Abstract

Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and balloon-based catheters have furthered the potential of OCT as a real-time surveillance tool for Barrett’s esophagus (BE). However, a balloon catheter, which expands the esophagus and centers the catheter, applies direct pressure on the esophagus. This may affect the tissue appearance and the ability to detect dysplasia in BE. To study this effect, we propose a double-balloon catheter to allow imaging with and without balloon-tissue contact. A system design based on a spectral-domain OCT platform is reported and validated by acquisition of high quality, volumetric images of swine esophagus in vivo.

© 2010 OSA

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  40. X. Qi, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, Y. Pan, M. V. Sivak, Jr., J. E. Willis, G. A. Isenberg and A.M. Rollins, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography Image Analysis for Classification of Dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus.”

2010 (2)

M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, B. K. Oelschlager, D. E. Wood, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, “Imaging of subsquamous Barrett’s epithelium with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography: a histologic correlation study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 223–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Peery and N. J. Shaheen, “Optical coherence tomography in Barrett’s esophagus: the road to clinical utility,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 231–234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Effects of axial resolution improvement on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of gastrointestinal tissues,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2469–2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, and A. M. Rollins, “A combined multiple-SLED broadband light source at 1300 nm for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1896–1900 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Hu and A. M. Rollins, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3525–3527 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

G. A. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, “Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(6), 825–831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(4), 537–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, “Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30(2), 147–149 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

2001 (2)

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (5)

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Jankowski, R. F. Harrison, I. Perry, F. Balkwill, and C. Tselepis, “Barrett’s metaplasia,” Lancet 356(9247), 2079–2085 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak., “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47(6), 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

1995 (2)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A. D.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Effects of axial resolution improvement on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of gastrointestinal tissues,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2469–2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balkwill, F.

J. A. Jankowski, R. F. Harrison, I. Perry, F. Balkwill, and C. Tselepis, “Barrett’s metaplasia,” Lancet 356(9247), 2079–2085 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, “Power-efficient nonreciprocal interferometer and linear-scanning fiber-optic catheter for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 531–533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, B.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, S.

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressner, J.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chak, A.

G. A. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, “Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(6), 825–831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Arunyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time in vivo imaging of human gastrointestinal ultrastructure by use of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a novel efficient interferometer design,” Opt. Lett. 24(19), 1358–1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, B. K. Oelschlager, D. E. Wood, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, “Imaging of subsquamous Barrett’s epithelium with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography: a histologic correlation study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 223–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Effects of axial resolution improvement on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of gastrointestinal tissues,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2469–2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Choma, M.

Choma, M. A.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, “Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chumakov, Y.

Cobb, M. J.

M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, B. K. Oelschlager, D. E. Wood, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, “Imaging of subsquamous Barrett’s epithelium with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography: a histologic correlation study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 223–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Xi, L. Huo, Y. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Compton, C. C.

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conwell, D.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, A.

G. A. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, “Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(6), 825–831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, A. M.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, “Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davros, B.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denisenko, A.

Desai, S.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donchenko, E.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dumot, J.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. A.

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, G.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, G. W.

G. W. Falk, T. W. Rice, J. R. Goldblum, and J. E. Richter, “Jumbo biopsy forceps protocol still misses unsuspected cancer in Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 49(2), 170–176 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldchtein, F.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sergeev, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, N. Gladkova, N. Shakhova, L. Snopova, A. Shakhov, I. Kuznetzova, A. Denisenko, V. Pochinko, Y. Chumakov, and O. Streltzova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express 1(13), 432–440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Figueiredo, M.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freund, J.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fritscher-Ravens, A.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, H. L.

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Effects of axial resolution improvement on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of gastrointestinal tissues,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2469–2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sergeev, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, N. Gladkova, N. Shakhova, L. Snopova, A. Shakhov, I. Kuznetzova, A. Denisenko, V. Pochinko, Y. Chumakov, and O. Streltzova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express 1(13), 432–440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, V.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sergeev, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, N. Gladkova, N. Shakhova, L. Snopova, A. Shakhov, I. Kuznetzova, A. Denisenko, V. Pochinko, Y. Chumakov, and O. Streltzova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express 1(13), 432–440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladkova, N.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sergeev, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, N. Gladkova, N. Shakhova, L. Snopova, A. Shakhov, I. Kuznetzova, A. Denisenko, V. Pochinko, Y. Chumakov, and O. Streltzova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express 1(13), 432–440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldblum, J.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldblum, J. R.

