Abstract

We propose a highly efficient hybrid light-emitting device (LED) with a single active layer where CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are dispersed as a guest material in a conjugated polymer (co-polymer) matrix used for a host material. In our structure, the QDs act on light-emitting chromophores by trapping the migrating excitons in the co-polymer matrix via Förster energy transfer, and improve the charge balance within the co-polymer by trapping the injected electron carriers. Experimental results show that the electroluminescent properties highly depend on the doping density of the QDs within the co-polymer matrix, where the luminance as well as the external current efficiency are initially enhanced with increasing the concentration of the dispersed QDs in the co-polymer solution, and then such properties are degraded due to aggregation of the QDs. We can get the maximum brightness of 9,088 cd/m2 and the maximum external current efficiency of 7.5 cd/A in mixing ratio of the QDs by 1.0 wt%. The external current efficiency is enhanced by over 15 times and the turn-on voltage is reduced in comparison with the corresponding values for a reference device that uses only a co-polymer as an active layer.

© 2010 OSA

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  4. M. Tian, J. Luo, and X. Liu, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting devices beyond theoretical prediction under high current density,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21370–21375 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21370 .
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 717–722 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Hwang, K. W. Park, H. S. Hwang, J. W. Sung, H. K. Baik, C. H. Lee, S. Y. Song, and J. Y. Lee, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a quantum dot interfacial layer,” Nanotechnology 20(6), 065204 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot interlayer between a hole transport layer and an emitting layer,” Synth. Met. 160(1-2), 39–41 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Tan, B. Hedrick, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, R. H. Henderson, J. Ruzyllo, and A. Y. Wang, “Stable Binanry Complementary White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Quantum-Dot/Polymer-Bilayer Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1998–2000 (2008).
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  14. B. Torriss, A. Hache, and S. Gauvin, “White light-emitting organic device with electroluminescent quantum dots and organic molecules,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1454–1458 (2009).
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  15. A. Rizzo, Y. Li, S. Kudera, F. D. Sala, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Blue light emitting diodes based on fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. W. Lee, C. H. Chou, J. H. Huang, C. S. Hsu, and T. P. Nguyen, “Investigations of organic light emitting diodes with CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 147(2-3), 307–311 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. T. K. Chin, R. A. M. Hikmet, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Energy transfer in hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Li and H. Meng, Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices (Taylor & Francis, 2006), Chap 3, 4.
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. T. Fernandez-Arguelles, W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernandez, R. Pereiro, and A. Sanz-Medel, “Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots for the sensitive and selective determination of Cu(II) in aqueous solutions by luminescent measurements,” Anal. Chim. Acta 549(1-2), 20–25 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, K. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Color control of multilayer stacked white polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot as an interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 093303 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot interlayer between a hole transport layer and an emitting layer,” Synth. Met. 160(1-2), 39–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

B. Torriss, A. Hache, and S. Gauvin, “White light-emitting organic device with electroluminescent quantum dots and organic molecules,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1454–1458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tian, J. Luo, and X. Liu, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting devices beyond theoretical prediction under high current density,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21370–21375 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21370 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Hwang, K. W. Park, H. S. Hwang, J. W. Sung, H. K. Baik, C. H. Lee, S. Y. Song, and J. Y. Lee, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a quantum dot interfacial layer,” Nanotechnology 20(6), 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, K. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Color control of multilayer stacked white polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot as an interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 093303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

P. O. Anikeeva, C. F. Madigan, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, J.-R. Lin, and M.-K. Wei, “Efficiency improvement and image quality of organic light-emitting display by attaching cylindrical microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21184–21190 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21184 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tan, B. Hedrick, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, R. H. Henderson, J. Ruzyllo, and A. Y. Wang, “Stable Binanry Complementary White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Quantum-Dot/Polymer-Bilayer Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1998–2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Lee, C. H. Chou, J. H. Huang, C. S. Hsu, and T. P. Nguyen, “Investigations of organic light emitting diodes with CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 147(2-3), 307–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. T. K. Chin, R. A. M. Hikmet, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Energy transfer in hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Munro, J. A. Bardecker, M. S. Liu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. H. Niu, I. J.-L. Plante, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Colloidal CdSe quantum dot electroluminescence:ligands and light-emitting diodes,” Mikrochim. Acta 160(3), 345–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

