Abstract

We present a new method to directly measure and correct the aberrations introduced when imaging through thick biological tissue. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is used to directly measure the wavefront error induced by a Drosophila embryo. The wavefront measurements are taken by seeding the embryo with fluorescent microspheres used as “artificial guide-stars.” The wavefront error is corrected in ten millisecond steps by applying the inverse to the wavefront error on a micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirror in the image path of the microscope. The results show that this new approach is capable of improving the Strehl ratio by 2 times on average and as high as 10 times when imaging through 100 μm of tissue. The results also show that the isoplanatic half-width is approximately 19 μm resulting in a corrected field of view 38 μm in diameter around the guide-star.

© 2010 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Van Helden, “The Invention of the Telescope,” Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 67, 20–21 (1977).
  2. A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, “Three-dimensional computation of light scattering from cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 898–905 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Specimen-induced distortions in light microscopy,” J. Microsc. 228(1), 97–102 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Measurement of specimen-induced aberrations of biological samples using phase stepping interferometry,” J. Microsc. 213(1), 11–19 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Neil Campbell and Jane B. Reece, Biology, Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, 2002.
  6. H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229–236 (1953).
  7. J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes, Oxford University Press, New York, 1998.
  8. J. Liang*, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(7), 1949 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. J. Booth, “Adaptive optics in microscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 365(1861), 2829–2843 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Feierabend, M. Rückel, and W. Denk, “Coherence-gated wave-front sensing in strongly scattering samples,” Opt. Lett. 29(19), 2255–2257 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Diaz Santana Haro and J. C. Dainty, “Single-pass measurements of the wave-front aberrations of the human eye by use of retinal lipofuscin autofluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. L. Beverage, R. V. Shack, and M. R. Descour, “Measurement of the three-dimensional microscope point spread function using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” J. Microsc. 205(1), 61–75 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Invitrogen Corporation, Fluorescence SpectraViewer, http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/support/Research-Tools/Fluorescence-SpectraViewer.reg.us.html , Last Accessed: 3/24/2010.
  15. W. F. Rothwell, and W. Sullivan, Fluorescent analysis of Drosophila embryos. In Drosophila Protocols. W. Sullivan, M. Ashburner, and R.S. Hawley, editors. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, pp. 141–157 (2000).
  16. S. Guldbrand, C. Simonsson, M. Goksör, M. Smedh, and M. B. Ericson, “Two-photon fluorescence correlation microscopy combined with measurements of point spread function; investigations made in human skin,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15289–15302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. DeMarais, D. Oldis, and J. M. Quattro, “Matrotrophic Transfer of Fluorescent Microspheres in Poeciliid Fishes,” Copeia 2005(3), 632–636 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. A. Rowning, J. Wells, M. Wu, J. C. Gerhart, R. T. Moon, and C. A. Larabell, “Microtubule-mediated transport of organelles and localization of beta-catenin to the future dorsal side of Xenopus eggs,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(4), 1224–1229 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. F. Kalpin, D. R. Daily, and W. Sullivan, “Use of dextran beads for live analysis of the nuclear division and nuclear envelope breakdown/reformation cycles in the Drosophila embryo,” Biotechniques 17(4), 730–733 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  20. O. Azucena, J. Cao, J. Crest, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, S. O. Don Gavel, and J. Kubby, “Implementation of adaptive optics in fluorescent microscopy using wavefront sensing and correction,” Proc. SPIE 7595, 75950I (2010).
  21. S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Lisa Poyneer, D. T. Gavel, and J. M. Brase, Fast wave-front reconstruction in large adaptive optics systems with use of the Fourier transform,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2100–2111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. Awwal, Adaptive Optics for Vision Science, Wiley-Interscience, New Jersey, 2006.
  24. L. A. Poyneer, “Scene-based Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensing: analysis and simulation,” Appl. Opt. 42(29), 5807–5815 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).
  26. C. R. Vogel and Q. Yang, “Modeling, simulation, and open-loop control of a continuous facesheet MEMS deformable mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1074–1081 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010

O. Azucena, J. Cao, J. Crest, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, S. O. Don Gavel, and J. Kubby, “Implementation of adaptive optics in fluorescent microscopy using wavefront sensing and correction,” Proc. SPIE 7595, 75950I (2010).

