Abstract

We have studied electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials for various schemes corresponding to those in an atomic medium. We numerically calculate a symmetric dolmen scheme of metamaterials corresponding to a tripod model of EIT-based optical switching and illustrate plasmonic double dark resonances. Our study provides a fundamental understanding and useful guidelines in using metamaterials for plasmonic-based all-optical information processing.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

Q. H. Park, “Optical antennas and plasmonics,” Contemp. Phys. 50(2), 407–423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Ham and J. Hahn, “Observation of ultraslow light-based photon logic gates: NAND/OR,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherence media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. S. Ham, “Experimental demonstration of all-optical 1x2 quantum routing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 893–896 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. G. Payne and L. Deng, “Quantum entanglement of Fock states with perfectly efficient ultraslow single-probe photon four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

M. C. Phillips and H. Wang, “Spin coherence and electromagnetically induced transparency via exciton correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, “Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(2), 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. S. Ham and P. R. Hemmer, “Coherence switching in a four-level system: quantum switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4080–4083 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60(4), 3225–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and L. Hau, “Nonlinear optics at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(23), 4611–4614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(17), 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50(7), 36–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Ham, M. S. Shahriar, and P. R. Hemmer, “Enhanced nondegenerate four-wave mixing owing to electromagnetically induced transparency in a spectral hole-burning crystal,” Opt. Lett. 22(15), 1138–1140 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Probing the interaction between two single molecules: fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a single donor and a single acceptor,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(13), 6264–6268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1983 (1)

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexander, R. W.

Atwater, H. A.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and G. W. Burr, “Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in the finite-difference time domain,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2972–2974 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, G. W.

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burr, G. W.

Chemla, D. S.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Probing the interaction between two single molecules: fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a single donor and a single acceptor,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(13), 6264–6268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, D. J.

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Crozier, K.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L.

M. G. Payne and L. Deng, “Quantum entanglement of Fock states with perfectly efficient ultraslow single-probe photon four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donoghue, J.

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emory, S. R.

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enderle, Th.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Probing the interaction between two single molecules: fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a single donor and a single acceptor,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(13), 6264–6268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farjadpour, A.

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherence media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60(4), 3225–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Etxarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garrido Alzar, C. L.

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, T.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Probing the interaction between two single molecules: fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a single donor and a single acceptor,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(13), 6264–6268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, J.

B. S. Ham and J. Hahn, “Observation of ultraslow light-based photon logic gates: NAND/OR,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ham, B. S.

B. S. Ham and J. Hahn, “Observation of ultraslow light-based photon logic gates: NAND/OR,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Ham, “Experimental demonstration of all-optical 1x2 quantum routing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 893–896 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, “Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(2), 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Ham and P. R. Hemmer, “Coherence switching in a four-level system: quantum switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4080–4083 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Ham, M. S. Shahriar, and P. R. Hemmer, “Enhanced nondegenerate four-wave mixing owing to electromagnetically induced transparency in a spectral hole-burning crystal,” Opt. Lett. 22(15), 1138–1140 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, F.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and L. Hau, “Nonlinear optics at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(23), 4611–4614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(17), 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50(7), 36–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L.

S. E. Harris and L. Hau, “Nonlinear optics at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(23), 4611–4614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmer, P. R.

Hillenbrand, R.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A. J.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and G. W. Burr, “Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in the finite-difference time domain,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2972–2974 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherence media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and G. W. Burr, “Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in the finite-difference time domain,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2972–2974 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and G. W. Burr, “Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in the finite-difference time domain,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2972–2974 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kästel, J.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, D. P.

Kumar, P.

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, L. L.

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60(4), 3225–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherence media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, M. A. G.

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musser, J. A.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, “Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(2), 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S. M.

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nussenzveig, P.

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ogletree, D. F.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Probing the interaction between two single molecules: fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a single donor and a single acceptor,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(13), 6264–6268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ordal, M. A.