A. Rizzo, Y. Li, S. Kudera, F. D. Sala, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Blue light emitting diodes based on fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. T. Fernandez-Arguelles, W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernandez, R. Pereiro, and A. Sanz-Medel, “Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots for the sensitive and selective determination of Cu(II) in aqueous solutions by luminescent measurements,” Anal. Chim. Acta 549(1-2), 20–25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Mattoussi, L. H. Radzilowski, B. O. Dabbousi, E. L. Thomas, M. G. Bawendi, and M. F. Rubner, “Electroluminescence from heterostructures of poly(phenylene vinylene) and inorganic CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7965–7974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anikeeva, P. O.

P. O. Anikeeva, C. F. Madigan, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baik, H. K.

S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Hwang, K. W. Park, H. S. Hwang, J. W. Sung, H. K. Baik, C. H. Lee, S. Y. Song, and J. Y. Lee, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a quantum dot interfacial layer,” Nanotechnology 20(6), 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardecker, J. A.

A. M. Munro, J. A. Bardecker, M. S. Liu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. H. Niu, I. J.-L. Plante, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Colloidal CdSe quantum dot electroluminescence:ligands and light-emitting diodes,” Mikrochim. Acta 160(3), 345–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Anikeeva, C. F. Madigan, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mattoussi, L. H. Radzilowski, B. O. Dabbousi, E. L. Thomas, M. G. Bawendi, and M. F. Rubner, “Electroluminescence from heterostructures of poly(phenylene vinylene) and inorganic CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7965–7974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. J.

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

P. O. Anikeeva, C. F. Madigan, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Caruge, J. M.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.-Y.

Cheng, Y. J.

A. M. Munro, J. A. Bardecker, M. S. Liu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. H. Niu, I. J.-L. Plante, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Colloidal CdSe quantum dot electroluminescence:ligands and light-emitting diodes,” Mikrochim. Acta 160(3), 345–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, P. T. K.

P. T. K. Chin, R. A. M. Hikmet, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Energy transfer in hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. H.

C. W. Lee, C. H. Chou, J. H. Huang, C. S. Hsu, and T. P. Nguyen, “Investigations of organic light emitting diodes with CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 147(2-3), 307–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

A. Rizzo, Y. Li, S. Kudera, F. D. Sala, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Blue light emitting diodes based on fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Costa-Fernandez, J. M.

M. T. Fernandez-Arguelles, W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernandez, R. Pereiro, and A. Sanz-Medel, “Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots for the sensitive and selective determination of Cu(II) in aqueous solutions by luminescent measurements,” Anal. Chim. Acta 549(1-2), 20–25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dabbousi, B. O.

H. Mattoussi, L. H. Radzilowski, B. O. Dabbousi, E. L. Thomas, M. G. Bawendi, and M. F. Rubner, “Electroluminescence from heterostructures of poly(phenylene vinylene) and inorganic CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7965–7974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.-H.

Fernandez-Arguelles, M. T.

M. T. Fernandez-Arguelles, W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernandez, R. Pereiro, and A. Sanz-Medel, “Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots for the sensitive and selective determination of Cu(II) in aqueous solutions by luminescent measurements,” Anal. Chim. Acta 549(1-2), 20–25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gauvin, S.

B. Torriss, A. Hache, and S. Gauvin, “White light-emitting organic device with electroluminescent quantum dots and organic molecules,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1454–1458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

A. Rizzo, Y. Li, S. Kudera, F. D. Sala, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Blue light emitting diodes based on fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ginger, D. S.

A. M. Munro, J. A. Bardecker, M. S. Liu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. H. Niu, I. J.-L. Plante, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Colloidal CdSe quantum dot electroluminescence:ligands and light-emitting diodes,” Mikrochim. Acta 160(3), 345–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hache, A.

B. Torriss, A. Hache, and S. Gauvin, “White light-emitting organic device with electroluminescent quantum dots and organic molecules,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1454–1458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Halpert, J. E.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Anikeeva, C. F. Madigan, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hedrick, B.

Z. Tan, B. Hedrick, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, R. H. Henderson, J. Ruzyllo, and A. Y. Wang, “Stable Binanry Complementary White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Quantum-Dot/Polymer-Bilayer Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1998–2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, R. H.

