Abstract

We show that the fluorescence emission spectrum of few atoms can be measured by using an optical nanofiber combined with the optical heterodyne and photon correlation spectroscopy. The observed fluorescence spectrum of the atoms near the nanofiber shows negligible effects of the atom-surface interaction and agrees well with the Mollow triplet spectrum of free-space atoms at high excitation intensity.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. T. Höffges, H. W. Baldauf, W. Lange, and H. Walther, “Heterodyne measurement of the resonance fluorescence of a single ion,” J. Mod. Opt. 44(10), 1999–2010 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Ch. Raab, J. Eschner, J. Bolle, H. Oberst, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Motional sidebands and direct measurement of the cooling rate in the resonance fluorescence of a single trapped ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 538–541 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, “Correlations between photons emitted by multiatom fluorescence into a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033826 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. P. Nayak, F. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. 79(2), 021801 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Le Kien, K. P. Nayak, and K. Hakuta, “Second-order correlations of fluorescence from an atomic gas into a nanofiber,” Comm. in Phys. 19, 35–48 (2009).
  15. F. Kien, S. Gupta, and K. Hakuta, “Optical excitation spectrum of an atom in a surface-induced potential,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 032508 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. R. Mollow, “Power spectrum of light scattered by two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. 188(5), 1969–1975 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. E. Grove, F. Y. Wu, and S. Ezekiel, “Measurement of the spectrum of resonance fluorescence from a two-level atom in an intense monochromatic field,” Phys. Rev. A 15(1), 227–233 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063403 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. P. Nayak, F. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. 79(2), 021801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien, K. P. Nayak, and K. Hakuta, “Second-order correlations of fluorescence from an atomic gas into a nanofiber,” Comm. in Phys. 19, 35–48 (2009).

2008 (2)

K. P. Nayak and K. Hakuta, “Single atoms on an optical nanofiber,” N. J. Phys. 10(5), 053003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, “Correlations between photons emitted by multiatom fluorescence into a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033826 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

F. Le Kien, S. Dutta Gupta, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Spontaneous emission of a cesium atom near a nanofiber: efficient coupling of light to guided modes,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Ch. Raab, J. Eschner, J. Bolle, H. Oberst, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Motional sidebands and direct measurement of the cooling rate in the resonance fluorescence of a single trapped ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 538–541 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. T. Höffges, H. W. Baldauf, W. Lange, and H. Walther, “Heterodyne measurement of the resonance fluorescence of a single ion,” J. Mod. Opt. 44(10), 1999–2010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of quantized motion of Rb atoms in an optical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(1), 49–52 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

C. I. Westbrook, R. N. Watts, C. E. Tanner, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, P. D. Lett, and P. L. Gould, “Localization of atoms in a three-dimensional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

R. E. Grove, F. Y. Wu, and S. Ezekiel, “Measurement of the spectrum of resonance fluorescence from a two-level atom in an intense monochromatic field,” Phys. Rev. A 15(1), 227–233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

B. R. Mollow, “Power spectrum of light scattered by two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. 188(5), 1969–1975 (1969).
[CrossRef]

An, K.

Baldauf, H. W.

J. T. Höffges, H. W. Baldauf, W. Lange, and H. Walther, “Heterodyne measurement of the resonance fluorescence of a single ion,” J. Mod. Opt. 44(10), 1999–2010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Balykin, V. I.

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic Fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5431–5438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Le Kien, S. Dutta Gupta, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Spontaneous emission of a cesium atom near a nanofiber: efficient coupling of light to guided modes,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, R.

Ch. Raab, J. Eschner, J. Bolle, H. Oberst, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Motional sidebands and direct measurement of the cooling rate in the resonance fluorescence of a single trapped ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 538–541 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolle, J.

Ch. Raab, J. Eschner, J. Bolle, H. Oberst, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Motional sidebands and direct measurement of the cooling rate in the resonance fluorescence of a single trapped ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 538–541 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Dawkins, S. T.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutta Gupta, S.

