Abstract

The first time-resolved x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) used a combination of feedback methods and post-analysis binning techniques to synchronize an ultrafast optical laser to the linac-based x-ray laser. Transient molecular nitrogen alignment revival features were resolved in time-dependent x-ray-induced fragmentation spectra. These alignment features were used to find the temporal overlap of the pump and probe pulses. The strong-field dissociation of x-ray generated quasi-bound molecular dications was used to establish the residual timing jitter. This analysis shows that the relative arrival time of the Ti:Sapphire laser and the x-ray pulses had a distribution with a standard deviation of approximately 120 fs. The largest contribution to the jitter noise spectrum was the locking of the laser oscillator to the reference RF of the accelerator, which suggests that simple technical improvements could reduce the jitter to better than 50 fs.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (2)

L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Santra, N. V. Kryzhevoi, and L. S. Cederbaum, “X-ray two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy: a theoretical study of inner-shell spectra of the organic para-aminophenol molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, “Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, A. Azima, M. Schlie, U. Frühling, H. Redlin, R. Kalms, S. Cunovic, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Time-resolved pump-probe experiments beyond the jitter limitations at FLASH,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 144102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bozek, “AMO instrumentation for the LCLS X-ray FEL,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 169(1), 129–132 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, Th. Ergler, L. Foucar, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, T. Havermeier, M. Smolarski, K. Cole, R. Dörner, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, M. Gensch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Few-photon multiple ionization of N2 by extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilcox, J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, G. Huang, and J. W. Staples, “Stable transmission of radio frequency signals on fiber links using interferometric delay sensing,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3050–3052 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Franceschi, D. Ascenzi, P. Tosi, R. Thissen, J. Zabka, J. Roithová, C. L. Ricketts, M. De Simone, and M. Coreno, “Dissociative double photoionization of N2 using synchrotron radiation: appearance energy of the N2+ dication,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(13), 134310 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Krinsky and Y. Li, “Statistical analysis of the chaotic optical field from a self-amplified spontaneous-emission free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

1996 (1)

B. Kempgens, A. Kivimaki, M. Neeb, H. M. Köppe, A. M. Bradshaw, and J. Feldhaus, “A high-resolution N 1s photoionization study of the N2 molecule in the near-threshold region,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29(22), 5389–5402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. Wetmore and R. Boyd, “Theoretical investigation of the dication of molecular nitrogen,” J. Phys. Chem. 90(22), 5540–5551 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

W. C. Wiley and I. H. McLaren, “Time of flight mass spectrometer with improved Resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 26(12), 1150–1157 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, G. D.

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akre, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Akre, R. A.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Als-Nielsen, J.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arsov, V.

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, “Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arthur, J.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Ascenzi, D.

P. Franceschi, D. Ascenzi, P. Tosi, R. Thissen, J. Zabka, J. Roithová, C. L. Ricketts, M. De Simone, and M. Coreno, “Dissociative double photoionization of N2 using synchrotron radiation: appearance energy of the N2+ dication,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(13), 134310 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azima, A.

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, A. Azima, M. Schlie, U. Frühling, H. Redlin, R. Kalms, S. Cunovic, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Time-resolved pump-probe experiments beyond the jitter limitations at FLASH,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 144102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

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D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
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M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
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A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

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M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
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L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
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A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
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A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Cole, K.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, Th. Ergler, L. Foucar, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, T. Havermeier, M. Smolarski, K. Cole, R. Dörner, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, M. Gensch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Few-photon multiple ionization of N2 by extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coreno, M.

P. Franceschi, D. Ascenzi, P. Tosi, R. Thissen, J. Zabka, J. Roithová, C. L. Ricketts, M. De Simone, and M. Coreno, “Dissociative double photoionization of N2 using synchrotron radiation: appearance energy of the N2+ dication,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(13), 134310 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cryan, J.

M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cryan, J. P.

L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunovic, S.

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, A. Azima, M. Schlie, U. Frühling, H. Redlin, R. Kalms, S. Cunovic, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Time-resolved pump-probe experiments beyond the jitter limitations at FLASH,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 144102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Simone, M.

P. Franceschi, D. Ascenzi, P. Tosi, R. Thissen, J. Zabka, J. Roithová, C. L. Ricketts, M. De Simone, and M. Coreno, “Dissociative double photoionization of N2 using synchrotron radiation: appearance energy of the N2+ dication,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(13), 134310 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decker, F.-J.

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

DiMauro, L.

M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dimauro, L. F.

L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Doolittle, L.

Dörner, R.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, Th. Ergler, L. Foucar, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, T. Havermeier, M. Smolarski, K. Cole, R. Dörner, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, M. Gensch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Few-photon multiple ionization of N2 by extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doumy, G.

L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dowell, D.

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Drescher, M.

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, A. Azima, M. Schlie, U. Frühling, H. Redlin, R. Kalms, S. Cunovic, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Time-resolved pump-probe experiments beyond the jitter limitations at FLASH,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 144102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Düsterer, S.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, Th. Ergler, L. Foucar, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, T. Havermeier, M. Smolarski, K. Cole, R. Dörner, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, M. Gensch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Few-photon multiple ionization of N2 by extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Echenique, P. M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edstrom, S.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Emma, P.