G. W. Falk, T. W. Rice, J. R. Goldblum, and J. E. Richter, “Jumbo biopsy forceps protocol still misses unsuspected cancer in Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 49(2), 170–176 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halpern, E. F.

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, R. F.

J. A. Jankowski, R. F. Harrison, I. Perry, F. Balkwill, and C. Tselepis, “Barrett’s metaplasia,” Lancet 356(9247), 2079–2085 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herz, P. R.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hsiung, P. L.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Effects of axial resolution improvement on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of gastrointestinal tissues,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2469–2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, K.

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

Huang, Q.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. W.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Effects of axial resolution improvement on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of gastrointestinal tissues,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2469–2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Huo, L.

Hwang, J. H.

M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, B. K. Oelschlager, D. E. Wood, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, “Imaging of subsquamous Barrett’s epithelium with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography: a histologic correlation study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 223–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Xi, L. Huo, Y. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Isenberg, G.

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isenberg, G. A.

G. A. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, “Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(6), 825–831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, “Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(4), 537–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Arunyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time in vivo imaging of human gastrointestinal ultrastructure by use of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a novel efficient interferometer design,” Opt. Lett. 24(19), 1358–1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak., “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47(6), 515–523 (1998).
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S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jankowski, J. A.

J. A. Jankowski, R. F. Harrison, I. Perry, F. Balkwill, and C. Tselepis, “Barrett’s metaplasia,” Lancet 356(9247), 2079–2085 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, M. W.

H. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, and A. M. Rollins, “A combined multiple-SLED broadband light source at 1300 nm for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1896–1900 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, B. K. Oelschlager, D. E. Wood, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, “Imaging of subsquamous Barrett’s epithelium with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography: a histologic correlation study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 223–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Arunyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time in vivo imaging of human gastrointestinal ultrastructure by use of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a novel efficient interferometer design,” Opt. Lett. 24(19), 1358–1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak., “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47(6), 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koski, A.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krinsky, M. L.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak., “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47(6), 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuranov, R.

Kuznetzova, I.

Lauwers, G. Y.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

Leng, Y.

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

J. Xi, L. Huo, Y. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “Flexible miniature compound lens design for high-resolution optical coherence tomography balloon imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, B. K. Oelschlager, D. E. Wood, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, “Imaging of subsquamous Barrett’s epithelium with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography: a histologic correlation study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 223–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mashimo, H.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Effects of axial resolution improvement on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of gastrointestinal tissues,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2469–2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mino-Kenudson, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mutinga, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
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B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
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Oelschlager, B. K.

M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, B. K. Oelschlager, D. E. Wood, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, “Imaging of subsquamous Barrett’s epithelium with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography: a histologic correlation study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 223–230 (2010).
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Oh, W. Y.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Pedrosa, M.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
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A. F. Peery and N. J. Shaheen, “Optical coherence tomography in Barrett’s esophagus: the road to clinical utility,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 231–234 (2010).
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J. A. Jankowski, R. F. Harrison, I. Perry, F. Balkwill, and C. Tselepis, “Barrett’s metaplasia,” Lancet 356(9247), 2079–2085 (2000).
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Pierce, M. C.

Pitris, C.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
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G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
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Poneros, J. M.

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ponsky, J.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
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X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
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Rice, T. W.

G. W. Falk, T. W. Rice, J. R. Goldblum, and J. E. Richter, “Jumbo biopsy forceps protocol still misses unsuspected cancer in Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 49(2), 170–176 (1999).
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Richter, J.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
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Richter, J. E.

G. W. Falk, T. W. Rice, J. R. Goldblum, and J. E. Richter, “Jumbo biopsy forceps protocol still misses unsuspected cancer in Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 49(2), 170–176 (1999).
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Rollins, A.

G. A. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, “Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(6), 825–831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

H. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, and A. M. Rollins, “A combined multiple-SLED broadband light source at 1300 nm for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1896–1900 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hu and A. M. Rollins, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3525–3527 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(4), 537–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Arunyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time in vivo imaging of human gastrointestinal ultrastructure by use of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a novel efficient interferometer design,” Opt. Lett. 24(19), 1358–1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, D. Y.

G. A. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, “Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(6), 825–831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.