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

S. Guldbrand, C. Simonsson, M. Goksör, M. Smedh, and M. B. Ericson, “Two-photon fluorescence correlation microscopy combined with measurements of point spread function; investigations made in human skin,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15289–15302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Specimen-induced distortions in light microscopy,” J. Microsc. 228(1), 97–102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, “Adaptive optics in microscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 365(1861), 2829–2843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Vogel and Q. Yang, “Modeling, simulation, and open-loop control of a continuous facesheet MEMS deformable mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1074–1081 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. DeMarais, D. Oldis, and J. M. Quattro, “Matrotrophic Transfer of Fluorescent Microspheres in Poeciliid Fishes,” Copeia 2005(3), 632–636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Measurement of specimen-induced aberrations of biological samples using phase stepping interferometry,” J. Microsc. 213(1), 11–19 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Feierabend, M. Rückel, and W. Denk, “Coherence-gated wave-front sensing in strongly scattering samples,” Opt. Lett. 29(19), 2255–2257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

J. L. Beverage, R. V. Shack, and M. R. Descour, “Measurement of the three-dimensional microscope point spread function using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” J. Microsc. 205(1), 61–75 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1997

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Rowning, J. Wells, M. Wu, J. C. Gerhart, R. T. Moon, and C. A. Larabell, “Microtubule-mediated transport of organelles and localization of beta-catenin to the future dorsal side of Xenopus eggs,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(4), 1224–1229 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, “Three-dimensional computation of light scattering from cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 898–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. F. Kalpin, D. R. Daily, and W. Sullivan, “Use of dextran beads for live analysis of the nuclear division and nuclear envelope breakdown/reformation cycles in the Drosophila embryo,” Biotechniques 17(4), 730–733 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. Liang*, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(7), 1949 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. Van Helden, “The Invention of the Telescope,” Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 67, 20–21 (1977).

1953

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229–236 (1953).

Olivier, Joel

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

Agard, David

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

Azucena, O.

O. Azucena, J. Cao, J. Crest, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, S. O. Don Gavel, and J. Kubby, “Implementation of adaptive optics in fluorescent microscopy using wavefront sensing and correction,” Proc. SPIE 7595, 75950I (2010).

Azucena, Oscar

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

Babcock, H. W.

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229–236 (1953).

Beverage, J. L.

J. L. Beverage, R. V. Shack, and M. R. Descour, “Measurement of the three-dimensional microscope point spread function using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” J. Microsc. 205(1), 61–75 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bille, J. F.

Booth, M. J.

M. J. Booth, “Adaptive optics in microscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 365(1861), 2829–2843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Specimen-induced distortions in light microscopy,” J. Microsc. 228(1), 97–102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Measurement of specimen-induced aberrations of biological samples using phase stepping interferometry,” J. Microsc. 213(1), 11–19 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brase, J. M.

Cao, J.

O. Azucena, J. Cao, J. Crest, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, S. O. Don Gavel, and J. Kubby, “Implementation of adaptive optics in fluorescent microscopy using wavefront sensing and correction,” Proc. SPIE 7595, 75950I (2010).

Cao, Jian

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

Crest, J.

O. Azucena, J. Cao, J. Crest, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, S. O. Don Gavel, and J. Kubby, “Implementation of adaptive optics in fluorescent microscopy using wavefront sensing and correction,” Proc. SPIE 7595, 75950I (2010).

Crest, Justin

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

Daily, D. R.

R. F. Kalpin, D. R. Daily, and W. Sullivan, “Use of dextran beads for live analysis of the nuclear division and nuclear envelope breakdown/reformation cycles in the Drosophila embryo,” Biotechniques 17(4), 730–733 (1994).
[PubMed]

Dainty, J. C.

DeMarais, A.

A. DeMarais, D. Oldis, and J. M. Quattro, “Matrotrophic Transfer of Fluorescent Microspheres in Poeciliid Fishes,” Copeia 2005(3), 632–636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

Descour, M. R.