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

Q. H. Park, “Optical antennas and plasmonics,” Contemp. Phys. 50(2), 407–423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Payne, M. G.

M. G. Payne and L. Deng, “Quantum entanglement of Fock states with perfectly efficient ultraslow single-probe photon four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfau, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, M. C.

M. C. Phillips and H. Wang, “Spin coherence and electromagnetically induced transparency via exciton correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, A.

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and G. W. Burr, “Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in the finite-difference time domain,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2972–2974 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnell, M.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60(4), 3225–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Selvin, P. R.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Probing the interaction between two single molecules: fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a single donor and a single acceptor,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(13), 6264–6268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahriar, M. S.

Shen, Y. R.

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sobhani, H.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnefraud, Y.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudarshanam, V. S.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, “Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(2), 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turukhin, A. V.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, “Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(2), 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dorpe, P.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verellen, N.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

M. C. Phillips and H. Wang, “Spin coherence and electromagnetically induced transparency via exciton correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, C. A.

Weiss, S.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Probing the interaction between two single molecules: fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a single donor and a single acceptor,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(13), 6264–6268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(17), 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, S. F.

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60(4), 3225–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. S. Ham, “Experimental demonstration of all-optical 1x2 quantum routing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 893–896 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Ham and J. Hahn, “Observation of ultraslow light-based photon logic gates: NAND/OR,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

Q. H. Park, “Optical antennas and plasmonics,” Contemp. Phys. 50(2), 407–423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60(4), 3225–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(17), 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Ham and P. R. Hemmer, “Coherence switching in a four-level system: quantum switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4080–4083 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris and L. Hau, “Nonlinear optics at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(23), 4611–4614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Phillips and H. Wang, “Spin coherence and electromagnetically induced transparency via exciton correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, “Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(2), 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Payne and L. Deng, “Quantum entanglement of Fock states with perfectly efficient ultraslow single-probe photon four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50(7), 36–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, “Probing the interaction between two single molecules: fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a single donor and a single acceptor,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(13), 6264–6268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherence media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic metamaterial with coupling induced transparency,” arXiv: 0801.1536v1 [physics. optics].

http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Dielectric_materials_in_Meep .