Schmitt, J. M.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Effects of axial resolution improvement on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of gastrointestinal tissues,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2469–2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröder, S.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seitz, U.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sergeev, V. Gelikonov, G. Gelikonov, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, N. Gladkova, N. Shakhova, L. Snopova, A. Shakhov, I. Kuznetzova, A. Denisenko, V. Pochinko, Y. Chumakov, and O. Streltzova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express 1(13), 432–440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaheen, N. J.

A. F. Peery and N. J. Shaheen, “Optical coherence tomography in Barrett’s esophagus: the road to clinical utility,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 231–234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakhov, A.

Shakhova, N.

Shishko, M.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivak, M. V.

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, “Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(6), 825–831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(4), 537–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Arunyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time in vivo imaging of human gastrointestinal ultrastructure by use of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a novel efficient interferometer design,” Opt. Lett. 24(19), 1358–1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak., “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47(6), 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snopova, L.

Soehendra, N.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streltzova, O.

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Identifying intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction by using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(1), 50–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, “Power-efficient nonreciprocal interferometer and linear-scanning fiber-optic catheter for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 531–533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terentieva, A.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tselepis, C.

J. A. Jankowski, R. F. Harrison, I. Perry, F. Balkwill, and C. Tselepis, “Barrett’s metaplasia,” Lancet 356(9247), 2079–2085 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ung-Arunyawee, R.

Ung-Runyawee, R.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Upton, M. P.

M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, B. K. Oelschlager, D. E. Wood, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, “Imaging of subsquamous Barrett’s epithelium with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography: a histologic correlation study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 223–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vargo, J.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, and A. M. Rollins, “A combined multiple-SLED broadband light source at 1300 nm for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1896–1900 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Westphal, V.

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(4), 537–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, J.

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology in the lower-GI tract,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(4), 537–546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak., “High-resolution cross-sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47(6), 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, J. E.

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, “Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(6), 825–831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolf, B.

G. A. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, “Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(6), 825–831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, R. C.

G. A. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, “Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(6), 825–831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Arunyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time in vivo imaging of human gastrointestinal ultrastructure by use of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a novel efficient interferometer design,” Opt. Lett. 24(19), 1358–1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wood, D. E.

M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, B. K. Oelschlager, D. E. Wood, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, “Imaging of subsquamous Barrett’s epithelium with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography: a histologic correlation study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 223–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

Yachimski, P. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zagaynova, E.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zuccaro, G.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, “Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2633–2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (3)

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett’s esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, and N. Soehendra, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(10), 750–755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology,” Endoscopy 39(7), 599–605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography,” Gastroenterology 120(1), 7–12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (11)

G. A. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, “Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 62(6), 825–831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 474–479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, B. K. Oelschlager, D. E. Wood, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, “Imaging of subsquamous Barrett’s epithelium with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography: a histologic correlation study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 223–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Falk, T. W. Rice, J. R. Goldblum, and J. E. Richter, “Jumbo biopsy forceps protocol still misses unsuspected cancer in Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 49(2), 170–176 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (3353 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3817 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System schematic of the double-balloon-based SD-EOCT system. Within the catheter, the beam can be located between two balloons for imaging without balloon-tissue contact (labeled beam position 1) or in a balloon for imaging with contact (labeled beam position 2). The inset photo (top right) shows the double-balloon catheter (compared with a dime) inserted through the GI endoscope and inflated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The mechanical design and optical design of the catheter. (b) & (d) Zemax simulations of the beam at the designed working distance without and with astigmatism correction, respectively. (c) & (e) Beam shapes without and with astigmatism correction, respectively, measured by a beam analyzer. Scale bars: 100 µm

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

One frame excerpted from a video recording (Media 1) demonstrating the insertion of the rotating fiber probe and inflation of the balloon in a swine esophagus in vivo. The diameters of the probe and the inflated balloon are 2.4 mm and 18 mm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) A representative cross-sectional image of a swine esophagus with the double-balloon imaging scheme. The layered structure that can be observed includes the squamous epithelium (SE), lamina propria (LP), muscularis mucosa (MM), submucosa (SM) and muscularis propria (MP). (b) One frame excerpted from a movie (Media 2) of a 17 mm long section of swine esophagus obtained with the double-balloon imaging scheme. (c) A representative cross-sectional image of the single-balloon imaging scheme. (d) 3D reconstruction of 10mm long segment with single-balloon imaging scheme

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