Abstract

Amplification of surface plasmon polaritons in planar metal-dielectric structure through stimulated emission is investigated using leakage-radiation microscopy configuration. The gain medium is a thin polymethylmethacrylate layer doped with lead-sulphide nanocrystals emitting at near-infrared wavelengths. We demonstrate an optical gain of ~ 200 cm−1 for the mode under consideration, which corresponds to ~ 32% compensation of SPP loss.

© 2010 OSA

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    [Crossref]
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  12. J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. E. Kretschmann, “The determination of the optical constants of metals by excitation of surface plasmons,” Z. Physik 241, 313–324 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. Bouhelier and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Excitation of broadband surface plasmon polaritons: Plasmonic continuum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195406 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2010 (4)

2009 (4)

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Modeling surface plasmon-polariton gain in planar metallic structures,” Opt. Express 17, 20191–20202 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17, 7228–7232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature (London)  460, 1110–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

M. A. Noginov, V. A. Podolskiy, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, M. Bahoura, J. A. Adegoke, B. A. Ritzo, and K. Reynolds, “Compensation of loss in propagating surface plasmons polariton by gain in adjacent dielectric medium,” Opt. Express 16, 1385–1392 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nature Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 161401(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8, 3998–4001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nature Photon. 1, 641–648 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1524–1526 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Excitation of broadband surface plasmon polaritons: Plasmonic continuum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195406 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of finite-size surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, “The determination of the optical constants of metals by excitation of surface plasmons,” Z. Physik 241, 313–324 (1971).
[Crossref]

Adegoke, J. A.

Ambati, M.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8, 3998–4001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, T. B.

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nature Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1524–1526 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bahoura, M.

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature (London)  460, 1110–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8, 3998–4001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature (London)  460, 1110–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nature Photon. 4, 382–387 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Modeling surface plasmon-polariton gain in planar metallic structures,” Opt. Express 17, 20191–20202 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 161401(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

Bolger, P. M.

Boltasseva, A.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17, 7228–7232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Excitation of broadband surface plasmon polaritons: Plasmonic continuum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18, 1207–1216 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nature Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17, 7228–7232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of finite-size surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brucoli, G.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17, 7228–7232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

De Leon, I.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nature Photon. 4, 382–387 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Modeling surface plasmon-polariton gain in planar metallic structures,” Opt. Express 17, 20191–20202 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 161401(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18, 1207–1216 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

des Francs, G. Colas

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickson, W.

Ditlbacher, H.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1524–1526 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1524–1526 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eng, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finot, C.

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17, 7228–7232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Genov, D. A.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8, 3998–4001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gosciniak, J.

Grafström, S.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nature Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nature Photon. 1, 641–648 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nature Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Herz, E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature (London)  460, 1110–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hickey, S. G.

Hohenau, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1524–1526 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holmgaard, T.

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation (Academic Press, 1969).

Kjelstrup-Hansen, J.

Koller, D.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Krasavin, A. V.

Krenn, J. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1524–1526 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, “The determination of the optical constants of metals by excitation of surface plasmons,” Z. Physik 241, 313–324 (1971).
[Crossref]

Lal, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nature Photon. 1, 641–648 (2007).
[Crossref]

Leitner, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1524–1526 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liebscher, L.

Link, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nature Photon. 1, 641–648 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nature Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and applications (Springer, 2007).

Markey, L.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18, 1207–1216 (2010).
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J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17, 7228–7232 (2009).
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I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayy, M.

Nam, S. H.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8, 3998–4001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature (London)  460, 1110–1113 (2009).
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Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature (London)  460, 1110–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, V. A. Podolskiy, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, M. Bahoura, J. A. Adegoke, B. A. Ritzo, and K. Reynolds, “Compensation of loss in propagating surface plasmons polariton by gain in adjacent dielectric medium,” Opt. Express 16, 1385–1392 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noginova, N.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

Radko, I. P.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17, 7228–7232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings (Springer, 1988).