F. Le Kien, S. Dutta Gupta, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Spontaneous emission of a cesium atom near a nanofiber: efficient coupling of light to guided modes,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eschner, J.

Ch. Raab, J. Eschner, J. Bolle, H. Oberst, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Motional sidebands and direct measurement of the cooling rate in the resonance fluorescence of a single trapped ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 538–541 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ezekiel, S.

R. E. Grove, F. Y. Wu, and S. Ezekiel, “Measurement of the spectrum of resonance fluorescence from a two-level atom in an intense monochromatic field,” Phys. Rev. A 15(1), 227–233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gerz, C.

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of quantized motion of Rb atoms in an optical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(1), 49–52 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, P. L.

C. I. Westbrook, R. N. Watts, C. E. Tanner, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, P. D. Lett, and P. L. Gould, “Localization of atoms in a three-dimensional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grove, R. E.

R. E. Grove, F. Y. Wu, and S. Ezekiel, “Measurement of the spectrum of resonance fluorescence from a two-level atom in an intense monochromatic field,” Phys. Rev. A 15(1), 227–233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

F. Kien, S. Gupta, and K. Hakuta, “Optical excitation spectrum of an atom in a surface-induced potential,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 032508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hakuta, K.

F. Le Kien, K. P. Nayak, and K. Hakuta, “Second-order correlations of fluorescence from an atomic gas into a nanofiber,” Comm. in Phys. 19, 35–48 (2009).

K. P. Nayak, F. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. 79(2), 021801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nayak and K. Hakuta, “Single atoms on an optical nanofiber,” N. J. Phys. 10(5), 053003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, “Correlations between photons emitted by multiatom fluorescence into a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033826 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Kien, S. Gupta, and K. Hakuta, “Optical excitation spectrum of an atom in a surface-induced potential,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 032508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic Fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5431–5438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Le Kien, S. Dutta Gupta, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Spontaneous emission of a cesium atom near a nanofiber: efficient coupling of light to guided modes,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Höffges, J. T.

J. T. Höffges, H. W. Baldauf, W. Lange, and H. Walther, “Heterodyne measurement of the resonance fluorescence of a single ion,” J. Mod. Opt. 44(10), 1999–2010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H. G.

Jessen, P. S.

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of quantized motion of Rb atoms in an optical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(1), 49–52 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kien, F.

F. Kien, S. Gupta, and K. Hakuta, “Optical excitation spectrum of an atom in a surface-induced potential,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 032508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kien, F. L.

Lange, W.

J. T. Höffges, H. W. Baldauf, W. Lange, and H. Walther, “Heterodyne measurement of the resonance fluorescence of a single ion,” J. Mod. Opt. 44(10), 1999–2010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Le Kien, F.

F. Le Kien, K. P. Nayak, and K. Hakuta, “Second-order correlations of fluorescence from an atomic gas into a nanofiber,” Comm. in Phys. 19, 35–48 (2009).

K. P. Nayak, F. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. 79(2), 021801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, “Correlations between photons emitted by multiatom fluorescence into a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033826 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien, S. Dutta Gupta, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Spontaneous emission of a cesium atom near a nanofiber: efficient coupling of light to guided modes,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, M.

Lett, P. D.

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of quantized motion of Rb atoms in an optical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(1), 49–52 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Westbrook, R. N. Watts, C. E. Tanner, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, P. D. Lett, and P. L. Gould, “Localization of atoms in a three-dimensional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melentiev, P. N.

Mollow, B. R.

B. R. Mollow, “Power spectrum of light scattered by two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. 188(5), 1969–1975 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Morinaga, M.

K. P. Nayak, F. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. 79(2), 021801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic Fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5431–5438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nayak, K. P.

F. Le Kien, K. P. Nayak, and K. Hakuta, “Second-order correlations of fluorescence from an atomic gas into a nanofiber,” Comm. in Phys. 19, 35–48 (2009).

