Abstract

The application of a commercially available spatial light modulator (SLM) to control the spatial intensity distribution of a nanosecond pulsed laser for micromachining is described for the first time. Heat sinking is introduced to increase the average power handling capabilities of the SLM beyond recommended limits by the manufacturer. Complex intensity patterns are generated, using the Inverse Fourier Transform Algorithm, and example laser machining is demonstrated. The SLM enables both complex beam shaping and also beam steering.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. S. Campbell, S. M. F. Triphan, R. El-Agmy, A. H. Greenaway, and D. T. Reid, “Direct optimization of femtosecond laser ablation using adaptive wavefront shaping,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(11), 1100–1104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Beck, R. Carrington, J. Parry, W. MacPherson, A. Waddie, D. T. Reid, N. Weston, J. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Adaptive optics for optimization of laser processing,” in Proc. of LAMP2009 (Japan, 2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. K. D. Wulff, D. G. Cole, R. L. Clark, R. Dileonardo, J. Leach, J. Cooper, G. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Aberration correction in holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 14(9), 4169–4174 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proc. of LAMP2009 (Japan, 2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010

2008

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(5), 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, A. Lizana, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernández, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Time fluctuations of the phase modulation in a liquid crystal on silicon display: characterization and effects in diffractive optics,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16711–16722 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. Otón, P. Ambs, M. S. Millán, and E. Pérez-Cabré, “Multipoint phase calibration for improved compensation of inherent wavefront distortion in parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon displays,” Appl. Opt. 46(23), 5667–5679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kelemen, S. Valkai, and P. Ormos, “Parallel photopolymerisation with complex light patterns generated by diffractive optical elements,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14488–14497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Campbell, S. M. F. Triphan, R. El-Agmy, A. H. Greenaway, and D. T. Reid, “Direct optimization of femtosecond laser ablation using adaptive wavefront shaping,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(11), 1100–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Martín-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

1998

V. Laude, “Twisted-nematic liquid-crystal pixelated active lens,” Opt. Commun. 153(1-3), 134–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. Stoilov and T. Dragostinov, “Phase-stepping interferometry: Five-frame algorithm with an arbitrary step,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 28(1), 61–69 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988

Ambs, P.

Andilla, J.

E. Martín-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

Bahk, S.-W.

Bryngdahl, O.

Campbell, S.

S. Campbell, S. M. F. Triphan, R. El-Agmy, A. H. Greenaway, and D. T. Reid, “Direct optimization of femtosecond laser ablation using adaptive wavefront shaping,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(11), 1100–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

Carnicer, A.

E. Martín-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clark, R. L.

Cole, D. G.

Cooper, J.

Dearden, G.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(5), 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dileonardo, R.

Dragostinov, T.

G. Stoilov and T. Dragostinov, “Phase-stepping interferometry: Five-frame algorithm with an arbitrary step,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 28(1), 61–69 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edwardson, S. P.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(5), 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

El-Agmy, R.

S. Campbell, S. M. F. Triphan, R. El-Agmy, A. H. Greenaway, and D. T. Reid, “Direct optimization of femtosecond laser ablation using adaptive wavefront shaping,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(11), 1100–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, E.

Fernández, E. J.

Fess, E.

Gibson, G.

Greenaway, A. H.

S. Campbell, S. M. F. Triphan, R. El-Agmy, A. H. Greenaway, and D. T. Reid, “Direct optimization of femtosecond laser ablation using adaptive wavefront shaping,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(11), 1100–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iemmi, C.

Juvells, I.

E. Martín-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kelemen, L.

Kruschwitz, B. E.

Kuang, Z.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(5), 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laude, V.

V. Laude, “Twisted-nematic liquid-crystal pixelated active lens,” Opt. Commun. 153(1-3), 134–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leach, J.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(5), 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Wulff, D. G. Cole, R. L. Clark, R. Dileonardo, J. Leach, J. Cooper, G. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Aberration correction in holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 14(9), 4169–4174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lizana, A.

Manzanera, S.

Márquez, A.

Martín-Badosa, E.

E. Martín-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Millán, M. S.

Montes-Usategui, M.

E. Martín-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

Ormos, P.

Otón, J.

Padgett, M.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(5), 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

Pérez-Cabré, E.

Perrie, W.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(5), 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pleguezuelos, E.

E. Martín-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, P. M.

Reid, D. T.

S. Campbell, S. M. F. Triphan, R. El-Agmy, A. H. Greenaway, and D. T. Reid, “Direct optimization of femtosecond laser ablation using adaptive wavefront shaping,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(11), 1100–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, M.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(5), 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stoilov, G.

G. Stoilov and T. Dragostinov, “Phase-stepping interferometry: Five-frame algorithm with an arbitrary step,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 28(1), 61–69 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Triphan, S. M. F.

S. Campbell, S. M. F. Triphan, R. El-Agmy, A. H. Greenaway, and D. T. Reid, “Direct optimization of femtosecond laser ablation using adaptive wavefront shaping,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(11), 1100–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valkai, S.

Watkins, K. G.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(5), 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wulff, K. D.

Wyrowski, F.

Yzuel, M. J.

Zuegel, J. D.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Surf. Sci.

Z. Kuang, W. Perrie, J. Leach, M. Sharp, S. P. Edwardson, M. Padgett, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(5), 2284–2289 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

S. Campbell, S. M. F. Triphan, R. El-Agmy, A. H. Greenaway, and D. T. Reid, “Direct optimization of femtosecond laser ablation using adaptive wavefront shaping,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(11), 1100–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Martín-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

V. Laude, “Twisted-nematic liquid-crystal pixelated active lens,” Opt. Commun. 153(1-3), 134–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

G. Stoilov and T. Dragostinov, “Phase-stepping interferometry: Five-frame algorithm with an arbitrary step,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 28(1), 61–69 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Gerets, K. Vandorpe, and W. Van Rafelgem, “Cooling of reflective spatial light modulating devices,” US Pat. 2008/0024733 A1 (Jan. 31. 2008).

A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, “Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystalbased micro-display with HDTV resolution,” in Proc. SPIE (2007).

R. Beck, R. Carrington, J. Parry, W. MacPherson, A. Waddie, D. T. Reid, N. Weston, J. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Adaptive optics for optimization of laser processing,” in Proc. of LAMP2009 (Japan, 2009).

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proc. of LAMP2009 (Japan, 2009).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of phase-stepping interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup for laser machining experiments (SLM and copper mount shown enlarged).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Curvature of SLM display: a) initially; b) after mounting onto the copper mount; both height profiles determined experimentally using 5-step phase-stepping interferometry (small phase noise can result in vertical lines due to a spatial phase unwrapping technique).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Phase pattern addressed to the SLM; b) resulting interference pattern; c) phase responses for different areas on the SLM after calibration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) temporal variation of intensity distribution in zero order (black line) and the first diffraction orders (blue and red line) with 14.7W average power being incident on the SLM display (~65ns pulse length; 30kHz repetition rate); b) intensity in the first diffraction orders divided by intensity of zero order.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example laser machining: a) on metal coated glass slide using single diffraction pattern addressed to SLM based on Inverse Fourier Transform Algorithm (IFTA); b) on polyimide coated metal using a sequence of six individual IFTA generated kinoforms. Local positioning is achieved by the kinoform addressed to the SLM rather than a mechanical motion system.

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