Z. Tan, B. Hedrick, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, R. H. Henderson, J. Ruzyllo, and A. Y. Wang, “Stable Binanry Complementary White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Quantum-Dot/Polymer-Bilayer Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1998–2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hikmet, R. A. M.

P. T. K. Chin, R. A. M. Hikmet, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Energy transfer in hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y.-H.

Holmes, A. B.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. S.

C. W. Lee, C. H. Chou, J. H. Huang, C. S. Hsu, and T. P. Nguyen, “Investigations of organic light emitting diodes with CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 147(2-3), 307–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.-C.

Huang, J. H.

C. W. Lee, C. H. Chou, J. H. Huang, C. S. Hsu, and T. P. Nguyen, “Investigations of organic light emitting diodes with CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 147(2-3), 307–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B. H.

S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Hwang, K. W. Park, H. S. Hwang, J. W. Sung, H. K. Baik, C. H. Lee, S. Y. Song, and J. Y. Lee, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a quantum dot interfacial layer,” Nanotechnology 20(6), 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, H. S.

S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Hwang, K. W. Park, H. S. Hwang, J. W. Sung, H. K. Baik, C. H. Lee, S. Y. Song, and J. Y. Lee, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a quantum dot interfacial layer,” Nanotechnology 20(6), 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janssen, R. A. J.

P. T. K. Chin, R. A. M. Hikmet, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Energy transfer in hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

A. M. Munro, J. A. Bardecker, M. S. Liu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. H. Niu, I. J.-L. Plante, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Colloidal CdSe quantum dot electroluminescence:ligands and light-emitting diodes,” Mikrochim. Acta 160(3), 345–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. O.

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot interlayer between a hole transport layer and an emitting layer,” Synth. Met. 160(1-2), 39–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, K. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Color control of multilayer stacked white polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot as an interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 093303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W. J.

M. T. Fernandez-Arguelles, W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernandez, R. Pereiro, and A. Sanz-Medel, “Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots for the sensitive and selective determination of Cu(II) in aqueous solutions by luminescent measurements,” Anal. Chim. Acta 549(1-2), 20–25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joo, C. W.

S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, K. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Color control of multilayer stacked white polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot as an interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 093303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kudera, S.

A. Rizzo, Y. Li, S. Kudera, F. D. Sala, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Blue light emitting diodes based on fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Hwang, K. W. Park, H. S. Hwang, J. W. Sung, H. K. Baik, C. H. Lee, S. Y. Song, and J. Y. Lee, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a quantum dot interfacial layer,” Nanotechnology 20(6), 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. W.

C. W. Lee, C. H. Chou, J. H. Huang, C. S. Hsu, and T. P. Nguyen, “Investigations of organic light emitting diodes with CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 147(2-3), 307–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot interlayer between a hole transport layer and an emitting layer,” Synth. Met. 160(1-2), 39–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Hwang, K. W. Park, H. S. Hwang, J. W. Sung, H. K. Baik, C. H. Lee, S. Y. Song, and J. Y. Lee, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a quantum dot interfacial layer,” Nanotechnology 20(6), 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, K. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Color control of multilayer stacked white polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot as an interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 093303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

Li, L. S.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Rizzo, Y. Li, S. Kudera, F. D. Sala, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Blue light emitting diodes based on fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-Y.

Lin, J.-R.

Liu, M. S.

A. M. Munro, J. A. Bardecker, M. S. Liu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. H. Niu, I. J.-L. Plante, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Colloidal CdSe quantum dot electroluminescence:ligands and light-emitting diodes,” Mikrochim. Acta 160(3), 345–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Luo, J.

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

P. O. Anikeeva, C. F. Madigan, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manna, L.

A. Rizzo, Y. Li, S. Kudera, F. D. Sala, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Blue light emitting diodes based on fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mattoussi, H.

H. Mattoussi, L. H. Radzilowski, B. O. Dabbousi, E. L. Thomas, M. G. Bawendi, and M. F. Rubner, “Electroluminescence from heterostructures of poly(phenylene vinylene) and inorganic CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7965–7974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Munro, A. M.

A. M. Munro, J. A. Bardecker, M. S. Liu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. H. Niu, I. J.-L. Plante, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Colloidal CdSe quantum dot electroluminescence:ligands and light-emitting diodes,” Mikrochim. Acta 160(3), 345–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T. P.