H. Xu, and B. S. Ham, “Plasmon-induced photonic switching in a metamaterial,” arXiv: 0905.3102v4 [quant-ph].

J. Harden, A. Joshi, and J. D. Serna, arXiv:1006.5167v1 [quant-ph].

A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: The finite-difference time–domain method (Artech, 2000).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the silver strip. The geometric parameters A and B are the width and length, respectively. An external light incident normal to the strip, and E-field polarized along the strip. (b) The dependence of the resonance wavelength on length B for different A. (c) The dependence of the resonance wavelength on width A for fixed length A = 128   nm . The inset of Fig. 1 (c) shows the line shape for different widths: 20, 50, 100 nm. (d) The dependence of the resonance wavelength on aspect ratio B / A for different A.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Atom-field interaction diagram in a two-level system. (b) The imaginary part of ρ 21 spectra, in arbitrary units, for two level system with parameters: Ω P = 1 , Γ = 0.5 , δ P = 0 and γ = 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 . (c) The imaginary part of ρ 21 spectra, in arbitrary units, for a two-level system with the same parameters as (b) except δ P = 0 , 2 , 4 , 5.5 , 6.5 . All parameters are in units of Ω.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The schematic of the plasmonic EIT system. A = 60   nm , B = 162   nm , L = 118   nm , D = 30   nm , Received 28 Jun 2010; revised 25 Jul 2010; accepted 27 Jul 2010; published 2 Aug 2010, s = 30   nm . The thickness of each strip is 20 nm. (b) Atom-field interaction diagram of EIT atom system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The transmission spectra for (a) different single strip length B and (c) different strip width A, while other parameters are fixed. (b) and (d) Numerical simulations for the corresponding atomic EIT model.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The transmission spectra for the different length of the two parallel strips, which is varied from 98 nm to 130 nm. (c) The transmission spectra for different separation D = 30 , 50 , 70 , 90   nm . (b) and (d) Numerical simulation for the corresponding atomic EIT model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The schematic of the plasmonic tripod system; All parameters are same as Fig. 3(a) except the separation distance, D = 40   nm , and the varied lengths of parallel strips. (b) Atom-field interaction diagram of tripod system. (c) Numerical analysis for the plasmonic tripod model for (a). (d) Numerical analysis for the corresponding atomic tripod model.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Numerical analysis of double tripod systems composed of M1 and M2 for (a) metamaterials and (b) atomic system. For M1, L 1 = 114   nm (blue dash dot)] ; For M2, L 2 = 122   nm (red dot)]; Black line is for averaged sum.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sum of the last term in the denominator of Eq. (13). The parameters have the values: F / m = 0.1 force per mass units, γ 1 = 4 × 10 2 , γ 2 = γ 3 = 1 × 10 7 , and Ω C = Ω A = 0.8 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Real part of the absorbed power, P ( ω ) of Eq. (10). The detunings of the coupling and the pump fields have the same amplitudes in opposite signs in the four-level tripod system, where delta δ C = + 0.085 and δ A = + 0.085 . Two individual three-level systems are presented for comparison purpose when δ C = + 0.085 or δ A = + 0.085 , as well as the two-level system without any couplings. Here other parameters are the same as Fig. 8.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parametric Comparison between Metamaterial and Atom

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H = { δ P | 2 2 | 1 2 Ω P | 2 1 | + H . c . } ,
ρ ˙ = i [ H , ρ ] + decay,
ρ ˙ 21 = i 2 Ω P ( ρ 11 ρ 22 ) + i δ P ρ 12 γ 21 ρ 21 ,
H = { δ P | 2 2 | δ C | 3 3 | 1 2 ( Ω P | 2 1 | + Ω C | 3 1 | ) + H . c . } ,
ρ ˙ 12 = i 2 Ω P ( ρ 11 ρ 22 ) + i 2 Ω C ρ 32 + i δ P ρ 12 γ 21 ρ 12 ,
H = { δ C | 1 1 | δ P | 2 2 | δ A | 3 3 | 1 2 ( Ω C | 1 4 | + Ω P | 2 4 | + Ω A | 3 4 | ) + H . c . } ,
ρ ˙ 24 = i Ω P ( ρ 22 ρ 44 ) i Ω A ρ 23 i Ω C ρ 21 i δ P ρ 24 γ 24 ρ 24 ,
| d 1 = c 1 { Ω A | 1 Ω C | 3 } ,
| d 2 = c 2 { Ω p Ω C | 1 + Ω p Ω A | 3 ( Ω C 2 + Ω A 2 ) | 2 } ,
| b ± = 1 Ω ( Ω C | 1 + Ω P | 2 + Ω A | 3 ± Ω | 4 ) ,
e ± = ± Ω 2 1 + 2 ( δ Ω ) 2 ,
x ¨ 1 ( t ) + γ 1 x ˙ 1 ( t ) + ω 1 2 x 1 ( t ) Ω C 2 x 2 ( t ) Ω A 2 x 3 ( t ) = F 0 m e i ω t ,
x ¨ 2 ( t ) + γ 2 x ˙ 2 ( t ) + ω 2 2 x 2 ( t ) Ω C 2 x 1 ( t ) = 0 ,
x ¨ 3 ( t ) + γ 3 x ˙ 3 ( t ) + ω 3 2 x 3 ( t ) Ω A 2 x 1 ( t ) = 0 ,
P ( ω ) = 2 π i F 2 ω m [ ( ω 1 2 ω 2 i γ 1 ω ) ( Ω C 4 ω 2 2 ω 2 i γ 2 ω + Ω A 4 ω 3 2 ω 2 i γ 3 ω ) ] .

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