J. L. Beverage, R. V. Shack, and M. R. Descour, “Measurement of the three-dimensional microscope point spread function using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” J. Microsc. 205(1), 61–75 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaz Santana Haro, L.

Don Gavel, S.

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

Don Gavel, S. O.

O. Azucena, J. Cao, J. Crest, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, S. O. Don Gavel, and J. Kubby, “Implementation of adaptive optics in fluorescent microscopy using wavefront sensing and correction,” Proc. SPIE 7595, 75950I (2010).

Dunn, A.

A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, “Three-dimensional computation of light scattering from cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 898–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ericson, M. B.

Feierabend, M.

Fusco, T.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D. T.

Gerhart, J. C.

B. A. Rowning, J. Wells, M. Wu, J. C. Gerhart, R. T. Moon, and C. A. Larabell, “Microtubule-mediated transport of organelles and localization of beta-catenin to the future dorsal side of Xenopus eggs,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(4), 1224–1229 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goelz, S.

Goksör, M.

Grimm, B.

Guldbrand, S.

Kalpin, R. F.

R. F. Kalpin, D. R. Daily, and W. Sullivan, “Use of dextran beads for live analysis of the nuclear division and nuclear envelope breakdown/reformation cycles in the Drosophila embryo,” Biotechniques 17(4), 730–733 (1994).
[PubMed]

Kam, Zvi

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

Kner, P.

O. Azucena, J. Cao, J. Crest, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, S. O. Don Gavel, and J. Kubby, “Implementation of adaptive optics in fluorescent microscopy using wavefront sensing and correction,” Proc. SPIE 7595, 75950I (2010).

Kner, Peter

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

Kubby,

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

Kubby, J.

O. Azucena, J. Cao, J. Crest, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, S. O. Don Gavel, and J. Kubby, “Implementation of adaptive optics in fluorescent microscopy using wavefront sensing and correction,” Proc. SPIE 7595, 75950I (2010).

Larabell, C. A.

B. A. Rowning, J. Wells, M. Wu, J. C. Gerhart, R. T. Moon, and C. A. Larabell, “Microtubule-mediated transport of organelles and localization of beta-catenin to the future dorsal side of Xenopus eggs,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(4), 1224–1229 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Liang*, J.

Lisa Poyneer, A.

Michau, V.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. T.

Moon, R. T.

B. A. Rowning, J. Wells, M. Wu, J. C. Gerhart, R. T. Moon, and C. A. Larabell, “Microtubule-mediated transport of organelles and localization of beta-catenin to the future dorsal side of Xenopus eggs,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(4), 1224–1229 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, M. A.

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Measurement of specimen-induced aberrations of biological samples using phase stepping interferometry,” J. Microsc. 213(1), 11–19 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolle, M.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oldis, D.

A. DeMarais, D. Oldis, and J. M. Quattro, “Matrotrophic Transfer of Fluorescent Microspheres in Poeciliid Fishes,” Copeia 2005(3), 632–636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L. A.

Quattro, J. M.

A. DeMarais, D. Oldis, and J. M. Quattro, “Matrotrophic Transfer of Fluorescent Microspheres in Poeciliid Fishes,” Copeia 2005(3), 632–636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, “Three-dimensional computation of light scattering from cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 898–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rowning, B. A.

B. A. Rowning, J. Wells, M. Wu, J. C. Gerhart, R. T. Moon, and C. A. Larabell, “Microtubule-mediated transport of organelles and localization of beta-catenin to the future dorsal side of Xenopus eggs,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(4), 1224–1229 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rückel, M.

Schwertner, M.

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Specimen-induced distortions in light microscopy,” J. Microsc. 228(1), 97–102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Measurement of specimen-induced aberrations of biological samples using phase stepping interferometry,” J. Microsc. 213(1), 11–19 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedat, John

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

Shack, R. V.

J. L. Beverage, R. V. Shack, and M. R. Descour, “Measurement of the three-dimensional microscope point spread function using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” J. Microsc. 205(1), 61–75 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonsson, C.

Smedh, M.

Sullivan, W.

