Abstract

We introduce a dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) technique that produces bandwidth scalable, continuous waveforms of near perfect fidelity. Additionally, OAWG’s complement, real-time arbitrary optical waveform measurement (OAWM) is discussed. These approaches utilize gigahertz-bandwidth electronics to generate, or measure, truly arbitrary and dynamic optical waveforms scalable to terahertz bandwidths and infinite record lengths. We describe the theory, algorithms and enabling technologies necessary to calculate and produce a set of spectral modulations that create continuous, high-fidelity waveforms in the presence of spectral filtering from multiplexers.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10431–10439 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, C. Myoung-Taek, H. Izadpanah, L. Wangkuen, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, “Optical frequency combs from semiconductor lasers and applications in ultrawideband signal processing and communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2701–2719 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, W. Jiang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. Yoo, “32 Phase X 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 865–867 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9977–9988 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Rapid updating of optical arbitrary waveforms via time-domain multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1068–1070 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. K. Fontaine, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Davis, 2010).
  10. N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, T. He, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of high-fidelity dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express (submitted for publication).
  11. N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1714–1716 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. M. Soares, J. H. Baek, N. K. Fontaine, X. Zhou, Y. Wang, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, S. Vatanapradit, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithically integrated InP wafer-scale 100-channel × 10-GHz AWG and Michelson interferometers for 1-THz-bandwidth optical arbitrary waveform generation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), Paper OThS1.
  13. T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Time-multiplexed photonically enabled radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation with 100 ps transitions,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3242–3244 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. T. Willits, A. M. Weiner, and S. T. Cundiff, “Theory of rapid-update line-by-line pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 16(1), 315–327 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. G. Lyons, Understanding Digital Signal Processing, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, 2004).
  18. R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 2000).
  19. M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 236–250 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Okamoto, “Recent progress of integrated optics planar lightwave circuits,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31(2), 107–129 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. K. Fontaine, Y. Jie, J. Wei, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, H. Ray, and S. Yoo, “Active arrayed-waveguide grating with amplitude and phase control for arbitrary filter generation and high-order dispersion compensation,” in 34th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2008), Technical Digest (CD) (IEEE, 2008), 1–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ECOC.2008.4729152

2010 (2)

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Okamoto, “Recent progress of integrated optics planar lightwave circuits,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31(2), 107–129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

Cundiff, S. T.

Delfyett, P. J.

Fontaine, N. K.

T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Rapid updating of optical arbitrary waveforms via time-domain multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1068–1070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1714–1716 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, W. Jiang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. Yoo, “32 Phase X 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 865–867 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9977–9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, T. He, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of high-fidelity dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express (submitted for publication).

Gee, S.

Geisler, D. J.

He, T.

T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, T. He, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of high-fidelity dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express (submitted for publication).

Heritage, J. P.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Rapid updating of optical arbitrary waveforms via time-domain multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1068–1070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1714–1716 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, W. Jiang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. Yoo, “32 Phase X 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 865–867 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9977–9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, T. He, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of high-fidelity dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express (submitted for publication).

Huang, C.-B.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Time-multiplexed photonically enabled radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation with 100 ps transitions,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3242–3244 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izadpanah, H.

Jiang, W.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10431–10439 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karalar, A.

Kolner, B. H.

Kominato, T.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

Myoung-Taek, C.

Okamoto, K.

Ozharar, S.

Paraschis, L.

Quinlan, F.

Scott, R. P.

T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Rapid updating of optical arbitrary waveforms via time-domain multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1068–1070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1714–1716 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, W. Jiang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. Yoo, “32 Phase X 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 865–867 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9977–9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, T. He, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of high-fidelity dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express (submitted for publication).

Shibata, T.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soares, F.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, K.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Dam, C.

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wangkuen, L.

Weiner, A. M.

Willits, J. T.

Yang, C.

Yilmaz, T.

Yoo, S. J.

Yoo, S. J. B.

T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1714–1716 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Rapid updating of optical arbitrary waveforms via time-domain multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1068–1070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9977–9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, R. P. Scott, T. He, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of high-fidelity dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express (submitted for publication).

Zhou, L.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Okamoto, “Recent progress of integrated optics planar lightwave circuits,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31(2), 107–129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

N. K. Fontaine, Y. Jie, J. Wei, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, H. Ray, and S. Yoo, “Active arrayed-waveguide grating with amplitude and phase control for arbitrary filter generation and high-order dispersion compensation,” in 34th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2008), Technical Digest (CD) (IEEE, 2008), 1–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ECOC.2008.4729152

R. G. Lyons, Understanding Digital Signal Processing, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, 2004).

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 2000).

F. M. Soares, J. H. Baek, N. K. Fontaine, X. Zhou, Y. Wang, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, S. Vatanapradit, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithically integrated InP wafer-scale 100-channel × 10-GHz AWG and Michelson interferometers for 1-THz-bandwidth optical arbitrary waveform generation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), Paper OThS1.

N. K. Fontaine, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Davis, 2010).

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