Abstract

We introduce a novel scheme for dynamic line-by-line pulse shaping with GHz update rates. Four lines of an optical frequency comb source are used to injection-lock four individual VCSEL, which are subsequently electrically modulated at 0.4 to 1GHz through current modulation. This concept could be considered a completely new way of pulse shaping as the light is not simply modified, but rather regenerated with the desired properties. We also discuss an important drawback of line-by-line pulse shapers that ultimately limits the modulation speed capability.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, W. Jiang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, “32 Phase X 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 865–867 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an InP-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Pulse Shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Jiang, F. M. Soares, S. Seo, J. H. Baek, N. K. Fontaine, R. G. Broeke, J. Cao, J. Yan, K. Okamoto, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, A. Pham, and S. J. B. Yoo, “A Monolithic InP-Based Photonic Integrated Circuit for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA39.
  5. F. M. Soares, J. H. Baek, N. K. Fontaine, X. Zhou, Y. Wang, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, S. Vatanapradit, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithically Integrated InP Wafer-Scale 100-Channel × 10-GHz AWG and Michelson Interferometers for 1-THz-Bandwidth Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), Paper OThS1.
  6. N. Hoghooghi, I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and P. J. Delfyett, “Resonant cavity linear interferometric intensity modulator,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1218–1220 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A Semiconductor-Based 10-GHz Optical Comb Source With Sub 3-fs Shot-Noise-Limited Timing Jitter and 500-Hz Comb Linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. R. Supradeepa, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in two dimensions: towards higher complexity optical waveforms,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11878–11887 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Princeton Optronics, “8x8 Addressable VCSEL Array datasheet,” http://www.princetonoptronics.com/pdfs/AA64-BC-SM-W0975.pdf
  10. C. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection-locking of VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1386–1393 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. T. Willits, A. M. Weiner, and S. T. Cundiff, “Theory of rapid-update line-by-line pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 16(1), 315–327 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, T. He, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Modulation-format agile, reconfigurable Tb/s transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15911–15925 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

N. Hoghooghi, I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and P. J. Delfyett, “Resonant cavity linear interferometric intensity modulator,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1218–1220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A Semiconductor-Based 10-GHz Optical Comb Source With Sub 3-fs Shot-Noise-Limited Timing Jitter and 500-Hz Comb Linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

V. R. Supradeepa, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in two dimensions: towards higher complexity optical waveforms,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11878–11887 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an InP-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Pulse Shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Willits, A. M. Weiner, and S. T. Cundiff, “Theory of rapid-update line-by-line pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 16(1), 315–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, W. Jiang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, “32 Phase X 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 865–867 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection-locking of VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1386–1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Akbulut, M.

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A Semiconductor-Based 10-GHz Optical Comb Source With Sub 3-fs Shot-Noise-Limited Timing Jitter and 500-Hz Comb Linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Hoghooghi, I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and P. J. Delfyett, “Resonant cavity linear interferometric intensity modulator,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1218–1220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbarin, Y.

M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an InP-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Pulse Shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bente, E. A. J. M.

M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an InP-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Pulse Shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

Chang, C.

C. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection-locking of VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1386–1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection-locking of VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1386–1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, L.

C. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection-locking of VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1386–1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

Davila-Rodriguez, J.

Delfyett, P. J.

N. Hoghooghi, I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and P. J. Delfyett, “Resonant cavity linear interferometric intensity modulator,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1218–1220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A Semiconductor-Based 10-GHz Optical Comb Source With Sub 3-fs Shot-Noise-Limited Timing Jitter and 500-Hz Comb Linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N. K.

Geisler, D. J.

He, T.

Heck, M. J. R.

M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an InP-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Pulse Shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

Hoghooghi, N.

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A Semiconductor-Based 10-GHz Optical Comb Source With Sub 3-fs Shot-Noise-Limited Timing Jitter and 500-Hz Comb Linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Hoghooghi, I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and P. J. Delfyett, “Resonant cavity linear interferometric intensity modulator,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1218–1220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. B.

Jiang, W.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karalar, A.

Kolner, B. H.

