Abstract

The strong thermooptic effect in silicon enables low-power and low-loss reconfiguration of large-scale silicon photonics. Thermal reconfiguration through the integration of metallic microheaters has been one of the more widely used reconfiguration techniques in silicon photonics. In this paper, structural and material optimizations are carried out through heat transport modeling to improve the reconfiguration speed of such devices, and the results are experimentally verified. Around 4 µs reconfiguration time are shown for the optimized structures. Moreover, sub-microsecond reconfiguration time is experimentally demonstrated through the pulsed excitation of the microheaters. The limitation of this pulsed excitation scheme is also discussed through an accurate system-level model developed for the microheater response.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (3)

2008 (2)

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: Modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Amatya, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, and R. J. Ram, "Precision Tunable Silicon Compatible Microring Filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1739-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

2006 (3)

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Momeni, J. Huang, M. Soltani, M. Askari, S. Mohammadi, M. Rakhshandehroo, and A. Adibi, "Compact wavelength demultiplexing using focusing negative index photonic crystal superprisms," Opt. Express 14, 2413-2422 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Compact 1 x N thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 10109-10114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Klein, D. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Geuzebroek, E. Klein, H. Kelderman, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Compact wavelength-selective switch for gigabit filtering in access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 336-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

F. Yu, M. Cheng, P. Habitz, and G. Ahmadi, "Modeling of thermal behavior in SOI structures," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51, 83-91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-mu s switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Geis, S. Spector, R. Williamson, and T. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

F. Horst, R. Germann, U. Bapst, D. Wiesmann, B. Offrein, and G. Bona, "Compact tunable FIR dispersion compensator in SiON technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1570-1572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

Y. Ju, and K. Goodson, "Process-dependent thermal transport properties of silicon-dioxide films deposited using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 7130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

X. Zhang, and C. Grigoropoulos, "Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of free-standing silicon nitride thin films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

A. Bilotti, "Static temperature distribution in IC chips with isothermal heat sources," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 21, 217-226 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Aalto, T.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-mu s switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Ahmadi, G.

F. Yu, M. Cheng, P. Habitz, and G. Ahmadi, "Modeling of thermal behavior in SOI structures," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51, 83-91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Amatya, R.

R. Amatya, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, and R. J. Ram, "Precision Tunable Silicon Compatible Microring Filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1739-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

Askari, M.

Aydinli, A.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ayotte, S.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baker, N.

D. Geuzebroek, E. Klein, H. Kelderman, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Compact wavelength-selective switch for gigabit filtering in access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 336-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Klein, D. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bapst, U.

F. Horst, R. Germann, U. Bapst, D. Wiesmann, B. Offrein, and G. Bona, "Compact tunable FIR dispersion compensator in SiON technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1570-1572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M. A.

Bilotti, A.

A. Bilotti, "Static temperature distribution in IC chips with isothermal heat sources," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 21, 217-226 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bona, G.

F. Horst, R. Germann, U. Bapst, D. Wiesmann, B. Offrein, and G. Bona, "Compact tunable FIR dispersion compensator in SiON technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1570-1572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D. N.

Chan, E.

Chen, P.

Chen, Y.-K.

Cheng, M.

F. Yu, M. Cheng, P. Habitz, and G. Ahmadi, "Modeling of thermal behavior in SOI structures," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51, 83-91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Cohen, O.

Dagli, N.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

Davies, J.

Doylend, J.

Driessen, A.

D. Geuzebroek, E. Klein, H. Kelderman, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Compact wavelength-selective switch for gigabit filtering in access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 336-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Klein, D. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebrahimi, P.

Ferraro, M.

Geis, M.

M. Geis, S. Spector, R. Williamson, and T. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geng, M.

Germann, R.

F. Horst, R. Germann, U. Bapst, D. Wiesmann, B. Offrein, and G. Bona, "Compact tunable FIR dispersion compensator in SiON technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1570-1572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geuzebroek, D.

E. Klein, D. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Geuzebroek, E. Klein, H. Kelderman, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Compact wavelength-selective switch for gigabit filtering in access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 336-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

Goh, T.

Goodson, K.

Y. Ju, and K. Goodson, "Process-dependent thermal transport properties of silicon-dioxide films deposited using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 7130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C.

X. Zhang, and C. Grigoropoulos, "Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of free-standing silicon nitride thin films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grove, M. J.

Habitz, P.

F. Yu, M. Cheng, P. Habitz, and G. Ahmadi, "Modeling of thermal behavior in SOI structures," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 51, 83-91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harjanne, M.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-mu s switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, K.

Heimala, P.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-mu s switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Himeno, A.

Hochberg, M.

Holzwarth, C. W.

R. Amatya, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, and R. J. Ram, "Precision Tunable Silicon Compatible Microring Filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1739-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horst, F.

F. Horst, R. Germann, U. Bapst, D. Wiesmann, B. Offrein, and G. Bona, "Compact tunable FIR dispersion compensator in SiON technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1570-1572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Ishida, S.

Jia, L.

Jones, R.

Ju, Y.

Y. Ju, and K. Goodson, "Process-dependent thermal transport properties of silicon-dioxide films deposited using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 7130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kapulainen, M.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-mu s switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kelderman, H.

E. Klein, D. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Geuzebroek, E. Klein, H. Kelderman, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Compact wavelength-selective switch for gigabit filtering in access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 336-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kiyat, I.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klein, E.

D. Geuzebroek, E. Klein, H. Kelderman, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Compact wavelength-selective switch for gigabit filtering in access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 336-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Klein, D. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krug, W.

Li, C.

Li, D.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704-706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Lipson, M.

Lira, H.

Liu, Y.

Lyszczarz, T.

M. Geis, S. Spector, R. Williamson, and T. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Martinez, J.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704-706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, J. A.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: Modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Mohammadi, S.

Momeni, B.

Nawrocka, M. S.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: Modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704-706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B.

F. Horst, R. Germann, U. Bapst, D. Wiesmann, B. Offrein, and G. Bona, "Compact tunable FIR dispersion compensator in SiON technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 1570-1572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, Y.

Okuno, M.

Panepucci, R. R.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: Modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704-706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patel, S. S.

Pathak, K.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704-706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A. T. S.

Poon, A.

Pruessner, M.

Rabinovich, W.

Raday, O.

Rakhshandehroo, M.

Ram, R. J.

R. Amatya, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, and R. J. Ram, "Precision Tunable Silicon Compatible Microring Filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1739-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rasras, M. S.

Scherer, A.

Sengo, G.

E. Klein, D. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

R. Amatya, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, and R. J. Ram, "Precision Tunable Silicon Compatible Microring Filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1739-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soltani, M.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

Spector, S.

M. Geis, S. Spector, R. Williamson, and T. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stievater, T.

Sullivan, P.

Takayesu, J.

Tu, K.-Y.

Wang, G.

Wang, M. R.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704-706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: Modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704-706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

Wiesmann, D.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Architecture of the metallic microheater over a Si waveguide on an SOI wafer. (b) Distribution of temperature at the cross-section of an SOI waveguide as heat is generated in the metallic microheater. White arrows shows the heat flux in this device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Simulation results of the effect of BOX thickness on the rise-time and fall-time of temperature at the center of waveguide (b) Simulation result for the temperature rise at the center of the Si device for mW/µm power dissipation density over the waveguide. The width of the microheater is 0.5 µm in these simulation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Optical micrograph of a 20 µm diameter microring with a 0.5 µm wide microheater on top. Resonator is side-coupled to a bus waveguide with width of 480 nm. (b) SEM of the microheater of the same device shown in (a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Normalized transmission of the microring shown in Fig. 3(a) for different power dissipations in the microheater. (b) Experimental and simulation results of the normalized step response of the same microheater as in (a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Experimental and simulation results for the temperature rise in the core of a 20 µm diameter microring versus microheater width. Vertical axis on the right shows the redshift in the resonance frequency (b) Experimental and simulation results of temperature rise-time and fall-time of microheaters versus microheater width. The rest of the device parameters are the same as those in Table 2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Frequency response of microheaters shown in Fig. 3(a) with the width of Wh = 1 µm with PECVD SiO2 and LPCVD SiN cladding. (b) The normalized step-response of the same microheaters as in (a) at the rise and fall edge of the drive signal.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) System-level model for heat transport in the microheater. (b) Experimental result of the normalized impulse response of the microheater with a width of 1 µm and that of the fitted model shown in (a).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Experimental results of the response of 1 µm wide microheater to a step signal with (blue curve) and without (red curve) pulsed-excitation. Inset shows the power dissipation signals for the two cases.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Modeling result for the heat propagation delay for different cladding material thermal diffusivity constants. The width of the microheater is 500 nm and the rest of the device parameters are the same as in Table 2. The arrows show the location of different materials on the thermal diffusivity axis.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Device Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2. Modeling Parameters

Equations (1)

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. ( k T ) + ρ c T t = q s ,

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