Abstract

A novel photodiode is presented using a directional coupler incorporated with a UTC style photodiode with 0.88A/W responsivity and 35dBm OIP3 at 25mA. The device responsivity is characterized at various photocurrents up to 10mA and the OIP3 is measured up to 25mA and 10GHz. Additionally, the device capacitance is measured and used to model the capacitance limited OIP3 of the device. The failure of the device was compared to a traditional waveguide photodiode showing burnout no longer occurs at the front of the device and demonstrated the potential of the new design to control the photocurrent density profile for a waveguide style photodiode.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, “Waveguide integrated photodiode for analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(12), 2604–2610 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting facet photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Klamkin, Y.-C. Chang, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 354–359 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu, and A. Anselm, “Very high-responsivity evanescently coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1761–1763 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Hastings, D. A. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “Photodetector nonlinearities due to voltage dependent responsivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1642–1644 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Shamir and D. Ritter, “Low electric field hole impact ionization coefficients in GaInAs and GaInAsP,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(11), 509–511 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Pan, Z. Li, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and modeling of high-linearity modified uni-traveling carrier photodiode with highly-doped absorber,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20221–20226 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-22-20221 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. N. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, and P. K. L. Yu, “Three laser two-tone setup for measurement of photodiode intercept points,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12108–12113 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-16-12108 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Pan, A. Beling, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “The frequency behavior of the intermodulation distortions of modified uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on modulated voltage measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(3), 273–277 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, Y.-C. Chang, L. A. Johansson, M. M. Dummer, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes with increased output response and low intermodulation distortion,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 14–17.
  15. A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and modeling of high-linearity partially depleted absorber photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 44(24), 1419–1420 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. A. Tulchinsky, J. B. Boos, D. Park, P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, and K. J. Williams, “High-current photodetectors as efficient, linear, and high-power RF output stages,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(4), 408–416 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, “Equivalent circuit analysis of harmonic distortions in photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1608–1610 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (5)

M. N. Draa, J. Bloch, D. C. Scott, N. Chen, S. B. Chen, W. S. C. Chang, and P. K. L. Yu, “Behaviors of the third order intercept point for p-i-n waveguide photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14389–14394 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-16-14389 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pan, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-linearity uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1855–1857 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hastings, D. A. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “Photodetector nonlinearities due to voltage dependent responsivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1642–1644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, A. Beling, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “The frequency behavior of the intermodulation distortions of modified uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on modulated voltage measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(3), 273–277 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, Z. Li, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and modeling of high-linearity modified uni-traveling carrier photodiode with highly-doped absorber,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20221–20226 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-22-20221 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

M. N. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, and P. K. L. Yu, “Three laser two-tone setup for measurement of photodiode intercept points,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12108–12113 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-16-12108 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and modeling of high-linearity partially depleted absorber photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 44(24), 1419–1420 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tulchinsky, J. B. Boos, D. Park, P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, and K. J. Williams, “High-current photodetectors as efficient, linear, and high-power RF output stages,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(4), 408–416 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Klamkin, Y.-C. Chang, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu, and A. Anselm, “Very high-responsivity evanescently coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1761–1763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting facet photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, “Waveguide integrated photodiode for analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(12), 2604–2610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Shamir and D. Ritter, “Low electric field hole impact ionization coefficients in GaInAs and GaInAsP,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(11), 509–511 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, “Equivalent circuit analysis of harmonic distortions in photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1608–1610 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, F.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anselm, A.

S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu, and A. Anselm, “Very high-responsivity evanescently coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1761–1763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beling, A.

H. Pan, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-linearity uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1855–1857 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, A. Beling, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “The frequency behavior of the intermodulation distortions of modified uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on modulated voltage measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(3), 273–277 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, Z. Li, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and modeling of high-linearity modified uni-traveling carrier photodiode with highly-doped absorber,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20221–20226 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-22-20221 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and modeling of high-linearity partially depleted absorber photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 44(24), 1419–1420 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, J.

Boos, J. B.

Bowers, J. E.

J. Klamkin, Y.-C. Chang, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brock, J.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

H. Pan, A. Beling, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “The frequency behavior of the intermodulation distortions of modified uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on modulated voltage measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(3), 273–277 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-linearity uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1855–1857 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, Z. Li, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and modeling of high-linearity modified uni-traveling carrier photodiode with highly-doped absorber,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20221–20226 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-22-20221 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and modeling of high-linearity partially depleted absorber photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 44(24), 1419–1420 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu, and A. Anselm, “Very high-responsivity evanescently coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1761–1763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. S. C.

Chang, Y.-C.

J. Klamkin, Y.-C. Chang, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Pan, A. Beling, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “The frequency behavior of the intermodulation distortions of modified uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on modulated voltage measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(3), 273–277 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and modeling of high-linearity partially depleted absorber photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 44(24), 1419–1420 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

Chen, S. B.

Coldren, L. A.

J. Klamkin, Y.-C. Chang, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Demiguel, S.

S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu, and A. Anselm, “Very high-responsivity evanescently coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1761–1763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

J. Klamkin, Y.-C. Chang, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doi, Y.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting facet photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Draa, M. N.

Elliott, J.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Everett, K.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, D.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fukano, H.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting facet photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, P. G.