Reynolds, K.

Ritzo, B. A.

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nature Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature (London)  460, 1110–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skryabin, D. V.

Søndergaard, T.

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of finite-size surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Steinberger, B.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1524–1526 (2005).
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A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, A. L.

Stockman, M. I.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature (London)  460, 1110–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature (London)  460, 1110–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8, 3998–4001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nature Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Volkov, V. S.

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

A. Bouhelier and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Excitation of broadband surface plasmon polaritons: Plasmonic continuum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature (London)  460, 1110–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

Zhang, X.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8, 3998–4001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nature Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature (London)  460, 1110–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, V. A. Podolskiy, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, M. Bahoura, J. A. Adegoke, B. A. Ritzo, and K. Reynolds, “Compensation of loss in propagating surface plasmons polariton by gain in adjacent dielectric medium,” Opt. Express 16, 1385–1392 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8, 3998–4001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature (London)  460, 1110–1113 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nature Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature Photon. (3)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nature Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nature Photon. 1, 641–648 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nature Photon. 4, 382–387 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 161401(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Bouhelier and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Excitation of broadband surface plasmon polaritons: Plasmonic continuum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195406 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of finite-size surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Physik (1)

E. Kretschmann, “The determination of the optical constants of metals by excitation of surface plasmons,” Z. Physik 241, 313–324 (1971).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. Kerker, The scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation (Academic Press, 1969).

H. Raether, Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings (Springer, 1988).

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and applications (Springer, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental configuration. Thin PMMA film doped with PbS quantum dots on top of a 50-nm-thick gold film. Excitation of a probe SPP beam (λ = 860 nm) is achieved through a grating. Inset shows a calculated distribution of the intensity of the pump beam (λ = 532 nm) inside the PMMA layer. (b) Leakage-radiation microscopy image of a probe SPP beam. The dashed circle shows the position where the pump beam is focused.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated effective mode index (solid curves) and mode propagation length (broken curves) for the first three p-polarized hybrid plasmonic modes (p1, p2, p3) and the first two s-polarized photonic modes (s1, s2) existing in a four-layer structure: air/PMMA/50-nm-gold/ glass.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Detected optical signal versus the probe power in the absence of pump irradiance (pure SPP excitation). The red line is a guide for the eyes and shows the linear range for the probe power. (b) Measured value of stimulated emission signal of the first (pure plasmonic) p-polarized mode versus the probe power in the four-layer structure with the PMMA-film thickness being (85 ± 15) nm. The pump power is constant and set to 13 mW. The red line in panel (b) is a linear fit to the data points.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Evaluated [using data shown in Fig. 3b and Eq. (11) of Appendix] optical gain of the first (pure plasmonic) p-polarized mode versus the probe power in the four-layer structure with the PMMA-film thickness being (85 ± 15) nm. The pump power is constant and set to 13 mW. The red curve is a phenomenological dependence obtained in assumption of linear signal growth in Figs. 3a and 3b. (b) Optical gain [same configuration, measured and evaluated in the same way as in panel (a)] versus the pump power while the probe power is fixed at 18.3 mW. Arrows 1 and 2 show the sequence of measurements and therefore indicate QD photo-bleaching as well as destruction of the PMMA layer at high pump power.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε = ε λ 2 π N σ abs .
P LR = τ P SPP ,
P ( x ) = P SPP · exp [ 2 ( α + β + γ ) x ] .
β α + β + γ = 1 l L .
d P LR dx = dP dx α = 0 γ = 0 = 2 β P ( x ) .
τ = β α + β + γ = L l L .
τ = β α + β .
P circ = 2 P ( x , y ) x y exp [ 2 ( x x 0 ) 2 + y 2 R 2 ] d x d y ,
k = P circ P SPP .
( P circ + P st ) τ = P circ τ ,
P st = M st τ ,
P circ = kP SPP = kM SPP τ ,
γ = ( α + β ) M st M st + kM SPP .

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