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Ergler, Th.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, Th. Ergler, L. Foucar, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, T. Havermeier, M. Smolarski, K. Cole, R. Dörner, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, M. Gensch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Few-photon multiple ionization of N2 by extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falcone, R. W.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, L.

M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldhaus, J.

B. Kempgens, A. Kivimaki, M. Neeb, H. M. Köppe, A. M. Bradshaw, and J. Feldhaus, “A high-resolution N 1s photoionization study of the N2 molecule in the near-threshold region,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29(22), 5389–5402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Foreman, S. M.

Foucar, L.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, Th. Ergler, L. Foucar, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, T. Havermeier, M. Smolarski, K. Cole, R. Dörner, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, M. Gensch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Few-photon multiple ionization of N2 by extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschi, P.

P. Franceschi, D. Ascenzi, P. Tosi, R. Thissen, J. Zabka, J. Roithová, C. L. Ricketts, M. De Simone, and M. Coreno, “Dissociative double photoionization of N2 using synchrotron radiation: appearance energy of the N2+ dication,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(13), 134310 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frisch, J.

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Fritz, D. M.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frühling, U.

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, A. Azima, M. Schlie, U. Frühling, H. Redlin, R. Kalms, S. Cunovic, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Time-resolved pump-probe experiments beyond the jitter limitations at FLASH,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 144102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fuoss, P. H.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaffney, K. J.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, E.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galayda, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Gebert, T.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gensch, M.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, Th. Ergler, L. Foucar, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, T. Havermeier, M. Smolarski, K. Cole, R. Dörner, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, M. Gensch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Few-photon multiple ionization of N2 by extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gessner, O.

M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ghimire, S.

L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilevich, S.

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Gillespie, W. A.

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, “Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. M.

L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glownia, M.

M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, O.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gühr, M.

M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hajdu, J.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

Hansen, T. N.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hastings, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Hastings, J. B.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Havermeier, T.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, Th. Ergler, L. Foucar, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, T. Havermeier, M. Smolarski, K. Cole, R. Dörner, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, M. Gensch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Few-photon multiple ionization of N2 by extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hays, G.

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Heinzmann, U.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendel, S.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hering, Ph.

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Hignette, O.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoener, M.

M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horvath, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosler, E.

M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

Huang, Z.

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Huldt, G.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ischebeck, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Iverson, R.

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M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
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Larsson, J.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Lee, S. H.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Leone, S. R.

M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
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S. Krinsky and Y. Li, “Statistical analysis of the chaotic optical field from a self-amplified spontaneous-emission free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindenberg, A. M.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Loos, H.

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Lowney, D. P.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Luening, K.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Ma, L.-S.

MacLeod, A. M.

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, “Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 032802 (2009).
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Macphee, A. G.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, A. Azima, M. Schlie, U. Frühling, H. Redlin, R. Kalms, S. Cunovic, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Time-resolved pump-probe experiments beyond the jitter limitations at FLASH,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 144102 (2009).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

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B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, “Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 032802 (2009).
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A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Schultz, D.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

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U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
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A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Shelton, R. K.

Sheppard, J.

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Siddons, D. P.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Smith, T.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Smolarski, M.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, Th. Ergler, L. Foucar, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, T. Havermeier, M. Smolarski, K. Cole, R. Dörner, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, M. Gensch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Few-photon multiple ionization of N2 by extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123002 (2009).
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L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
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H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Stefan, P.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Steffen, B.

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, “Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 032802 (2009).
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Stephenson, G. B.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Synnergren, O.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Techert, S.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Thissen, R.

P. Franceschi, D. Ascenzi, P. Tosi, R. Thissen, J. Zabka, J. Roithová, C. L. Ricketts, M. De Simone, and M. Coreno, “Dissociative double photoionization of N2 using synchrotron radiation: appearance energy of the N2+ dication,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(13), 134310 (2007).
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A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Tompkins, H.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Tong, X.-M.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treusch, R.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, Th. Ergler, L. Foucar, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, T. Havermeier, M. Smolarski, K. Cole, R. Dörner, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, M. Gensch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Few-photon multiple ionization of N2 by extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschentscher, Th.

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuchida, H.

Turner, J.

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Ullrich, J.

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, Th. Ergler, L. Foucar, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, T. Havermeier, M. Smolarski, K. Cole, R. Dörner, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, M. Gensch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Few-photon multiple ionization of N2 by extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, Th.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, “Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
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Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

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R. Wetmore and R. Boyd, “Theoretical investigation of the dication of molecular nitrogen,” J. Phys. Chem. 90(22), 5540–5551 (1986).
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Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Wieland, M.

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, A. Azima, M. Schlie, U. Frühling, H. Redlin, R. Kalms, S. Cunovic, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Time-resolved pump-probe experiments beyond the jitter limitations at FLASH,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 144102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
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W. C. Wiley and I. H. McLaren, “Time of flight mass spectrometer with improved Resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 26(12), 1150–1157 (1955).
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Wu, J.