Hastings, A.

A. Hastings, D. A. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “Photodetector nonlinearities due to voltage dependent responsivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1642–1644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, T.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting facet photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, “Waveguide integrated photodiode for analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(12), 2604–2610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, “Equivalent circuit analysis of harmonic distortions in photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1608–1610 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, L. A.

J. Klamkin, Y.-C. Chang, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu, and A. Anselm, “Very high-responsivity evanescently coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1761–1763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klamkin, J.

J. Klamkin, Y.-C. Chang, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krispin, A.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lembo, L.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, N.

S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu, and A. Anselm, “Very high-responsivity evanescently coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1761–1763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu, and A. Anselm, “Very high-responsivity evanescently coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1761–1763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Lu, H.

S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu, and A. Anselm, “Very high-responsivity evanescently coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1761–1763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muramoto, Y.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting facet photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, T.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting facet photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H.

H. Pan, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-linearity uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1855–1857 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, A. Beling, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “The frequency behavior of the intermodulation distortions of modified uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on modulated voltage measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(3), 273–277 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, Z. Li, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and modeling of high-linearity modified uni-traveling carrier photodiode with highly-doped absorber,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20221–20226 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-22-20221 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and modeling of high-linearity partially depleted absorber photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 44(24), 1419–1420 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, D.

Rabinovich, W. S.

Ramaswamy, A.

J. Klamkin, Y.-C. Chang, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J.

Ritter, D.

N. Shamir and D. Ritter, “Low electric field hole impact ionization coefficients in GaInAs and GaInAsP,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(11), 509–511 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D. C.

Shamir, N.

N. Shamir and D. Ritter, “Low electric field hole impact ionization coefficients in GaInAs and GaInAsP,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(11), 509–511 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. S.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tulchinsky, D. A.

A. Hastings, D. A. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “Photodetector nonlinearities due to voltage dependent responsivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1642–1644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tulchinsky, J. B. Boos, D. Park, P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, and K. J. Williams, “High-current photodetectors as efficient, linear, and high-power RF output stages,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(4), 408–416 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vang, T. A.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K. J.

A. Hastings, D. A. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “Photodetector nonlinearities due to voltage dependent responsivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1642–1644 (2009).
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D. A. Tulchinsky, J. B. Boos, D. Park, P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, and K. J. Williams, “High-current photodetectors as efficient, linear, and high-power RF output stages,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(4), 408–416 (2008).
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Yoshimatsu, T.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting facet photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
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M. N. Draa, J. Bloch, D. C. Scott, N. Chen, S. B. Chen, W. S. C. Chang, and P. K. L. Yu, “Behaviors of the third order intercept point for p-i-n waveguide photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14389–14394 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-16-14389 .
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M. N. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, and P. K. L. Yu, “Three laser two-tone setup for measurement of photodiode intercept points,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12108–12113 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-16-12108 .
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D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
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H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, “Waveguide integrated photodiode for analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(12), 2604–2610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, “Equivalent circuit analysis of harmonic distortions in photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1608–1610 (1998).
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Zheng, X.

S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu, and A. Anselm, “Very high-responsivity evanescently coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1761–1763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. T.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and modeling of high-linearity partially depleted absorber photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 44(24), 1419–1420 (2008).
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N. Shamir and D. Ritter, “Low electric field hole impact ionization coefficients in GaInAs and GaInAsP,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(11), 509–511 (2000).
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H. Pan, A. Beling, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “The frequency behavior of the intermodulation distortions of modified uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on modulated voltage measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(3), 273–277 (2009).
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J. Klamkin, Y.-C. Chang, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu, and A. Anselm, “Very high-responsivity evanescently coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1761–1763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, “Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(4), 422–424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting facet photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-linearity uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1855–1857 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hastings, D. A. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “Photodetector nonlinearities due to voltage dependent responsivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1642–1644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, “Equivalent circuit analysis of harmonic distortions in photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1608–1610 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

H. Jiang and P. K. L. Yu, “Waveguide integrated photodiode for analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(12), 2604–2610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Other (2)

A. Umbach, D. Trommer, R. Steingruber, A. Seeger, W. Ebert, and G. Unterborsch, “Ultrafast, high-power 1.55µm side-illuminated photodetector with integrated spot size converter,” in Optical Fiber Communication conference, 2000 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper FG2–1.

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, Y.-C. Chang, L. A. Johansson, M. M. Dummer, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes with increased output response and low intermodulation distortion,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 14–17.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Tapered DCPD device geometry. (b) DCPD layer structure, with bandgap, wavelength (in μm), dopant, carrier concentration (in cm−3) and thickness.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulation of DCPD and WGPD power absorption along the device and (b) simulation of varying fiber position in x or y direction in units of microns, with the original case from (a) at coordinates (0,0).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized responsivity versus electric field at various photocurrents and dark current versus bias (inset).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OIP3 versus bias voltage at various photocurrents for 1.0GHz and 1.1GHz tones.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of catastrophic failure for (a) 5µm by 55µm PIN WGPD and (b) MUTC DCPD, note zoom levels are not equal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OIP3 versus frequency at 20mA and 4V bias voltage with modeled OIP3 curve (black) based on C(V) measurement at 5MHz (inset).

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