K. P. Nayak, F. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. 79(2), 021801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nayak and K. Hakuta, “Single atoms on an optical nanofiber,” N. J. Phys. 10(5), 053003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic Fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5431–5438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oberst, H.

Ch. Raab, J. Eschner, J. Bolle, H. Oberst, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Motional sidebands and direct measurement of the cooling rate in the resonance fluorescence of a single trapped ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 538–541 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. D.

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of quantized motion of Rb atoms in an optical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(1), 49–52 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Westbrook, R. N. Watts, C. E. Tanner, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, P. D. Lett, and P. L. Gould, “Localization of atoms in a three-dimensional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raab, Ch.

Ch. Raab, J. Eschner, J. Bolle, H. Oberst, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Motional sidebands and direct measurement of the cooling rate in the resonance fluorescence of a single trapped ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 538–541 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitz, D.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of quantized motion of Rb atoms in an optical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(1), 49–52 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Westbrook, R. N. Watts, C. E. Tanner, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, P. D. Lett, and P. L. Gould, “Localization of atoms in a three-dimensional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sagué, G.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, R.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Kaler, F.

Ch. Raab, J. Eschner, J. Bolle, H. Oberst, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Motional sidebands and direct measurement of the cooling rate in the resonance fluorescence of a single trapped ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 538–541 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, W.

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of quantized motion of Rb atoms in an optical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(1), 49–52 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanner, C. E.

C. I. Westbrook, R. N. Watts, C. E. Tanner, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, P. D. Lett, and P. L. Gould, “Localization of atoms in a three-dimensional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetsch, E.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

J. T. Höffges, H. W. Baldauf, W. Lange, and H. Walther, “Heterodyne measurement of the resonance fluorescence of a single ion,” J. Mod. Opt. 44(10), 1999–2010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watts, R. N.

C. I. Westbrook, R. N. Watts, C. E. Tanner, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, P. D. Lett, and P. L. Gould, “Localization of atoms in a three-dimensional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westbrook, C. I.

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of quantized motion of Rb atoms in an optical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(1), 49–52 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Westbrook, R. N. Watts, C. E. Tanner, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, P. D. Lett, and P. L. Gould, “Localization of atoms in a three-dimensional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, F. Y.

R. E. Grove, F. Y. Wu, and S. Ezekiel, “Measurement of the spectrum of resonance fluorescence from a two-level atom in an intense monochromatic field,” Phys. Rev. A 15(1), 227–233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Comm. in Phys. (1)

F. Le Kien, K. P. Nayak, and K. Hakuta, “Second-order correlations of fluorescence from an atomic gas into a nanofiber,” Comm. in Phys. 19, 35–48 (2009).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. T. Höffges, H. W. Baldauf, W. Lange, and H. Walther, “Heterodyne measurement of the resonance fluorescence of a single ion,” J. Mod. Opt. 44(10), 1999–2010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

K. P. Nayak and K. Hakuta, “Single atoms on an optical nanofiber,” N. J. Phys. 10(5), 053003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (2)

K. P. Nayak, F. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. 79(2), 021801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Mollow, “Power spectrum of light scattered by two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. 188(5), 1969–1975 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (5)

R. E. Grove, F. Y. Wu, and S. Ezekiel, “Measurement of the spectrum of resonance fluorescence from a two-level atom in an intense monochromatic field,” Phys. Rev. A 15(1), 227–233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, “Correlations between photons emitted by multiatom fluorescence into a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 77(3), 033826 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien, S. Dutta Gupta, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Spontaneous emission of a cesium atom near a nanofiber: efficient coupling of light to guided modes,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Kien, S. Gupta, and K. Hakuta, “Optical excitation spectrum of an atom in a surface-induced potential,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 032508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

Ch. Raab, J. Eschner, J. Bolle, H. Oberst, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Motional sidebands and direct measurement of the cooling rate in the resonance fluorescence of a single trapped ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 538–541 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Westbrook, R. N. Watts, C. E. Tanner, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, P. D. Lett, and P. L. Gould, “Localization of atoms in a three-dimensional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 33–36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of quantized motion of Rb atoms in an optical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(1), 49–52 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. O. Scully, and M. Suhail Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press, 1997).

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford Science Publications, 2000).

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy –Basic Concepts and Instrumentation (Springer, 2003).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the experimental setup. The nanofiber is located at the waist of a tapered optical fiber. Fluorescence photons emitted into the guided modes of the nanofiber are detected at the ends of the single mode optical fiber. MOT: magneto-optical trap, ECDL: external cavity diode laser, B.S.: beam splitter, L: lens, AOM: acousto-optic modulator, M: mirror, NPBS: 50:50 non-polarizing beam splitter, FC: fiber coupler, LO: local oscillator, D1, D2, D3: avalanche photodiode (APD).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence excitation spectrum measured (black square dots) through the nanofiber for the closed cycle transition 6S 1/2 F=4 ↔ 6P 3/2 F′=5. The solid gray curve is the Lorentzian fit of the observed data. Detuning of the excitation beam is measured with respect to the atomic resonance. The excitation beam intensity is 1 mW/cm2. The spectrum has been background corrected. The arrows show the detuning (a) Δ = −15 MHz, (b) Δ = −6 MHz, (c) Δ= 0 MHz, and (d) Δ= +15 MHz, at which the emission spectrum has been measured.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured correlations / minute (gray curve) between photons emitted into opposite ends of the nanofiber with respect to time delay, τ. The black curve is the theoretical fit of the correlation signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

One end photon correlation measurement with OHD technique. Figures 4(a) and 4(c) show the measured normalized photon correlations between photons coming into one-end of the signal fiber-line for excitation beam intensity 30 mW/cm2 and 153 mW/cm2 respectively. Figures 4(b) and 4(d) are the enlarged view of the central part of Figs. 4(a) and 4(c) respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

On-resonance fluorescence emission spectra. The gray curves in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b) show the Fourier spectrum for the data shown in Figs. 4(a) and 4(c) respectively. The black curves are the theoretical fitting.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Off-resonant fluorescence emission spectra for different excitation beam detuning. The gray curves are the measured spectra and the black curves are the theoretical fitting. The spectra have been measured for a detuning of (a) −15 MHz, (b) −6 MHz, and (c) +15 MHz. The solid red line is a reference to show the relative shift of the spectrum for detuned excitation with respect to the resonant excitation.

Equations (7)

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S ( ω ) = 1 2 π E * ( t ) E ( t + τ ) exp ( i ω τ ) d τ .
E * ( t ) E ( t + τ ) = I μ μ 0 g ( 1 ) ( τ ) exp ( i ω 0 τ ) .
I ( t ) I ( t + τ ) = I 2 n 2 μ 0 { n g ( 2 ) ( τ ) + n 2 [ μ 0 + μ | g ( 1 ) ( τ ) | 2 ] } .
I T ( t ) I T ( t + τ ) = I ( t ) I ( t + τ ) + I L O { E * ( t ) E ( t + τ ) exp ( i ω L O τ ) + c .c . } + 2 I L O I + I L O 2 .
I T ( t ) I T ( t + τ ) = I 2 n 2 μ 0 { n g ( 2 ) ( τ ) + n 2 [ μ 0 + μ | g ( 1 ) ( τ ) | 2 ] } + I L O I μ μ 0 [ g ( 1 ) ( τ ) exp ( i ( ω 0 ω L O ) τ ) + c .c . ] + 2 I L O I + I L O 2 .
I T ( t ) I T ( t + τ ) = I ( t ) I ( t + τ ) + I L O { 1 2 π S ( ω ' + ω L O ) exp ( i ω ' τ ) d ω ' + c .c . } + 2 I L O I + I L O 2 .
I ( t ) I ( t + τ ) n g ( 2 ) ( τ ) + n 2 μ 0 .

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