Abstract

A new method of selectively infiltrating microstructured optical fibers with the assistance of femtosecond laser micromachining is presented. With this technique, any type of air-holes in the cross-section of the microstructured optical fibers can be selectively infiltrated with liquids, which opens up a highly efficient, precise, flexible and reliable way of selective infiltrating and has high potential in the fabrication of novel hybrid-structured optical fibers and the devices based on them.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. C. Kerbage and B. J. Eggleton, “Numerical analysis and experimental design of tunable birefringence in microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 10(5), 246–255 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-5-246 .
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. L. Ran, Y. J. Rao, W. J. Liu, X. Liao, and K. S. Chiang, “Laser-micromachined Fabry-Perot optical fiber tip sensor for high-resolution temperature-independent measurement of refractive index,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2252–2263 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-3-2252 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2005 (5)

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, and C. Zhao, “Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9014–9022 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9014 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, and N. Groothoff, “Water-core Fresnel fiber,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3890–3895 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-10-3890 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, “Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1838–1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bozolan, A.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and sing-mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. S. De Matos, C. M. B. Cordeiro, E. M. Dos Santos, J. S. K. Ong, A. Bozolan, and C. H. Brito Cruz, “Liquid-core, liquid-cladding photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11207–11212 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11207 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brito Cruz, C. H.

Brueckner, S.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Chesini, G.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and sing-mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Couny, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, F. M.

Cruz, C. H. B.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and sing-mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Matos, C. J. S.

Demokan, M. S.

Domachuk, P.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, “Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1838–1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dos Santos, E. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Facincani, T.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and sing-mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferreiira, D. S.

Groothoff, N.

Gu, M.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, “Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1838–1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. L.

Hoo, Y. L.

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Kerbage, C.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobelke, J.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Large, M. C. J.

Lehmann, H.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, X.

Lim, S. K.

Liu, W. J.

Lyytikainen, K.

Martelli, C.

Nguyen, H. C.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, “Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1838–1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, K.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noordegraaf, D.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ong, J. S. K.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and sing-mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. S. De Matos, C. M. B. Cordeiro, E. M. Dos Santos, J. S. K. Ong, A. Bozolan, and C. H. Brito Cruz, “Liquid-core, liquid-cladding photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11207–11212 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11207 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuster, K.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwotzer, G.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, T.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, M.

Straub, M.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, “Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1838–1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaz, A. R.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and sing-mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

Willsch, R.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. K.

Wu, D. K. C.

Xiao, L.

Xu, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yip, T. K.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, C.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, “Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1838–1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and sing-mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

L. Xiao, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Photonic crystal fibers confining light by both index-guiding and bandgap-guiding: hybrid PCFs,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15637–15647 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-15637 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. S. De Matos, C. M. B. Cordeiro, E. M. Dos Santos, J. S. K. Ong, A. Bozolan, and C. H. Brito Cruz, “Liquid-core, liquid-cladding photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11207–11212 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11207 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, R. Wang, F. M. Cox, B. T. Kuhlmey, and M. C. J. Large, “Selective coating of holes in microstructured optical fiber and its application to in-fiber absorptive polarizers,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16270–16278 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-16270 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, T. K. Yip, S. K. Lim, and C. Martelli, “White light sources based on multiple precision selective micro-filling of structured optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15700–15708 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-20-15700 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kerbage and B. J. Eggleton, “Numerical analysis and experimental design of tunable birefringence in microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 10(5), 246–255 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-5-246 .
[PubMed]

Z. L. Ran, Y. J. Rao, W. J. Liu, X. Liao, and K. S. Chiang, “Laser-micromachined Fabry-Perot optical fiber tip sensor for high-resolution temperature-independent measurement of refractive index,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2252–2263 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-3-2252 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, and C. Zhao, “Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9014–9022 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9014 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, and N. Groothoff, “Water-core Fresnel fiber,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3890–3895 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-10-3890 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, E. M. Dos Santos, C. H. Brito Cruz, C. J. S. de Matos, and D. S. Ferreiira, “Lateral access to the holes of photonic crystal fibers - selective filling and sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8403–8412 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8403 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Flowchart of selective infiltration with the assistance of femtosecond laser micromachining. (1) Fusion splicing and laser cleaving; (2) laser drilling; (3) infiltration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Experimental setup and laser focusing process illustration. CCD, charge-coupled device camera; W, half-wave plate; P, polarizer; BS, beam splitter; MO, microscopic objective. The insets in the right panel show the images of the cleaved sample formed in the fusion splicing plane and the cleaved surface plane, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Microscopic images of selectively infiltrated samples. (a) A-hole infiltrated; (b) B-hole infiltrated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Transmission spectra of the MOF with (a) A-hole and (b) B-hole infiltrated by 1.50-RI liquids at different temperatures.

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