Abstract

Optical trapping in a counter-propagating (CP) beam-geometry provides unique advantages in terms of working distance, aberration requirements and intensity hotspots. However, its axial performance is governed by the wave propagation of the opposing beams, which can limit the practical geometries. Here we propose a dynamic method for controlling axial forces to overcome this constraint. The technique uses computer-vision object tracking of the axial position, in conjunction with software-based feedback, for dynamically stabilizing the axial forces. We present proof-of-concept experiments showing real-time rapid repositioning coupled with a strongly enhanced axial trapping for a plurality of particles of varying sizes. We also demonstrate the technique’s adaptability for real-time reconfigurable feedback-trapping of a dynamically growing structure that mimics a continuously dividing cell colony. Advanced implementation of this feedback-driven approach can help make CP-trapping resistant to a host of perturbations such as laser fluctuations, mechanical vibrations and other distortions emphasizing its experimental versatility.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. C. Vermeulen, G. J. L. Wuite, G. J. M. Stienen, and C. F. Schmidt, “Optical trap stiffness in the presence and absence of spherical aberrations,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1812–1819 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. P. J. Rodrigo, L. Kelemen, D. Palima, C. A. Alonzo, P. Ormos, and J. Glückstad, “Optical microassembly platform for constructing reconfigurable microenvironments for biomedical studies,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6578–6583 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Tunable Bessel light modes: engineering the axial propagation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15558–15570 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, “Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245(1), 155–159 (2005).
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2010 (1)

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

A. van der Horst, P. D. J. van Oostrum, A. Moroz, A. van Blaaderen, and M. Dogterom, “High trapping forces for high-refractive index particles trapped in dynamic arrays of counterpropagating optical tweezers,” Appl. Opt. 47(17), 3196–3202 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, “Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public . 3, (2008).

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

T. Čižmár, V. Garces-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, “Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245(1), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Gammelgaard, P. Bøggild, I. Perch-Nielsen, and J. Glückstad, “Actuation of microfabricated tools using multiple GPC-based counterpropagating-beam traps,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6899–6904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Capitanio, G. Romano, R. Ballerini, M. Giuntini, F. S. Pavone, D. Dunlap, and L. Finzi, “Calibration of optical tweezers with differential interference contrast signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1687–1696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tatarkova, A. E. Carruthers, and K. Dholakia, “One-dimensional optically bound arrays of microscopic particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(28), 283901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1985 (1)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of radiation-pressure trapping of particles by alternating light beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54(12), 1245–1248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Feedback stabilization of optically levitated particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30(4), 202–204 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156–159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alonzo, C. A.

Andersen, G. H.

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, “Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245(1), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arneborg, N.

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, “Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245(1), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of radiation-pressure trapping of particles by alternating light beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54(12), 1245–1248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Feedback stabilization of optically levitated particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30(4), 202–204 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156–159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ballerini, R.

M. Capitanio, G. Romano, R. Ballerini, M. Giuntini, F. S. Pavone, D. Dunlap, and L. Finzi, “Calibration of optical tweezers with differential interference contrast signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1687–1696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bøggild, P.

Capitanio, M.

M. Capitanio, G. Romano, R. Ballerini, M. Giuntini, F. S. Pavone, D. Dunlap, and L. Finzi, “Calibration of optical tweezers with differential interference contrast signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1687–1696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, A. E.

S. A. Tatarkova, A. E. Carruthers, and K. Dholakia, “One-dimensional optically bound arrays of microscopic particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(28), 283901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cižmár, T.

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Tunable Bessel light modes: engineering the axial propagation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15558–15570 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Čižmár, V. Garces-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clark, R. L.

Cole, D. G.

Constable, A.

Cooper, J.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dam, J.

H.U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, “Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public . 3, (2008).

Dam, J. S.

Daria, V. R.

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, “Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245(1), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Tunable Bessel light modes: engineering the axial propagation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15558–15570 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Čižmár, V. Garces-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tatarkova, A. E. Carruthers, and K. Dholakia, “One-dimensional optically bound arrays of microscopic particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(28), 283901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dogterom, M.

Dunlap, D.

M. Capitanio, G. Romano, R. Ballerini, M. Giuntini, F. S. Pavone, D. Dunlap, and L. Finzi, “Calibration of optical tweezers with differential interference contrast signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1687–1696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of radiation-pressure trapping of particles by alternating light beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54(12), 1245–1248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Feedback stabilization of optically levitated particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30(4), 202–204 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Finzi, L.

M. Capitanio, G. Romano, R. Ballerini, M. Giuntini, F. S. Pavone, D. Dunlap, and L. Finzi, “Calibration of optical tweezers with differential interference contrast signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1687–1696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gammelgaard, L.

Garces-Chávez, V.

T. Čižmár, V. Garces-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giuntini, M.

M. Capitanio, G. Romano, R. Ballerini, M. Giuntini, F. S. Pavone, D. Dunlap, and L. Finzi, “Calibration of optical tweezers with differential interference contrast signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1687–1696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glückstad, J.

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Kelemen, D. Palima, C. A. Alonzo, P. Ormos, and J. Glückstad, “Optical microassembly platform for constructing reconfigurable microenvironments for biomedical studies,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6578–6583 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, “Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public . 3, (2008).

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Kelemen, C. A. Alonzo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, J. S. Dam, P. Ormos, and J. Glückstad, “2D optical manipulation and assembly of shape-complementary planar microstructures,” Opt. Express 15(14), 9009–9014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R. Perch-Nielsen, P. J. Rodrigo, C. A. Alonzo, and J. Glückstad, “Autonomous and 3D real-time multi-beam manipulation in a microfluidic environment,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12199–12205 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rodrigo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, and J. Glückstad, “Three-dimensional forces in GPC-based counterpropagating-beam traps,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5812–5822 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Gammelgaard, P. Bøggild, I. Perch-Nielsen, and J. Glückstad, “Actuation of microfabricated tools using multiple GPC-based counterpropagating-beam traps,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6899–6904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, “Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245(1), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isomura, A.

A. Isomura, N. Magome, M. Kohira, and K. Yoshikawa, “Toward the stable optical trapping of a droplet with counter laser beams under microgravity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 429(1-3), 321–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, P.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

H.U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, “Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public . 3, (2008).

Kelemen, L.

Kim, J.

Kohira, M.

A. Isomura, N. Magome, M. Kohira, and K. Yoshikawa, “Toward the stable optical trapping of a droplet with counter laser beams under microgravity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 429(1-3), 321–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leach, J.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Magome, N.

A. Isomura, N. Magome, M. Kohira, and K. Yoshikawa, “Toward the stable optical trapping of a droplet with counter laser beams under microgravity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 429(1-3), 321–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazilu, M.

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mervis, J.

Moroz, A.

Nissen, P.

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, “Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245(1), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ormos, P.

Padgett, M. J.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Palima, D.

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Kelemen, D. Palima, C. A. Alonzo, P. Ormos, and J. Glückstad, “Optical microassembly platform for constructing reconfigurable microenvironments for biomedical studies,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6578–6583 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, “Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public . 3, (2008).

Pavone, F. S.

M. Capitanio, G. Romano, R. Ballerini, M. Giuntini, F. S. Pavone, D. Dunlap, and L. Finzi, “Calibration of optical tweezers with differential interference contrast signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1687–1696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perch-Nielsen, I.

H.U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, “Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public . 3, (2008).

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Gammelgaard, P. Bøggild, I. Perch-Nielsen, and J. Glückstad, “Actuation of microfabricated tools using multiple GPC-based counterpropagating-beam traps,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6899–6904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perch-Nielsen, I. R.

Prentiss, M.

Rodrigo, P. J.

Romano, G.

M. Capitanio, G. Romano, R. Ballerini, M. Giuntini, F. S. Pavone, D. Dunlap, and L. Finzi, “Calibration of optical tweezers with differential interference contrast signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1687–1696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C. F.

Siegumfeldt, H.

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, “Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245(1), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinclair, G.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stapelfeldt, H.

H.U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, “Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public . 3, (2008).

Stienen, G. J. M.

Tatarkova, S. A.

S. A. Tatarkova, A. E. Carruthers, and K. Dholakia, “One-dimensional optically bound arrays of microscopic particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(28), 283901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thøgersen, J.

H.U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, “Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public . 3, (2008).

Ulriksen, H.U.

H.U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, “Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public . 3, (2008).

van Blaaderen, A.

van der Horst, A.

van Oostrum, P. D. J.

Vermeulen, K. C.

Wuite, G. J. L.

Wulff, K. D.

Yoshikawa, K.

A. Isomura, N. Magome, M. Kohira, and K. Yoshikawa, “Toward the stable optical trapping of a droplet with counter laser beams under microgravity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 429(1-3), 321–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zarinetchi, F.

Zemánek, P.

T. Čižmár, V. Garces-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Čižmár, V. Garces-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Feedback stabilization of optically levitated particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30(4), 202–204 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Isomura, N. Magome, M. Kohira, and K. Yoshikawa, “Toward the stable optical trapping of a droplet with counter laser beams under microgravity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 429(1-3), 321–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1)

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, “Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245(1), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public (1)

H.U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, “Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public . 3, (2008).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156–159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of radiation-pressure trapping of particles by alternating light beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54(12), 1245–1248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Tatarkova, A. E. Carruthers, and K. Dholakia, “One-dimensional optically bound arrays of microscopic particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(28), 283901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Capitanio, G. Romano, R. Ballerini, M. Giuntini, F. S. Pavone, D. Dunlap, and L. Finzi, “Calibration of optical tweezers with differential interference contrast signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1687–1696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Glückstad, and D. Palima, “Generalised Phase Contrast: Applications in Optics and Photonics”, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 146, 310 pp (2009).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (1958 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2361 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (3008 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3931 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Conventional stable CP-trapping in the far-field of diverging beams. b) Overlapping foci. c) Converging beams with foci oppositely positioned compared to a). d) CP-trapping with tube-like beams.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of active stabilization in the BioPhotonics Workstation (BWS). An array of actively regulated traps are relayed through well-separated objectives (1 and 2) that provides ample space for side-view microscopy (objective lens A, zoom lens and CCD camera). Computer vision provides real-time position feedback for regulating the traps.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Media 1. Snapshots from side-view microscopy of optical manipulation and trapping of a 10μm diameter particle using an actively stabilized counterpropagating-beam trap. The blue rectangle overlay is centered on the desired position. A red square circumscribes the auto-detected particle; a red dot marks its center-of-mass for position feedback.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Media 2 Snapshots from side-view video microscopy of simultaneous optical manipulation and trapping of differently sized particles (5μm and 10μm diameter). Particles are rapidly trapped and stabilized via side-view feedback with static foci separations

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Media 3 Side-view microscopy showing optical trapping and manipulation of a chain of 5 μm diameter particles formed by optical binding: (a) The chain is catapulted toward desired position (blue overlay); (b) The chain of particles is held in place by dynamic traps.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Media 4 Side-view microscopy showing simultaneous optical trapping and manipulation of multiple 10 μm diameter particles into various configurations using actively stabilized counter-propagating traps.

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