Abstract

An alternative method for evaluating subsurface damage (SSD) in ground fused silica is presented. The method can acquire the knowledge of depth and morphology of subsurface damage at the same time. The fundamental support lent to the method is the fact that the depth of field reduces as the numerical aperture (NA)/magnification increases in optical microscopes. Large depth of field without undermining NA is preferred in most applications while the narrow range of focus depth is desired for our method. Using this method, we experimented on fused silica which was ground with bound-abrasive diamond wheels and the results show good agreement with the traditional method. The consistency indicates that the proposed method is practicable and effective in inspecting the subsurface damage in optical components.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Wang, Y. Wu, Y. Dai, and S. Li, “Subsurface damage distribution in the lapping process,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1417–1426 (2008).
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  25. P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Ebenstein and L. A. Bentolila, “Single-molecule detection: focusing on the objective,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 99–100 (2010).J. J. Schwartz, S. Stavrakis, and S. R. Quake, “Colloidal lenses allow high-temperature single-molecule imaging and improve fluorophore photostability,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 127–132 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ebenstein and L. A. Bentolila, “Single-molecule detection: focusing on the objective,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 99–100 (2010).J. J. Schwartz, S. Stavrakis, and S. R. Quake, “Colloidal lenses allow high-temperature single-molecule imaging and improve fluorophore photostability,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 127–132 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

A. Barylski and M. Deja, “Microgrinding of flat surfaces on single-disc lapping machine,” Int. J. Mach. Mach. Mater. 5, 245–267 (2009).

Q. Zhao, J. Chen, J. Yao, and S. Zhou, “Investigation of surface and subsurface damage in diamond grinding of optical glass using hybrid copper-resin-bonded diamond wheel,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1489–1495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, P. Cormont, N. Darbois, J. Destribats, C. Luitot, and O. Rondeau, “Subsurface damage measurement of ground fused silica parts by HF etching techniques,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20448–20456 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Wu, Y. Dai, and S. Li, “Subsurface damage distribution in the lapping process,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1417–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Li, Z. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness of optical materials in grinding and lapping processes,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 205(1-3), 34–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Shen, S. Liu, K. Yi, H. He, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik (Stuttg.) 116(6), 288–294 (2005).

J. A. Randi, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface damage in some single crystalline optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 44(12), 2241–2249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, and J. Ruckman, “Material removal mechanisms from grinding to polishing,” Ceram. Trans. 102, 113–128 (1999).

1998 (1)

D. A. Lucca, E. Brinksmeierm, and G. Goch, “Progress in Assessing Surface and Subsurface Integrity,” Ann. CIRP 47(2), 669–693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. Y. Poon and B. Bhushan, “Comparison of surface roughness measurements by stylus profiler, AFM, and non-contact optical profiler,” Wear 190(1), 76–88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. E. Green., “Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 20(1), 197–217 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

E. Brinksmeier, “State-of-the-art of non-destructive measurement of sub-surface material properties and damages,” Precis. Eng. 11(4), 211–224 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

V. Radhakrishnan, “Effect of stylus radius on the roughness values measured with tracing stylus instruments,” Wear 16(5), 325–335 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ambard, C.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, P. Cormont, N. Darbois, J. Destribats, C. Luitot, and O. Rondeau, “Subsurface damage measurement of ground fused silica parts by HF etching techniques,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20448–20456 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, A.

Barylski, A.

A. Barylski and M. Deja, “Microgrinding of flat surfaces on single-disc lapping machine,” Int. J. Mach. Mach. Mater. 5, 245–267 (2009).

Bentolila, L. A.

Y. Ebenstein and L. A. Bentolila, “Single-molecule detection: focusing on the objective,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 99–100 (2010).J. J. Schwartz, S. Stavrakis, and S. R. Quake, “Colloidal lenses allow high-temperature single-molecule imaging and improve fluorophore photostability,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 127–132 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bercegol, H.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, B.

C. Y. Poon and B. Bhushan, “Comparison of surface roughness measurements by stylus profiler, AFM, and non-contact optical profiler,” Wear 190(1), 76–88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brinksmeier, E.

E. Brinksmeier, “State-of-the-art of non-destructive measurement of sub-surface material properties and damages,” Precis. Eng. 11(4), 211–224 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brinksmeierm, E.

D. A. Lucca, E. Brinksmeierm, and G. Goch, “Progress in Assessing Surface and Subsurface Integrity,” Ann. CIRP 47(2), 669–693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cahuc, O.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Champreux, J. P.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charles, J. L.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Q. Zhao, J. Chen, J. Yao, and S. Zhou, “Investigation of surface and subsurface damage in diamond grinding of optical glass using hybrid copper-resin-bonded diamond wheel,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1489–1495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cormont, P.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, P. Cormont, N. Darbois, J. Destribats, C. Luitot, and O. Rondeau, “Subsurface damage measurement of ground fused silica parts by HF etching techniques,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20448–20456 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

Darboios, N.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Darbois, N.

Darnis, P.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P. J.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deja, M.

A. Barylski and M. Deja, “Microgrinding of flat surfaces on single-disc lapping machine,” Int. J. Mach. Mach. Mater. 5, 245–267 (2009).

Destribats, J.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, P. Cormont, N. Darbois, J. Destribats, C. Luitot, and O. Rondeau, “Subsurface damage measurement of ground fused silica parts by HF etching techniques,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20448–20456 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebenstein, Y.

Y. Ebenstein and L. A. Bentolila, “Single-molecule detection: focusing on the objective,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 99–100 (2010).J. J. Schwartz, S. Stavrakis, and S. R. Quake, “Colloidal lenses allow high-temperature single-molecule imaging and improve fluorophore photostability,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 127–132 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, R.

Fan, Z.

J. Shen, S. Liu, K. Yi, H. He, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik (Stuttg.) 116(6), 288–294 (2005).

Fargin, E.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goch, G.

D. A. Lucca, E. Brinksmeierm, and G. Goch, “Progress in Assessing Surface and Subsurface Integrity,” Ann. CIRP 47(2), 669–693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. E.

R. E. Green., “Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 20(1), 197–217 (1990).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

J. Shen, S. Liu, K. Yi, H. He, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik (Stuttg.) 116(6), 288–294 (2005).

Iordanoff, I.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S. D.

Laheurte, R.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lamaignere, L.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lambropoulos, J. C.

Legros, P.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. Li, Z. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness of optical materials in grinding and lapping processes,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 205(1-3), 34–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Wu, Y. Dai, and S. Li, “Subsurface damage distribution in the lapping process,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1417–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

J. Shen, S. Liu, K. Yi, H. He, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik (Stuttg.) 116(6), 288–294 (2005).

Lucca, D. A.

D. A. Lucca, E. Brinksmeierm, and G. Goch, “Progress in Assessing Surface and Subsurface Integrity,” Ann. CIRP 47(2), 669–693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luitot, C.

Menapace, J.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Menapace, J. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mercier, R.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. E.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The Distribution of Subsurface Damage in Fused Silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morantz, P.

Neauport, J.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, P. Cormont, N. Darbois, J. Destribats, C. Luitot, and O. Rondeau, “Subsurface damage measurement of ground fused silica parts by HF etching techniques,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20448–20456 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pilon, F.

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poon, C. Y.

C. Y. Poon and B. Bhushan, “Comparison of surface roughness measurements by stylus profiler, AFM, and non-contact optical profiler,” Wear 190(1), 76–88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

Y. Ebenstein and L. A. Bentolila, “Single-molecule detection: focusing on the objective,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 99–100 (2010).J. J. Schwartz, S. Stavrakis, and S. R. Quake, “Colloidal lenses allow high-temperature single-molecule imaging and improve fluorophore photostability,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 127–132 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, H. Bercegol, O. Cahuc, J. P. Champreux, J. L. Charles, P. Cormont, N. Darboios, P. Darnis, J. Destribats, E. Fargin, I. Iordanoff, R. Laheurte, L. Lamaignere, P. Legros, R. Mercier, and F. Pilon, “Optimizing fused silica polishing processes for 351nm high power laser application,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321I (2008).
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Other (6)

T. R. Thomas, Rough Surfaces, Second Ed., (Imperial College Press, London, UK, 1999), Chap. 2.

Y. Lee, J. Wang, Q. Xu, J. Han, W. Yang, and Y. Guo, “Evaluating Subsurface Damage in Optical Glasses,” to be submitted.

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X. Li, Geometrical Optics & Optical Design, (Zhejiang University Press, Hangzhou, China, 1997), Chap. 14 (in Chinese); see also K. R. Spring and M. W. Davidson, “Depth of Field and Depth of Focus,” http://www.microscopyu.com/articles/formulas/formulasfielddepth.html .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The basic principle of our SSD measuring system

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch of apparatus for measuring subsurface damage of ground substrates. The translation stage is capable of moving along X, Y and Z directions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical subsurface cracks in ground optical substrates by D91 diamond wheel: (a)-(f) and D7 diamond wheel: (g)-(l). The value at upper left corner is the depth below the original ground surfaces where the image was taken.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The relationship between subsurface crack density and the depth from ground substrate surface. The crack density drops exponentially with increasing the depth. The density by D7 diamond wheel drops much faster than that by D91 diamond wheel.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The magnification and numerical aperture (NA) of common-use objective lens and corresponding depth of field (DOF).

Tables Icon

Table 2 The last traces of SSD in ground fused silica with D91 and D7 diamond wheels. The results using traditional and proposed methods agree well with each other.

Metrics