellekens, R. Hoppeler, A. Perrin, J. Viana Gomes, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Hanbury Brown Twiss Effect for Ultracold Quantum Gases," Science 310, 648-651 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byron, L. J.

Chang, H.

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dall, R. G.

R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, A. G. Truscott, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, M. Jeppesen, and J. J. Hope, "Observation of transverse interference fringes on an atom laser beam," Opt. Express 15, 17673-17680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a bi-planar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 207, 255-261 (2006).

Dennis, G. R.

Drner, R.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Drner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Fast Position and Time Resolved Read-Out of Micro-Channel plates with Delay-Line Technique for Single Particle and Photon Detection," Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, D. S.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, and C. G. Townsend, "andW. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esslinger, T.

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition," Nature 403, 166-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glauber, R. J.

M. Naraschewski, and R. J. Glauber, "Spatial coherence and density correlations of trapped Bose gases," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4595-4607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hanbury Brown, R.

R. Hanbury Brown, and R. Q. Twiss, "Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light," Nature 177, 27-29 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T.

I. Bloch, T. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition," Nature 403, 166-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogervorst, W.

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hope, J. J.

Hoppeler, R.

M. Schellekens, R. Hoppeler, A. Perrin, J. Viana Gomes, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Hanbury Brown Twiss Effect for Ultracold Quantum Gases," Science 310, 648-651 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagutzki, O.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Drner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Fast Position and Time Resolved Read-Out of Micro-Channel plates with Delay-Line Technique for Single Particle and Photon Detection," Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jeltes, T.

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeppesen, M.

Johnsson, M. T.

Köhl, M.

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krachmalnicoff, V.

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurn, D. M.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, and C. G. Townsend, "andW. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McNamara, J. M.

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mergel, V.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Drner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Fast Position and Time Resolved Read-Out of Micro-Channel plates with Delay-Line Technique for Single Particle and Photon Detection," Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mewes, M.-O.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, and C. G. Townsend, "andW. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, U.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Drner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Fast Position and Time Resolved Read-Out of Micro-Channel plates with Delay-Line Technique for Single Particle and Photon Detection," Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Naraschewski, M.

M. Naraschewski, and R. J. Glauber, "Spatial coherence and density correlations of trapped Bose gases," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4595-4607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Öttl, A.

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrin, A.

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Viana Gomes, A. Perrin, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and M. Besley, "Theory for a Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment with a ballistically expanding cloud of cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Schellekens, R. Hoppeler, A. Perrin, J. Viana Gomes, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Hanbury Brown Twiss Effect for Ultracold Quantum Gases," Science 310, 648-651 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritter, S.

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schellekens, M.

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Viana Gomes, A. Perrin, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and M. Besley, "Theory for a Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment with a ballistically expanding cloud of cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Schellekens, R. Hoppeler, A. Perrin, J. Viana Gomes, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Hanbury Brown Twiss Effect for Ultracold Quantum Gases," Science 310, 648-651 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Böcking, H.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Drner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Fast Position and Time Resolved Read-Out of Micro-Channel plates with Delay-Line Technique for Single Particle and Photon Detection," Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, F.

M. Yasuda, and F. Shimizu, "Observation of Two-Atom Correlation of an Ultracold Neon Atomic Beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3090-3093 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielberger, L.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Drner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Fast Position and Time Resolved Read-Out of Micro-Channel plates with Delay-Line Technique for Single Particle and Photon Detection," Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, C. G.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, and C. G. Townsend, "andW. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Truscott, A. G.

R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, A. G. Truscott, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, M. Jeppesen, and J. J. Hope, "Observation of transverse interference fringes on an atom laser beam," Opt. Express 15, 17673-17680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a bi-planar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 207, 255-261 (2006).

Twiss, R. Q.

R. Hanbury Brown, and R. Q. Twiss, "Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light," Nature 177, 27-29 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Ullmann-Pfleger, K.

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Drner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Fast Position and Time Resolved Read-Out of Micro-Channel plates with Delay-Line Technique for Single Particle and Photon Detection," Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vassen, W.

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viana Gomes, J.

J. Viana Gomes, A. Perrin, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and M. Besley, "Theory for a Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment with a ballistically expanding cloud of cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Schellekens, R. Hoppeler, A. Perrin, J. Viana Gomes, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Hanbury Brown Twiss Effect for Ultracold Quantum Gases," Science 310, 648-651 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westbrook, C. I.

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Viana Gomes, A. Perrin, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and M. Besley, "Theory for a Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment with a ballistically expanding cloud of cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Schellekens, R. Hoppeler, A. Perrin, J. Viana Gomes, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Hanbury Brown Twiss Effect for Ultracold Quantum Gases," Science 310, 648-651 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuda, M.

M. Yasuda, and F. Shimizu, "Observation of Two-Atom Correlation of an Ultracold Neon Atomic Beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3090-3093 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contemp. Phys.

K. G. H. Baldwin, "Metastable helium: atom optics with nano-grenades," Contemp. Phys. 46, 105-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. Hanbury Brown, and R. Q. Twiss, "Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light," Nature 177, 27-29 (1956).
[CrossRef]

T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, A. Perrin, H. Chang, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Comparison of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for bosons and fermions," Nature 445, 402-405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition," Nature 403, 166-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a bi-planar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 207, 255-261 (2006).

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

M. Naraschewski, and R. J. Glauber, "Spatial coherence and density correlations of trapped Bose gases," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4595-4607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Viana Gomes, A. Perrin, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and M. Besley, "Theory for a Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment with a ballistically expanding cloud of cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, and C. G. Townsend, "andW. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yasuda, and F. Shimizu, "Observation of Two-Atom Correlation of an Ultracold Neon Atomic Beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3090-3093 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, L. Spielberger, U. Meyer, R. Drner, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Fast Position and Time Resolved Read-Out of Micro-Channel plates with Delay-Line Technique for Single Particle and Photon Detection," Proc. SPIE 3438, 322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. Schellekens, R. Hoppeler, A. Perrin, J. Viana Gomes, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Hanbury Brown Twiss Effect for Ultracold Quantum Gases," Science 310, 648-651 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Schellekens, "L’Effet Hanbury Brown et Twiss pour les Atomes Froids," PhD. Thesis (2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Atoms are outcoupled in pulses from the BiQUIC trap using RF radiation, and fall under gravity onto the detection system below. A micro-channel plate (not shown) allows single atoms to be measured on a delay-line detector, which causes a signal pulse to propagate in both directions along two helical delay-line wires for a 2D spatial image (only one wire shown). The time taken for the signal to reach the ends of each wire is measured, from which the arrival time and position can be calculated [4].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity of thermal atoms arriving at detector binned in 1 ms increments. The time-of-flight profile for the atom laser is similar, albeit for narrower pulses with a lower temperature. The power of the RF outcoupling is increased during the experimental cycle to make the relative intensity of the atomic pulses more uniform

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of second order correlation function g (2)(τ) for thermal atoms at 850 nK (top) and for a pulsed atom laser (bottom). The error bars shown are shot noise.

Equations (5)

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g ( 2 ) ( r 1 , r 2 ; t 1 , t 2 ) = G ( 2 ) ( r 1 , r 2 ; t 1 , t 2 ) G ( 2 ) ( r 1 , r 1 ; t 1 , t 1 ) G ( 2 ) ( r 2 , r 2 ; t 2 , t 2 ) ,
G ( 2 ) ( r 1 , r 2 ; t 1 , t 2 ) = O ̂ ( r 1 , t 1 ) O ̂ ( r 2 , t 2 ) O ̂ ( r 2 , t 2 ) O ̂ ( r 1 , t 1 ) , ( for pure states )
g ( 2 ) ( τ ) = a ̂ ( 0 ) a ̂ ( τ ) a ̂ ( τ ) a ̂ ( 0 ) a ̂ ( 0 ) a ̂ ( 0 ) 2 .
g ( 2 ) ( 0 ) = a ̂ a ̂ 2 + ( a ̂ a ̂ ) 2 a ̂ a ̂ 2 a ̂ a ̂ a ̂ a ̂ 2 ,
= 1 + σ n 2 a ̂ a ̂ a ̂ a ̂ 2 ,

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