C. W. Lee, C. H. Chou, J. H. Huang, C. S. Hsu, and T. P. Nguyen, “Investigations of organic light emitting diodes with CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 147(2-3), 307–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niu, Y. H.

A. M. Munro, J. A. Bardecker, M. S. Liu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. H. Niu, I. J.-L. Plante, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Colloidal CdSe quantum dot electroluminescence:ligands and light-emitting diodes,” Mikrochim. Acta 160(3), 345–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parak, W. J.

A. Rizzo, Y. Li, S. Kudera, F. D. Sala, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Blue light emitting diodes based on fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. W.

S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Hwang, K. W. Park, H. S. Hwang, J. W. Sung, H. K. Baik, C. H. Lee, S. Y. Song, and J. Y. Lee, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a quantum dot interfacial layer,” Nanotechnology 20(6), 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereiro, R.

M. T. Fernandez-Arguelles, W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernandez, R. Pereiro, and A. Sanz-Medel, “Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots for the sensitive and selective determination of Cu(II) in aqueous solutions by luminescent measurements,” Anal. Chim. Acta 549(1-2), 20–25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Plante, I. J.-L.

A. M. Munro, J. A. Bardecker, M. S. Liu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. H. Niu, I. J.-L. Plante, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Colloidal CdSe quantum dot electroluminescence:ligands and light-emitting diodes,” Mikrochim. Acta 160(3), 345–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Radzilowski, L. H.

H. Mattoussi, L. H. Radzilowski, B. O. Dabbousi, E. L. Thomas, M. G. Bawendi, and M. F. Rubner, “Electroluminescence from heterostructures of poly(phenylene vinylene) and inorganic CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7965–7974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, A.

A. Rizzo, Y. Li, S. Kudera, F. D. Sala, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Blue light emitting diodes based on fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubner, M. F.

H. Mattoussi, L. H. Radzilowski, B. O. Dabbousi, E. L. Thomas, M. G. Bawendi, and M. F. Rubner, “Electroluminescence from heterostructures of poly(phenylene vinylene) and inorganic CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7965–7974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ruzyllo, J.

Z. Tan, B. Hedrick, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, R. H. Henderson, J. Ruzyllo, and A. Y. Wang, “Stable Binanry Complementary White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Quantum-Dot/Polymer-Bilayer Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1998–2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, S. Y.

S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Hwang, K. W. Park, H. S. Hwang, J. W. Sung, H. K. Baik, C. H. Lee, S. Y. Song, and J. Y. Lee, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a quantum dot interfacial layer,” Nanotechnology 20(6), 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sala, F. D.

A. Rizzo, Y. Li, S. Kudera, F. D. Sala, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Blue light emitting diodes based on fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanz-Medel, A.

M. T. Fernandez-Arguelles, W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernandez, R. Pereiro, and A. Sanz-Medel, “Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots for the sensitive and selective determination of Cu(II) in aqueous solutions by luminescent measurements,” Anal. Chim. Acta 549(1-2), 20–25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, S. Y.

S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Hwang, K. W. Park, H. S. Hwang, J. W. Sung, H. K. Baik, C. H. Lee, S. Y. Song, and J. Y. Lee, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a quantum dot interfacial layer,” Nanotechnology 20(6), 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sung, J. W.

S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Hwang, K. W. Park, H. S. Hwang, J. W. Sung, H. K. Baik, C. H. Lee, S. Y. Song, and J. Y. Lee, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a quantum dot interfacial layer,” Nanotechnology 20(6), 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, Z.

Z. Tan, B. Hedrick, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, R. H. Henderson, J. Ruzyllo, and A. Y. Wang, “Stable Binanry Complementary White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Quantum-Dot/Polymer-Bilayer Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1998–2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

H. Mattoussi, L. H. Radzilowski, B. O. Dabbousi, E. L. Thomas, M. G. Bawendi, and M. F. Rubner, “Electroluminescence from heterostructures of poly(phenylene vinylene) and inorganic CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7965–7974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tian, M.

Torriss, B.

B. Torriss, A. Hache, and S. Gauvin, “White light-emitting organic device with electroluminescent quantum dots and organic molecules,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1454–1458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A. Y.

Z. Tan, B. Hedrick, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, R. H. Henderson, J. Ruzyllo, and A. Y. Wang, “Stable Binanry Complementary White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Quantum-Dot/Polymer-Bilayer Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1998–2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. A.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M.-K.