O. Azucena, J. Cao, J. Crest, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, S. O. Don Gavel, and J. Kubby, “Implementation of adaptive optics in fluorescent microscopy using wavefront sensing and correction,” Proc. SPIE 7595, 75950I (2010).

R. F. Kalpin, D. R. Daily, and W. Sullivan, “Use of dextran beads for live analysis of the nuclear division and nuclear envelope breakdown/reformation cycles in the Drosophila embryo,” Biotechniques 17(4), 730–733 (1994).
[PubMed]

Sullivan, William

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

Thomas, S.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tokovinin, A.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Helden, A.

A. Van Helden, “The Invention of the Telescope,” Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 67, 20–21 (1977).

Vogel, C. R.

Wells, J.

B. A. Rowning, J. Wells, M. Wu, J. C. Gerhart, R. T. Moon, and C. A. Larabell, “Microtubule-mediated transport of organelles and localization of beta-catenin to the future dorsal side of Xenopus eggs,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(4), 1224–1229 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Wilson, T.

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Specimen-induced distortions in light microscopy,” J. Microsc. 228(1), 97–102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Measurement of specimen-induced aberrations of biological samples using phase stepping interferometry,” J. Microsc. 213(1), 11–19 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M.

B. A. Rowning, J. Wells, M. Wu, J. C. Gerhart, R. T. Moon, and C. A. Larabell, “Microtubule-mediated transport of organelles and localization of beta-catenin to the future dorsal side of Xenopus eggs,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(4), 1224–1229 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Appl. Opt.

Biotechniques

R. F. Kalpin, D. R. Daily, and W. Sullivan, “Use of dextran beads for live analysis of the nuclear division and nuclear envelope breakdown/reformation cycles in the Drosophila embryo,” Biotechniques 17(4), 730–733 (1994).
[PubMed]

Copeia

A. DeMarais, D. Oldis, and J. M. Quattro, “Matrotrophic Transfer of Fluorescent Microspheres in Poeciliid Fishes,” Copeia 2005(3), 632–636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, “Three-dimensional computation of light scattering from cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 898–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Peter Kner, Jian Cao, Oscar Azucena, Justin Crest, Zvi Kam, John Sedat, David Agard, S. Don Gavel, Joel Olivier, Kubby, and William Sullivan, “Optical Aberrations in Drosophila Embryos,” submitted to J. Biomed. Opt. (2010).

J. Microsc.

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Specimen-induced distortions in light microscopy,” J. Microsc. 228(1), 97–102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, “Measurement of specimen-induced aberrations of biological samples using phase stepping interferometry,” J. Microsc. 213(1), 11–19 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Beverage, R. V. Shack, and M. R. Descour, “Measurement of the three-dimensional microscope point spread function using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” J. Microsc. 205(1), 61–75 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A

M. J. Booth, “Adaptive optics in microscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 365(1861), 2829–2843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

B. A. Rowning, J. Wells, M. Wu, J. C. Gerhart, R. T. Moon, and C. A. Larabell, “Microtubule-mediated transport of organelles and localization of beta-catenin to the future dorsal side of Xenopus eggs,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(4), 1224–1229 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

O. Azucena, J. Cao, J. Crest, W. Sullivan, P. Kner, S. O. Don Gavel, and J. Kubby, “Implementation of adaptive optics in fluorescent microscopy using wavefront sensing and correction,” Proc. SPIE 7595, 75950I (2010).

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229–236 (1953).

Trans. Am. Phil. Soc.

A. Van Helden, “The Invention of the Telescope,” Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 67, 20–21 (1977).

Other

J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. Awwal, Adaptive Optics for Vision Science, Wiley-Interscience, New Jersey, 2006.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes, Oxford University Press, New York, 1998.

Invitrogen Corporation, Fluorescence SpectraViewer, http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/support/Research-Tools/Fluorescence-SpectraViewer.reg.us.html , Last Accessed: 3/24/2010.

W. F. Rothwell, and W. Sullivan, Fluorescent analysis of Drosophila embryos. In Drosophila Protocols. W. Sullivan, M. Ashburner, and R.S. Hawley, editors. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, pp. 141–157 (2000).

A. Neil Campbell and Jane B. Reece, Biology, Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, 2002.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics