Abstract

We discuss a simple, linear, zero-delay implementation of spectral shearing interferometry for amplitude and phase characterization of optical frequency comb sources and arbitrary waveforms. We demonstrate this technique by characterizing two different high repetition rate (~10 GHz) frequency comb sources, generated respectively by strong external and intracavity phase modulation of a continuous-wave laser. This technique is easy to implement, requiring only an intensity modulator and an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA), and is demonstrated to work at average power levels down to 100nW (10aJ/pulse at 10 GHz). By exploiting the long coherence lengths of these frequency combs and the self-referenced nature of the measurement, we also demonstrate a simple single-ended measurement of dispersion and dispersion slope in long lengths of fiber (>25km).

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C.-B. Huang, S.-G. Park, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Nonlinearly broadened phase-modulated continuous-wave laser frequency combs characterized using DPSK decoding,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2520–2527 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  21. V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Fast Characterization of Dispersion and Dispersion Slope of Optical Fiber Links Using Spectral Interferometry With Frequency Combs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(3), 155–157 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. http://www.aragonphotonics.com/ficha.php?cat=76&id=80&opt=2

2010 (2)

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Fast Characterization of Dispersion and Dispersion Slope of Optical Fiber Links Using Spectral Interferometry With Frequency Combs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(3), 155–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cohen, P. Bowlan, V. Chauhan, and R. Trebino, “Measuring temporally complex ultrashort pulses using multiple-delay crossed-beam spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6583–6597 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

2008 (1)

2007 (5)

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Yoo, “High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9977–9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1163–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. D. Ellis and F. C. G. Gunning, “Spectral density enhancement using coherent WDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 504–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (2)

M. Kwakernaak, R. Schreieck, A. Neiger, H. Jäckel, E. Gini, and W. Vogt, “Spectral phase measurement of mode-locked diode laser pulses by beating sidebands generated by electrooptical mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1677–1679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by electroopticmodulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1325–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(10), 2693–2701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Amy-Klein, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bize, S.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boittin, R.

Bowlan, P.

Cao, J.

Chardonnet, Ch.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chauhan, V.

Clairon, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, J.

Daussy, Ch.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Debeau, J.

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorrer, C.

Ellis, A. D.

A. D. Ellis and F. C. G. Gunning, “Spectral density enhancement using coherent WDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 504–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fontaine, N. K.

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gini, E.

M. Kwakernaak, R. Schreieck, A. Neiger, H. Jäckel, E. Gini, and W. Vogt, “Spectral phase measurement of mode-locked diode laser pulses by beating sidebands generated by electrooptical mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1677–1679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, F. C. G.

A. D. Ellis and F. C. G. Gunning, “Spectral density enhancement using coherent WDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 504–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C. B.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1163–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-B.

C.-B. Huang, S.-G. Park, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Nonlinearly broadened phase-modulated continuous-wave laser frequency combs characterized using DPSK decoding,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2520–2527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imai, K.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1163–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jäckel, H.

M. Kwakernaak, R. Schreieck, A. Neiger, H. Jäckel, E. Gini, and W. Vogt, “Spectral phase measurement of mode-locked diode laser pulses by beating sidebands generated by electrooptical mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1677–1679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1163–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, I.

Kippenberg, T. J.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by electroopticmodulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1325–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kolner, B. H.

Kourogi, M.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1163–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(10), 2693–2701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, B.

Kwakernaak, M.

M. Kwakernaak, R. Schreieck, A. Neiger, H. Jäckel, E. Gini, and W. Vogt, “Spectral phase measurement of mode-locked diode laser pulses by beating sidebands generated by electrooptical mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1677–1679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Leaird, D.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1163–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

Long, C. M.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Fast Characterization of Dispersion and Dispersion Slope of Optical Fiber Links Using Spectral Interferometry With Frequency Combs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(3), 155–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, O.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miao, H.

H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform characterization via dual-quadrature spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3381–3389 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1163–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, A.

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by electroopticmodulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1325–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murata, H.

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by electroopticmodulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1325–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(10), 2693–2701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Narbonneau, F.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neiger, A.

M. Kwakernaak, R. Schreieck, A. Neiger, H. Jäckel, E. Gini, and W. Vogt, “Spectral phase measurement of mode-locked diode laser pulses by beating sidebands generated by electrooptical mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1677–1679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(10), 2693–2701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

Park, S.-G.

Santarelli, G.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreieck, R.

M. Kwakernaak, R. Schreieck, A. Neiger, H. Jäckel, E. Gini, and W. Vogt, “Spectral phase measurement of mode-locked diode laser pulses by beating sidebands generated by electrooptical mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1677–1679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R. P.

Supradeepa, V. R.

Trebino, R.

Vogt, W.

M. Kwakernaak, R. Schreieck, A. Neiger, H. Jäckel, E. Gini, and W. Vogt, “Spectral phase measurement of mode-locked diode laser pulses by beating sidebands generated by electrooptical mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1677–1679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Weiner, A. M.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Fast Characterization of Dispersion and Dispersion Slope of Optical Fiber Links Using Spectral Interferometry With Frequency Combs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(3), 155–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform characterization via dual-quadrature spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3381–3389 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform characterization via dual-quadrature spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 17(1), 25–33 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Single shot amplitude and phase characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14434–14443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-B. Huang, S.-G. Park, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Nonlinearly broadened phase-modulated continuous-wave laser frequency combs characterized using DPSK decoding,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2520–2527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1163–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, S.

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by electroopticmodulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1325–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, S. J.

Yoo, S. J. B.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(10), 2693–2701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1163–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by electroopticmodulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1325–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. D. Ellis and F. C. G. Gunning, “Spectral density enhancement using coherent WDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 504–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kwakernaak, R. Schreieck, A. Neiger, H. Jäckel, E. Gini, and W. Vogt, “Spectral phase measurement of mode-locked diode laser pulses by beating sidebands generated by electrooptical mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1677–1679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Fast Characterization of Dispersion and Dispersion Slope of Optical Fiber Links Using Spectral Interferometry With Frequency Combs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(3), 155–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Yoo, “High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9977–9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-B. Huang, S.-G. Park, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Nonlinearly broadened phase-modulated continuous-wave laser frequency combs characterized using DPSK decoding,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2520–2527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform characterization via dual-quadrature spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 17(1), 25–33 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform characterization via dual-quadrature spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3381–3389 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12332–12344 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Single shot amplitude and phase characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14434–14443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cohen, P. Bowlan, V. Chauhan, and R. Trebino, “Measuring temporally complex ultrashort pulses using multiple-delay crossed-beam spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6583–6597 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Trebino, “Frequency resolved optical gating: The measurement of ultrashort optical pulses,” Springer publications (2002).

http://www.aragonphotonics.com/ficha.php?cat=76&id=80&opt=2

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup, IM – Intensity modulator, (b) Schematic indicating phase relations between 1st order sidebands as the phase of the modulating RF sinusoid is changed, (c) Schematic indicating the situation when a frequency comb undergoes modulation. The amplitudes at the carrier positions are used to obtain the amplitude spectra while the interference between sidebands is used to obtain the phase information, (d) Measured spectra from the OSA with no modulation, (e), (f) Measured OSA spectra with modulation on for two settings of the RF phase shifter spaced 45° apart.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) Retrieved spectra and spectral phase for the OFCG at an optimal setting with the pulses spaced at half the repetition period, (c) Plot showing the spectral phase circled in 3(b) corresponding to one of the pulses after the linear component corresponding to delay is subtracted and a quadratic fit to it (d) Recovered time domain intensities from the measured spectra and spectral phase, (solid line, blue) corresponding to spectra and phase shown in 3(a) and 3(b), (dashed line, red), (dotted line, green) with changing bias conditions from optimality, (e) Corresponding scope traces obtained with a 50GHz photodiode and sampling scope.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Retrieved spectral phase with cubic fits for a SMF link of ~25km and a DCF module matched to it, (b) Retrieved spectral phase and quadratic fit for the dispersion compensated (SMF + DCF) link

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Retrieved spectral phase for the comb source, (b) Measured intensity autocorrelations of the comb source with no spectral phase correction (solid line) and for phase correction based on measurements performed at an average power of 0dBm (dotted line, blue), −40dBm (dashed line, red). All the autocorrelations were performed with the same average input power into the autocorrelator. The simulated intensity autocorrelation (not plotted) taking the measured power spectra and assuming flat spectral phase matches very closely with the 0dBm trace.

Equations (2)

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I i n p h a s e = C [ | a n | 2 + | a n + 1 | 2 + 2 | a n | | a n + 1 | cos ( ψ n ψ n + 1 ) ]
I q u a d r a t u r e = C [ | a n | 2 + | a n + 1 | 2 + 2 | a n | | a n + 1 | sin ( ψ n ψ n + 1 ) ]

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