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

Yocky, G.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

Young, L.

L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zabka, J.

P. Franceschi, D. Ascenzi, P. Tosi, R. Thissen, J. Zabka, J. Roithová, C. L. Ricketts, M. De Simone, and M. Coreno, “Dissociative double photoionization of N2 using synchrotron radiation: appearance energy of the N2+ dication,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(13), 134310 (2007).
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A. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104(24), 5660–5694 (2000).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, A. Azima, M. Schlie, U. Frühling, H. Redlin, R. Kalms, S. Cunovic, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Time-resolved pump-probe experiments beyond the jitter limitations at FLASH,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 144102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. (1)

J. Bozek, “AMO instrumentation for the LCLS X-ray FEL,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 169(1), 129–132 (2009).
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J. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. Franceschi, D. Ascenzi, P. Tosi, R. Thissen, J. Zabka, J. Roithová, C. L. Ricketts, M. De Simone, and M. Coreno, “Dissociative double photoionization of N2 using synchrotron radiation: appearance energy of the N2+ dication,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(13), 134310 (2007).
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J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

B. Kempgens, A. Kivimaki, M. Neeb, H. M. Köppe, A. M. Bradshaw, and J. Feldhaus, “A high-resolution N 1s photoionization study of the N2 molecule in the near-threshold region,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29(22), 5389–5402 (1996).
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R. Wetmore and R. Boyd, “Theoretical investigation of the dication of molecular nitrogen,” J. Phys. Chem. 90(22), 5540–5551 (1986).
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A. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104(24), 5660–5694 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Young, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, Y. Li, A. M. March, S. T. Pratt, R. Santra, S. H. Southworth, N. Rohringer, L. F. Dimauro, G. Doumy, C. A. Roedig, N. Berrah, L. Fang, M. Hoener, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, D. A. Reis, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and M. Messerschmidt, “Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays,” Nature 466(7302), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

D. Rolles, Z. D. Pešić, M. Perri, R. C. Bilodeau, G. D. Ackerman, B. S. Rude, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, “A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 261(1-2), 170–174 (2007).
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Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

S. Krinsky and Y. Li, “Statistical analysis of the chaotic optical field from a self-amplified spontaneous-emission free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(6), 066501 (2006).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

M. Hoener, L. Fang, O. Kornilov, O. Gessner, S. T. Pratt, M. Gühr, E. P. Kanter, C. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, C. Buth, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Hosler, E. Kukk, S. R. Leone, B. McFarland, M. Messerschmidt, B. Murphy, V. Petrovic, D. Rolles, and N. Berrah, “Ultra-intense X-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Jiang, A. Rudenko, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, Th. Ergler, L. Foucar, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, T. Havermeier, M. Smolarski, K. Cole, R. Dörner, S. Düsterer, R. Treusch, M. Gensch, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Few-photon multiple ionization of N2 by extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, D. M. Mills, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, D. P. Lowney, A. G. Macphee, D. Weinstein, R. W. Falcone, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, C. Blome, S. Düsterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, O. Hignette, F. Sette, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, O. Synnergren, J. Larsson, S. Techert, J. Sheppard, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Emma, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. J. Gaffney, A. M. Lindenberg, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Clocking femtosecond X rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 114801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, A. Brachmann, F.-J. Decker, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, D. Ratner, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, and J. Wu, “Measurements and simulations of ultralow emittance and ultrashort electron beams in the linac coherent light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 254801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Santra, N. V. Kryzhevoi, and L. S. Cederbaum, “X-ray two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy: a theoretical study of inner-shell spectra of the organic para-aminophenol molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013002 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams (1)

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, “Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
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W. C. Wiley and I. H. McLaren, “Time of flight mass spectrometer with improved Resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 26(12), 1150–1157 (1955).
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Science (1)

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. P. Cryan, J. Glownia, J. Andreasson, A. Belkacem, N. Berrah, C. I. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, C. Buth, L. F. DiMauro, L. Fang, O. Gessner, M. Guehr, J. Hajdu, M. P. Hertlein, M. Hoener, O. Kornilov, J. P. Marangos, A. M. March, B. K. McFarland, H. Merdji, V. Petrovic, C. Raman, D. Ray, D. Reis, F. Tarantelli, M. Trigo, J. White, W. White, L. Young, P. H. Bucksbaum, and R. N. Coffee are preparing a manuscript to be called “Auger electron angular distribution of double core hole states in the molecular reference frame.”

A. Brachmann, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, G. Haller, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, B. Hill, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, E. Kanter, B. Kraessig, H. Loos, A. Miahnahri, H.-D. Nuhn, A. Perazzo, M. Petree, D. Ratner, R. Santra, T. Smith, S. Southworth, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, and L. Young, J. M. Byrd, G. Huang, R. Wilcox, “Femtosecond operation of the LCLS for user experiments,” presented at the 1st International Particle Accelerator Conference IPAC’10, Kyoto, Japan, 23–28 May. 2010.

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