Wood, V.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Z. Tan, B. Hedrick, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, R. H. Henderson, J. Ruzyllo, and A. Y. Wang, “Stable Binanry Complementary White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Quantum-Dot/Polymer-Bilayer Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1998–2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yook, K.

S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, K. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Color control of multilayer stacked white polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot as an interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 093303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yook, K. S.

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot interlayer between a hole transport layer and an emitting layer,” Synth. Met. 160(1-2), 39–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zanella, M.

A. Rizzo, Y. Li, S. Kudera, F. D. Sala, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Blue light emitting diodes based on fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

Z. Tan, B. Hedrick, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, R. H. Henderson, J. Ruzyllo, and A. Y. Wang, “Stable Binanry Complementary White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Quantum-Dot/Polymer-Bilayer Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1998–2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

Z. Tan, B. Hedrick, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, R. H. Henderson, J. Ruzyllo, and A. Y. Wang, “Stable Binanry Complementary White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Quantum-Dot/Polymer-Bilayer Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1998–2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

M. T. Fernandez-Arguelles, W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernandez, R. Pereiro, and A. Sanz-Medel, “Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots for the sensitive and selective determination of Cu(II) in aqueous solutions by luminescent measurements,” Anal. Chim. Acta 549(1-2), 20–25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, K. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Color control of multilayer stacked white polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot as an interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 093303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Rizzo, Y. Li, S. Kudera, F. D. Sala, M. Zanella, W. J. Parak, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Blue light emitting diodes based on fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Tan, B. Hedrick, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, R. H. Henderson, J. Ruzyllo, and A. Y. Wang, “Stable Binanry Complementary White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Quantum-Dot/Polymer-Bilayer Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1998–2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. T. K. Chin, R. A. M. Hikmet, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Energy transfer in hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mattoussi, L. H. Radzilowski, B. O. Dabbousi, E. L. Thomas, M. G. Bawendi, and M. F. Rubner, “Electroluminescence from heterostructures of poly(phenylene vinylene) and inorganic CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7965–7974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

C. W. Lee, C. H. Chou, J. H. Huang, C. S. Hsu, and T. P. Nguyen, “Investigations of organic light emitting diodes with CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 147(2-3), 307–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mikrochim. Acta (1)

A. M. Munro, J. A. Bardecker, M. S. Liu, Y. J. Cheng, Y. H. Niu, I. J.-L. Plante, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Colloidal CdSe quantum dot electroluminescence:ligands and light-emitting diodes,” Mikrochim. Acta 160(3), 345–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Hwang, K. W. Park, H. S. Hwang, J. W. Sung, H. K. Baik, C. H. Lee, S. Y. Song, and J. Y. Lee, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a quantum dot interfacial layer,” Nanotechnology 20(6), 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, and Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Org. Electron. (1)

B. Torriss, A. Hache, and S. Gauvin, “White light-emitting organic device with electroluminescent quantum dots and organic molecules,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1454–1458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. O. Anikeeva, C. F. Madigan, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

S. O. Jeon, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of polymer light-emitting diodes using a quantum dot interlayer between a hole transport layer and an emitting layer,” Synth. Met. 160(1-2), 39–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Z. Li and H. Meng, Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices (Taylor & Francis, 2006), Chap 3, 4.

B. A. MacDonald, K. Rollins, D. MacKrron, K. Rakos, R. Eveson, K. Hashimoto, and B. Rustin, Flexible Flat Panel Display (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2005), Chap. 1.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of fabricated hybrid LED: (a) structure diagram, (b) band diagram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The chemical structures of each material: (a) TOPO-QD, (b) poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-benzo-{2,1',3}-thiadiazole)].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PL spectrum of co-polymer and absorption spectrum of QDs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The EL spectra of the fabricated (a) co-polymer LED and (b) PQD LED.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM analysis of films morphology; (a) only co-polymer layer (b) co-polymer with 0.2 wt% QDs, (c) co-polymer with 0.6 wt% QDs, (d) co-polymer with 1.0 wt% QDs, (e) co-polymer with 2.0 wt% QDs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The Electroluminescence according to applied voltages.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The injection current according to applied voltages.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The external current efficiency according to injection current density.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The CIE color space of the fabricated devices.

Metrics