Leaird, D. E.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in two dimensions: towards higher complexity optical waveforms,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11878–11887 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mandridis, D.

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A Semiconductor-Based 10-GHz Optical Comb Source With Sub 3-fs Shot-Noise-Limited Timing Jitter and 500-Hz Comb Linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, P.

M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an InP-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Pulse Shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Notzel, R.

M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an InP-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Pulse Shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

Ozdur, I.

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A Semiconductor-Based 10-GHz Optical Comb Source With Sub 3-fs Shot-Noise-Limited Timing Jitter and 500-Hz Comb Linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Hoghooghi, I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and P. J. Delfyett, “Resonant cavity linear interferometric intensity modulator,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1218–1220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozharar, S.

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A Semiconductor-Based 10-GHz Optical Comb Source With Sub 3-fs Shot-Noise-Limited Timing Jitter and 500-Hz Comb Linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paraschis, L.

Quinlan, F.

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A Semiconductor-Based 10-GHz Optical Comb Source With Sub 3-fs Shot-Noise-Limited Timing Jitter and 500-Hz Comb Linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R. P.

Smit, M. K.

M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an InP-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Pulse Shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Supradeepa, V. R.

Tilma, B. W.

M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an InP-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Pulse Shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Willits, J. T.

Yok-Siang, O.

M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an InP-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Pulse Shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. R. Heck, P. Munoz, B. W. Tilma, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an InP-Based Tunable Integrated Optical Pulse Shaper,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 370–377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection-locking of VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1386–1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

I. Ozdur, M. Akbulut, N. Hoghooghi, D. Mandridis, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and P. J. Delfyett, “A Semiconductor-Based 10-GHz Optical Comb Source With Sub 3-fs Shot-Noise-Limited Timing Jitter and 500-Hz Comb Linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 431–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

W. Jiang, F. M. Soares, S. Seo, J. H. Baek, N. K. Fontaine, R. G. Broeke, J. Cao, J. Yan, K. Okamoto, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, A. Pham, and S. J. B. Yoo, “A Monolithic InP-Based Photonic Integrated Circuit for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA39.

F. M. Soares, J. H. Baek, N. K. Fontaine, X. Zhou, Y. Wang, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, S. Vatanapradit, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithically Integrated InP Wafer-Scale 100-Channel × 10-GHz AWG and Michelson Interferometers for 1-THz-Bandwidth Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), Paper OThS1.

Princeton Optronics, “8x8 Addressable VCSEL Array datasheet,” http://www.princetonoptronics.com/pdfs/AA64-BC-SM-W0975.pdf

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment Setup for GHz Update Rate Line-by-Line Pulse Shaping

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) High Resolution Optical Spectra, and (b) RF Spectra. Both shown with and without injection-locking for various RF modulation power levels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) 16GHz real-time scope traces, (b) Corresponding Fourier-transforms, (c) Sample simulation, (d) Fourier-transform of 1GHz real-time scope trace (inset).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Regular Reflective Diffraction Grating Based Pulse Shaper - Only one modulated Frequency Line is shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power Coupling Ratio into Input Aperture vs. Modulation Frequency for Uniform Beam Shape.

Equations (5)

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ϕ = arcsin ( ω s ω m B )
θ i n = arcsin ( c G ν 0 sin ( θ d ) )
θ = arcsin ( c G ( ν 0 f m ) sin ( θ d ) ) θ + = arcsin ( c G ( ν 0 + f m ) sin ( θ d ) )
P = 10 log 10 ( 1 2 + 1 2 cos ( { 1 d F L 1 } × { θ θ i n } ) ( F L 1 tan [ θ θ i n ] 2 a ) ) P + = 10 log 10 ( 1 2 + 1 2 cos ( { 1 d F L 1 } × { θ i n θ + } ) ( F L 1 tan [ θ i n θ + ] 2 a ) )
f m 3 d B = ± ( ν 0 c G sin [ θ i n + arctan ( a F L 1 ) ] + sin ( θ d ) ) f m c u t o f f = ± ( ν 0 c G sin [ θ i n + arctan ( 2 a F L 1 ) ] + sin ( θ d ) )

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