Abstract

A new generation of Silicon-on-Insulator fiber-to-chip grating couplers which use a silicon overlay to enhance the directionality and thereby the coupling efficiency is presented. Devices are realized on a 200mm wafer in a CMOS pilot line. The fabricated fiber couplers show a coupling efficiency of −1.6dB and a 3dB bandwidth of 80nm.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Dale, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 949–955 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2749–2751 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High Efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1495–1497 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Vivien, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Grillot, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and L. El Melhaoui, “Light injection in SOI microwaveguides using high-efficiency grating couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3810–3815 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. K. Selvaraja, D. Vermeulen, M. Schaekers, E. Sleeckx, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Highly efficient grating coupler between optical fiber and silicon photonic circuit,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, (2009).
  7. F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151–156 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slanted grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 816–818 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a poly-silicon overlay,” Opt. Express 14, 11622–11630 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Chen, C. Li, S. M. G. Lo, K. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, “Silicon Waveguide Grating Couplers with Engineered Coupling Strength for Optimized Coupling,” in European Conference on Integrated Optics, (2010).
  12. T. K. Saha, “andW. Zhou, “High efficiency diffractive grating coupler based on transferred silicon nanomembrane overlay on photonic waveguide,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42, 085115 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 612–618 (2009).
  14. C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, M. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, J. Weiner, and M. Earnshaw, “Diplexer With Integrated Filters and Photodetector in Ge/Si Using ℘−X and ℘−M Directions in a Grating Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1698–1700 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

T. K. Saha, “andW. Zhou, “High efficiency diffractive grating coupler based on transferred silicon nanomembrane overlay on photonic waveguide,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42, 085115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 612–618 (2009).

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, M. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, J. Weiner, and M. Earnshaw, “Diplexer With Integrated Filters and Photodetector in Ge/Si Using ℘−X and ℘−M Directions in a Grating Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1698–1700 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Dale, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

Baets, R.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 612–618 (2009).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slanted grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 816–818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High Efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1495–1497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a poly-silicon overlay,” Opt. Express 14, 11622–11630 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2749–2751 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Dale, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2749–2751 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Dale, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 612–618 (2009).

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Dale, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brision, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, M. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, J. Weiner, and M. Earnshaw, “Diplexer With Integrated Filters and Photodetector in Ge/Si Using ℘−X and ℘−M Directions in a Grating Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1698–1700 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, M. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, J. Weiner, and M. Earnshaw, “Diplexer With Integrated Filters and Photodetector in Ge/Si Using ℘−X and ℘−M Directions in a Grating Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1698–1700 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Claes, T.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 612–618 (2009).

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Dale, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, M. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, J. Weiner, and M. Earnshaw, “Diplexer With Integrated Filters and Photodetector in Ge/Si Using ℘−X and ℘−M Directions in a Grating Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1698–1700 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Earnshaw, M.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, M. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, J. Weiner, and M. Earnshaw, “Diplexer With Integrated Filters and Photodetector in Ge/Si Using ℘−X and ℘−M Directions in a Grating Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1698–1700 (2009).
[CrossRef]

El Melhaoui, L.

Fédéli, J. M.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Grillot, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and L. El Melhaoui, “Light injection in SOI microwaveguides using high-efficiency grating couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3810–3815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, F.

Krauss, T. F.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Dale, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lardenois, S.

Laval, S.

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyan, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Dale, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 612–618 (2009).

Pascal, D.

Rasras, M.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, M. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, J. Weiner, and M. Earnshaw, “Diplexer With Integrated Filters and Photodetector in Ge/Si Using ℘−X and ℘−M Directions in a Grating Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1698–1700 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Saha, T. K.

T. K. Saha, “andW. Zhou, “High efficiency diffractive grating coupler based on transferred silicon nanomembrane overlay on photonic waveguide,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42, 085115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scheerlinck, S.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 612–618 (2009).

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 612–618 (2009).

J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slanted grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 816–818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 612–618 (2009).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2749–2751 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Dale, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Dale, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Dale, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 612–618 (2009).

J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slanted grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 816–818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 612–618 (2009).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slanted grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 816–818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High Efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1495–1497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a poly-silicon overlay,” Opt. Express 14, 11622–11630 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vermeulen, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Dale, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Weiner, J.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, M. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, J. Weiner, and M. Earnshaw, “Diplexer With Integrated Filters and Photodetector in Ge/Si Using ℘−X and ℘−M Directions in a Grating Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1698–1700 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. M. Fédéli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Dale, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slanted grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 816–818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustrations of fiber-to-chip high index contrast grating coupler optimization factors: the Bragg condition (a), upwards directionality (b), 2D fiber mode-matching in z- and x-direction (c,d) and mode-matching between the waveguide and Bloch mode of the grating (e).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Parameterized highly directional grating couplers: the general case (a), without silicon overlay (b), with silicon overlay but no waveguide etch (c) and both silicon overlay and waveguide etch (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Bird’s eye view of a silicon overlay grating fiber coupler.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement results of a sweep of 1D fiber couplers (a-Si overlay) for different duty cycles (a) and different grating periods (b).

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